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Full text of "Tokology : a book for every woman"

THE UNIVERSITY OF 

NORTH CAROLINA 

AT CHAPEL HILL 

LIBRARY 




PURCHASED ON THE 








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p 1 



THE UBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF 

NORTH CAROUNA 

AT CHAPEL HILL 




ENDOWED BY THE 

DIALECTIC AND PHILANTHROPIC 

SOCIETIES 





a 00001 85544 2 



thf..c?H '^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^f^ ^- DAVIS LIBRARY on 

the last date stamped under "Date Due." If not on hold it 
may be renewed by bringing it to the library. 



DATE 
DUE 



RET. 






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DATE 
DUE 



JUL 1 \ 



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£££28 



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1997 



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Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/tokologybookforeOOstoc_0 











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TOKOLOGY 






A BOOK FOR EVERY WOMAN 



C\c.j -ijf 



-BY- 



ALICE B. STOCKHAM, M. D. 



ILLUSTRATED 



Maternal love! Thou word that s 
Gives and receives all bliss, fullest 
Thou givest! 



REVISED EDITION 




CHICAGO: 

Alice B. Stockham & Co. 
iSqq. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1893, 

BY ALICE B. STOCKHAM, M. D. 
In the office of Librarian of Congress, Washington, D. C. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1886, 

By ALICE B. STOCKHAM, M. D. 
In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1883, 

By ALICE B. STOCKHAM, M. D. 
In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 



TOKOLOGY IS DEDICATED 

first: 

To My Daughter, 

WHOSE FAITH IN THE PHYSICAL 

REDEMPTION OF WOMAN BY CORRECT 

LIVING HAS BEEN A CONSTANT 

INSPIRATION IN ITS 



PRODUCTION 



second: 
To ALL Women 

WHO, following the LESSONS 

HEREIN TAUGHT, WILL BE SAVED THE 

SUFFERINGS PECULIAR TO 

THEIR SEX. 



CONTENTS. 



Portrait of Author. 
CHAPTER I. 

PAINLESS CHILDBIRTH. 

Painless childbirth — Testimony of travelers, missionaries and physi- 
cians — Sufferings in childbirth greater in this country than in any 
other — Is this a curse upon woman? — Indian women do not suffer 
in labor — Dr. Dewees — Prof. Huxley — Remarkable cases of par- 
turition without pain — Author's professional experience — Anecdote 
of Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes — Proofs of science — Lay aside 
prejudice 1 7-24 

CHAPTER II. 

CONCEPTION — FETAL DEVELOPMENT. 

The reproductive apparatus — The ovaries — The oviducts — The uterus 
— The vagina — Mammary glands — Conception — Law of concep- 
tion — Development of the embryo — The placenta — Fetal circula- 
tion — Blue baby — Duration of pregnancy — Growth of the embryo 
— Eight months baby. 25-36 

CHAPTER IIL 

PREGNANCY— SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS. 

Four physical signs — Cessation of menses — Increase of size — Quicken- 
ing— Fetal heart-beat — Positive indication of pregnancy — Patho- 
logical symptoms — Physicians offer no relief — A woman's sad 
experience 37-41 

CHAPTER IV. 

DISEASES OF PREGNANCY — INDIGESTION, NAUSEA, ETC. 

Indigestion a common ailment — Starch and fats the prime cause of 

(IX.) 



K ' CONTENTS. 

dyspepsia— Children's food is p^iven to the pigs — Morning sick- 
ness — Is it a natural symptom? — Biliousness, what is it? — Enemas, 
their uses — Do not force the appetite— Tradiaoa's teachings — 
Will the fetus starve? , ......»..»,.. .42-50 

CHAPTER V. 

DISEASES OF PREGNANCY— CONSTIPATION. 

Most women suffer from constipation — Causes — Hot bread — White 
flour — Baking powders — Errors in dress — Cathartic drugs — Treat- 
ment — Wally and the Lockport entire wheat bread — Wheatlet— 
Cracked or rolled wheat — How Charlie was cured — Feast on 
fruits — Foods, laxative and constipating — Special exercises — 
Going without supper. , $1-73 

CHAPTER VI. 

DISEASES OF PREGNANCY— HEADACHE, NEURALGIA, HEARTBURN. 

Headache — Tea and sick headache— Headache can be cured — Treat- 
ment — Heartburn — Flatulence — Hemorrhoids — Greedy appetite — = 
Loss of appetite — Longings— Diarrhea — Neuralgia — Case from 
practice — Burning feet — Cramps — Swelling of extremities — Sleep- 
lessness — Leucorrhea — Pruritus ,...,, 74-89 

CHAPTER VIL 

HYGIENE OF PREGNANCY — DRESS. 

Congenial surroundings — Overtaxed mothers — An old lady's story-— 
An every-day experience — Lucrative work — An author's interest- 
ing testimony- Prophecy for the future — Dress and fashion — 
Common sense shoes — Can ladies stand in street cars?— Union un- 
der-garments — The chemiloon — The princess garment — Bates 
waist — The divided skirt — Equestrian tights — Dress and freedom 
for women — Dress in pregnancy — What corset can be worn — 
Fashion in deformity , , ,90-1 lO 

CHAPTER VIII. 

HYGIENE IN PREGNANCY — BATHING. 

The water cure mania — The "ounceof prevention" — "A coat of mail" 
— The sitz-bath the very best bath for a pregnant woman — Fo- 
mentations—Save doctors' visits — Hot water bottles— Cold com- 



CONTENTS. Kl 

press— Foot and leg bath — The Turkish bath — ^Thermal bath at 
home — Queen of baths III-123 

CHAPTER IX. 

HYGIENE IN PREGNANCY — DIET. 

Avoid fats and sweets — The chemist's theory — Proper food prevents 
pain in childbirth — Mrs. Rowbotham's experience — Marvelously 
easy labor and rapid recovery — Interesting testimony from the 

wife of a Michigan judge — Mrs. could get no doctor, and 

child born without pain! — She believes pain in childbirth unneces- 
sary — Extraordinary experience! — Scientific theory accidentally 
proved — A boon to every woman — Bill of fare for every day in the 
week — Analysis of food .,«.,.. ,124-137 

CHAPTER X. 

HYGIENE IN PREGNANCY— EXERCISE. 

Motion a law of nature — Nest building — Home labor delights the 
heart — Contact with the earth a "cure-all" — Waist breathing — 
Educate the muscles — Massage — Muscle beater — Military position 
^Exercises in pregnancy — Climbing stairs during gestation — Rules 
for climbing stairs and hills— Delsarte , 138-149 

CHAPTER XI. 

CHASTITY IN THE MARRIAGE RELATION. 

Rights of children — Popular theories— Social evil — Who are the pros- 
titutes? — Touching experience — Lessons for husbands — Theory of 
continence — A New Testament Lesson — Continence in preg. 
nancy — Its influence upon pain at parturition — Influence upon 
offspring — Men reverence the maternal in woman — Parent- 
hood and progress — Motherhood, central fact in human 
life 150-162 

CHAPTER XII. 

VENTILATION— REST, 

A pregnant' woman breathes for two — Open fire places in sleeping 
rooms — Charcoal pit easily constructed — Fresh air in bedrooms 
— Drafts — Cold air not pure air — The nose a sentinel — Unslaked 



XI! CONTENTS. 

lime and cliarcoal — Interesting experiments— A daily siesta 
needed — How one mother slept — Recapitulation — Mrs. Stanton's 
experience — A girl is as good as a boy. , , 163-173 

CHAPTER XIII. 

PARTURITION. 

What are labor pains?— Stages of labor — Bag of waters— Necessary 
preparations — Directions for making the bed — Management dur- 
ing the first .stage — Meddlesome midwifery — Cutting the cord — A 
new heresy — No child should be washed as soon as it is bom — 
Delivery of the after-birth — Should the bandage be applied? — 
Castor oil — Rest, the best remedy , 174-182 

CHAPTER XIV. 

DYSTOCIA. 

Difficult labor — Caustic treatment a frequent cause — Hot sitz-bath 
overcomes rigidity — A very remarkable case — Notes from practice 
— Ergot and cohosh — Their poisonous effects — Instruments — Temp- 
tation of physicians — Women can make instruments known in 
tradition only. „ 183-189 

CHAPTER XV. 

POST PARTUM DISEASES. 

Daily bath — Compress — Sitz-bath — Very best food — Cases in Home of 
the Friendless — No need of milk fever — Abcess of the breast — 
Excoriated nipples — Insufficient milk — Drink new or hot milk. — 
Do not use ale or beer — Excessive flow of milk — After-pains — 
The lochia— Hemorrhage — Childbed fever — Causes to be avoided 
—Dr. Playf air's opinions-Treatment must be prompt. . . , 190-203 

CHAPTER XVI. 

INFANTS, THEIR CARE AT BIRTH AND DURING EARLY INFANCY. 

A new being — Need of rest — An oil bath — Dressing the navel — Cloth- 
ing — Useful suggestions — Habits of cleanliness can be secured — 
— Nursing — Mother's milk the natural food — Best artificial food — 
Causes of mortality in hand-fed children — Artificial human milk — 
Analysis of milk — Care of the bottle — ^Time of weaning — Meat-fed 
children , 204-216 



CONTENTS. xiii 

CHAPTER XVII. 

DISEASES OF INFANTS. 

Aphtha — Excoriation — Colic — Mother's friend — Soothing syrup— Con- 
stipation — Diarrhea— Dysentery — Summer complaint — Inflamma- 
tion of the bowels — ^Dentition- — Lancing the gums— Starchy food 
Remedies... , 217-231 

CHAPTER XVIIL 

DISEASES OF INFANTS— CONTINUED. 

Worms — Incontinence of urine— Retention of urine — Croup, the moth- 
er's terror — True and false croup — A sovereign remedy — Diph- 
theria — Popular remedies— Contagious diseases — Scarlet fever — 
Tabular differences between scarlet fever and measles— Whooping 
cough — Convulsions— Practical suggestions .232-242 

CHAPTER XIX. 

ABORTION. 

Prevention — Treatmient— Feticide — Viability of the embryo — Two 
wrongs cannot make one right — Maternal instinct inherent — In- 
centives to produce abortion — Unwelcome children 243 -25 1 

CHAPTER XX 

MENSTRUATION. 

Definition — Cause — Should be devoid of suffering— Disorders — Sup- 
pression — Painful menstruation — Errors in dress — Lack of exercise 
— Romping girls— Wrong diet — Heat, a sovereign remedy — Re- 
markable cases — Flowing, Remedies , 252-262 

CHAPTER XXL 

DISEASES OF WOMEN. 

Nine-tenths of American women have these maladies — Common-sense 
hints — Inflammation — Mental sufferings — A cause of insanity— 
Ulceration — Induration — Errors in dress and diet — Sitz-bath — 
Thermal bath — Injections — Valuable exercises — Caustic treatment 
— Acids and probes— -Sufferings induced and prolonged— PhysiciaUg 
taking the back track— Reforms effected by the protest of the 
people— Leucorrhea— Displacements— Hysteria 263-275 



xiv CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XXIL 

CHANGE OF LIFE. 

A scape-goat of physicians — What is the meno-pause? — Irregularity— 
Hot flashes — Profuse perspiration — Hemorrhage— Mental symp- 
toms—Nature creates no pathological conditions — ^Therapeutic 
measures— Natural remedies — Simple habits, .,,,♦. 276-285 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

DIETETICS. 

Nearly two hundred recipes, including: Drinks for the sick — Gruels — 
Jellies — Bread — Gems — Toast — Puddings — Eggs — Oysters and 
miscellaneous dishes — The outgrowth of experience on a scientific 
basis — Healthy food made palatable, suiting the fastidious and 
capricious taste of the invalid— Dainty dishes for the sick. .286-320 

A FAMILIAR LETTER. 

TO THE READER FROM THE AUTHOR. 

Regulating sex — Various theories — Limiting offspring-— Maternal in- 
stinct sovereign in women — Law of ovulation — Law of continence 
— Other methods — Effects of tobacco — Testimonials— Reasons of 
failure— « 'Mind cure" a reality. , . , , , , 321-350 

Author's SPECIAL REQUEST ..,.......,., 35' 

Glossary. .0 , 351 

Index 357 

Index of Dietetics , 3^4 

Illustrations and explanation of plates— ^'e-.? Pocket. 



J/-^ ttfuou-W^eUW^ k^ W^^Ct^cLo^no, -^TENNYSON. 

—COLERIDGE. 



TOKOLOGY. 



CHAPTER I. 



PAINLESS CHILDBIRTH. 

'* I know of no country, no tribe, no class, where 
childbirth is attended with so much pain and trouble 
as in this country." Thus replied a traveler who had 
been many years in foreign lands, upon being inter- 
rogated as to the comparative sufferings of savage 
and civilized women. His occupation and sympa- 
thies had brought him into close relationship with all 
classes of people, and therefore fitted him for an intel- 
ligent and discriminating judgment in this matter. 

Neither in India, Hindostan, China, Japan, th 
South Sea Islands, South America, nor indeed in any 
country do women suffer in both pregnancy and par- 
turition as they do in this. Possibly among the 
higher classes in Europe there may be equal suffer- 
ing; but the peasantry everywhere is comparatively 
exempt. 

The usual testimony of missionaries and travelers 
is that the squaws of our own Indian tribes experi- 
ence almost no suffering in childbirth, and the func- 
tion scarcely interferes with the habits, pleasures or 
duties of life. I have myself seen a squaw of the 
Ottawa tribe carrying her pappoose upon her back, 

(17) 



1 8 TESTIMONY OF MISSIONARIES. 

Strapped to a board, when it was only twenty-four 
hours old. 

Mrs. Armstrong, one of the early missionaries in 
the Sandwich Islands, says: "With native women 
the labor was not long nor severe; the mother, instead 
of remaining in bed, arose, bathed in cold water, 
walked and ate as usual." 

Dr. Storer says: "There is probably no suffering 
ever experienced which will compare, in proportion 
to its extent in time, with the throes of parturition." 
Dr. Meigs says: "Men can not suffer the same pain 
as women. What do you call the pains of parturi- 
tion.^ There is no name for them but agony!'" 

It is too true that women go down to death in giving 
birth to children. Thousands of women believe that 
this pain is natural and that for it there can be no al- 
leviation. " In sorrow shalt thou bring forth chil- 
dren " is thought to be a curse that applies to all women 
of all time. 

If this pain and travail is a natural accompaniment 
of physiological functions — if it is a curse upon women, 
then why are the rich, the enlightened and more 
favored daughters of earth greater sufferers than the 
peasantry, the savage, the barbarian, and those who 
we call heathen.? Is it not possible, by research and 
comparison, to learn the natural and true mode of 
life, so that motherhood may, among enlightened 
people, be relieved from this burden of suffering.^* 
May it not prove that our traditions and teachings 
upon this subject have been altogether erroneous.!* 

American women in education and enlightenment, 
in freedom and progress, are the peers of the best and 
noblest of their sex. From individual, social and na- 



DR. GAILLARD THOMAS. I9 

tional interests, they ought to be conversant with all 
that pertains to this subject, so closely allied to the 
interests of the race. 

We find in women of superior education and 
marked intelligence an exaggerated development of 
the emotional nature, and a corresponding deteriora- 
tion of physical powers. Weakness, debility, and 
suffering is the common lot of most of them. Not 
one in a hundred has health and strength to pursue 
any chosen study, or to follow any lucrative occupa- 
tion, and what is vastly worse, most are unfitted for 
the duties and perils of maternity. 

Dr, Gaillard Thomas says: ''Neither appreciation 
of, nor desire for^ physical excellence sufficiently ex- 
ists among refined women of our day. Our young 
women are too willing to be delicate, fragile and in- 
capable of endurance. They dread above all things 
the glow and hue of health, the rotundity and beauty 
of muscularity, the comely shapes which the great 
masters gave to the Venus de Medici and Venus de 
Milo. All these attributes are viewed as coarse and 
unladylike, and she is regarded as most to be envied 
whose complexion wears the livery of disease, whose 
muscular development is beyond the suspicion of 
embonpointy and whose waist can almost be spanned 
by her own hands. 

"As a result, how often do we see our matrons 
dreading the process of child-bearing, as if it were an 
abnormal and destructive one; fatigued and exhausted 
by a short walk, or ordinary household cares; choos- 
ing houses with special reference to freedomi from 
one extra flight of stairs, and commonly debarred the 
one great maternal privilege of nourishing their own 



20 INTERESTING CASES. 

offspring. These are they who furnish employment 
for the gynecologist, and who fill our homes with in- 
valids and sufferers." 

Understanding and following physiological laws, 
pregnancy ought to be as free from pathological symp- 
toms, and parturition as void of suffering with Amer- 
ican women as with any on earth, or even with the 
lower animals. 

Dr. Dewees says: ^^Pain in childbirth is a morbid 
symptom; it is a perversion of nature caused by modes 
of living not consistent with the most healthy condi- 
tion of the system, and a regimen which would insure 
a completely healthy condition might be counted on 
with certainty to do away with such pain." 

The great English scientist, Professor Huxley, says: 
"We are indeed, fully prepared to believe that the 
bearing of children may and ought to become as free 
from danger and long debility to the civilized woman 
as it is to the savage." 

The following paragraphs from one of the essays 
in Dr. Montgomery's classical work on Pregnancy, 
give practical details of cases in illustration of the 
belief in painless parturition. 

"In a letter to me Dr. Douglas states that he was 
called about 6 A. M., Sept. 26, 1828, to attend a Mrs. 
D., residing on Eccles St. 

"On his arrival he found the house in the utmost 
confusion, and was told that the child had been born 
before the messenger was dispatched for the doctor. 
From the lady herself he learned that, about half an 
hour previously, she had been awakened from a 
natural sleep by the alarm of a daughter about five 
years old, who slept with her. 



author's observation. 21 

'^ This alarm was occasioned by the little girl feeling 
the movements, and hearing the cries of an infant in 
bed. To the mother's great surprise she had brought 
forth her child without any consciousness of the fact. 

"A lady of great respectability, the wife of a peer 
of the realm, was actually delivered once in her sleep; 
she immediately awakened her husband, being 
alarmed to find one more in bed than there was 
before. 

" I have elsewhere mentioned the case of a patient of 
mine who bore eight children without ever having 
labor pains. Her deliveries were so sudden and void 
of sensible effect that in more than one instance they 
took place under most awkward circumstances, but 
without any suffering." 

Dr. J. King, in his work on Obstetrics, speaks of 
attending cases where there was no sensation of pain. 

He found that by placing the hand upon the abdo- 
men, the muscular contractions were distinctly felt, 
and examination proved the progress of labor, while, 
excepting a suppressed breath, the patient experi- 
enced no change from the ordinary condition. 

Some very marked cases have come to my own 
knowledge proving the possibility of painless labor. 
I attended a neighbor of mine in four different confine- 
ments. I never was able to reach her before the 
birth of the child, although I lived only across the 
street, and according to her injunctions, always kept 
my shoes "laced up." She sent for me, too, at the 
first indication of labor. There was always one pro- 
longed effort and the child was expelled. The heads 
of her children were temporarily distorted, showing 
pliability of the osseous structure.. 



22 PAINLESS CHILDBIRTH POSSIBLE. 

Another lady patron had two children without a 
particle of pain. With the first she was alone with 
her nurse. During the evening she remarked that 
she felt weary and believed that she would lie down. 
She had been on the bed no more than twenty min- 
utes when she called to her nurse, saying: "How 
strangely I feel! I wish you would see what is the 
matter," when to their astonishment the child was 
already born. 

Two years later I was summoned to the same lady 
about ten at night. The membranes were ruptured, 
but no other visible indication of labor. Investiga- 
tion revealed dilatation of the cervix and although 
she soon fell into a quiet slumber, I noticed regular 
and distinct contractions. The child was born about 
two in the morning without any sensation of pain. I 
have no doubt that in her previous confinement the 
contractions went on the same, and if she had been 
one to mark her symptoms closely, she would have 
felt them as one feels muscular contractions in the 
performance of other natural functions. 

The cases that have been cited, so far as is known, 
were persons in excellent health, and some were per- 
sons of exceptionally fine and strong constitutions. 
Dr. Holbrook in his "Parturition without Pain," 
says: "Those women of savage nations who bear 
children without pain live much in the open air, take 
much exercise, and are physically active and healthy 
to a degree greatly beyond their more civilized sisters. 
These instances tend directly to prove that parturi- 
tion is likely to be painless in proportion as the 
mother is physically perfect and in a sound condi- 
tion of health. They certainly tend even more 



ANECDOTE OF DR. HOLMES. 2^ 

strongly to prove that pain is not an absolute neces- 
sity attendant on parturition. 

"The course of modern scientific investigation, 
moreover, has gone far to justify a belief that this 
terrific burden upon humanity can be almost entirely 
removed, and that the pain can be as completely 
done away with as the danger and disfigurement 
from small-pox. At the same time, this immeasu- 
rable benefit to humanity cannot be obtained without 
proper use of means, and the continuance of such use 
for a considerable period. 

"The doctrine of the ablest thinkers on the subject 
will be found to agree in this: That it is the previous 
life of the mother — the whole of ity from her birth to 
the birth of the child — which almost entirely deter- 
mines what her danger, her difficulty, and her pain 
during childbirth shall be. Her easy or difficult 
labor, in fact, is almost entirely her own work. Her 
conduct during gestation, it is true, is more immedi- 
ately influential in the result than remoter periods, 
and bears more greatly upon the future life of her 
offspring than even upon herself." 

Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes once said that he 
believed that any disease, no matter how virulent, 
how malignant or how deep-seated, whether it was 
cancer, consumption or cholera, any disease could be 
cured if the physician was called in time. But with 
his wonted humor he added: "There are cases in 
which the physician should be called at least two 
hundred years in advance." 

With Dr. Holmes, I believe it will take many years 
to eradicate diseased conditions which are the heritage 
of this generation,and thus to produce men and women 



24 PROOFS OF SCIENCE. 

of physical perfection. Science has proven, how- 
ever, that any woman possessing sufficient vitality to 
make procreation possible, can do much, even during 
pregnancy, to alleviate the sufferings of that period, 
as well as the final throes of travail. Pain and suffer- 
ing have so long been the customary attendant upon 
the maternal functions, that many are slow to believe 
they can ever be alleviated. Painless childbirth is 
thought to be an impossibility. The reader is begged 
to lay aside all previous prejudices, and it is believed 
that when this volume has been thoroughly studied 
he will be convinced that women in bearing offspring 
should furnish no exception to the laws of nature, 
and that pregnancy and parturition may and ^z/^>^^ to 
be devoid of suffering. 

In Tokology, technical terms have been avoided as much as possi- 
ble. For the few used the reader will find helpful hints in the Glos- 
sary, page 354. If possible, the few remedies prescribed in Tokology 
should be procured at a Homoeopathic Pharmacy, or of a Homoeo- 
pathic Physician. They are, however, sometimes found already pre- 
pared in a drug store. 



CHAPTER II. 



CONCEPTION — FETAL DEVELOPMENT. 

The REPRODUCTIVE APPARATUS of woman con • 
sists essentially of ovaries, oviducts, uterus, vagina 
and mammary glands. 

The ovaries (Plates II and VI) are two almond- 
shaped bodies, situated about two and one-half inches 
distant on either side of the uterus. They are in- 
closed in the broad ligaments and suspended by a 
thread-like cord from the womb, also attached to the 
outer extremities of the oviducts. They consist of a 
stroma in which vesicles are imbedded. It is within 
these vesicles that the ova, or eggs, are found. Every 
four weeks, during the child-bearing period an ovum 
matures, and bursting through the vesicle, as well as 
the surrounding membrane of the ovary, is conveyed 
to the womb by the oviduct. 

While not the largest, the ovary is the most im- 
portant of the generative organs of woman. Upon 
these apparantly insignificant structures depends the 
creative power giving the grand office of mother- 
hood, a power akin to the divine. Maternity! the 
holiest shrine of human life, to which poets do hom- 
age, and true men bow in reverence ! 

The ovaries contain the fructifying principle, and 
also bestow on woman the characteristics of sex. 
These mysterious bodies are the grand source of fern- 

(35) 



26 ute:^us and oviducts. 

inine attractions. Remove all other generative organs 
and you do not change her in this regard — remove 
the ovaries, and she becomes masculine not only in 
character but appearance. Her figure changes, her 
voice becomes coarse and of lower pitch, her throat 
enlarges, and, in some instances, whiskers appear. 
Any diseased condition, too, of the ovaries produces 
great constitutional as well as emotional disturbances 

The oviducts or fallopian tubes (Plates II 
and VI) are minute cylindrical openings from the su- 
perior and lateral portion of the uterus, about three 
inches in length and terminating in fimbriated or fin- 
ger-like extremities. The latter are minute muscular 
bodies, which grasp the ovum as it bursts through 
the membranes of the ovary, and convey it into the 
oviduct on its way to the uterus. The ovum is less 
than I-I20 of an inch in diameter, and the cavity of 
the oviduct is so small that it would scarcely allow 
the entrance of a hog's bristle. 

The uterus (Plates II, III, IV, V and VII) is a 
pear-shaped muscular organ situated in the inferior 
portion of the pelvis, between the bladder and rectum. 
It is less than three inches length and two inches 
in width, and one in thickness. It is pear-shaped, the 
ccj'vix naturally pointing to the coccyx. 

The canal or opening into the uterus through the 
cervix is small, capable of admitting a probe | to J 
of an inch in diameter. The walls are muscular, and 
in the unimpregnated state about half an inch in 
thickness. The cavity of the uterus is small a^d con- 
ical, having three openings, two at its upper portion 
into the oviducts, and one into the vagina, i he latter 
is called the Os uteri or mouth of the womb. The 



UTERINE SUPPORTS. 2/ 

upper broad portion Is called \.h.Q fundus . It weighs 
from one to two ounces. It is difficult to realize how 
very diminutive this organ is in the virgin state, es- 
pecially when we consider its power of distension 
during pregnancy. 

The external portion of the uterus is covered by 
ih.Q peritoneum, a serous m.embrane which is contin- 
uous with the lining of the abdomen and covering of 
all the viscera. The uterus is held in place by liga- 
ments formed of folds of the peritoneum. The broad 
ligament enveloping the oviduct and ovaries extends 
to either side, and is firmly attached to the sides of 
the pelvis. The round ligaments, formed from oblit- 
erated -bloodvessels of fetal life and peritoneal cov- 
ering, pass from the upper portion of the womb to 
the outside of the pelvic bone and terminate in mus- 
cular and cellular tissue beneath the integument. 
There are also folds of peritoneum between the womb 
and bladder in the front, and the womb and rectum 
in the back, that assist in holding it In position. It is 
besides largely supported by the elasticity of the va- 
gina and muscles of the perineum. So well sustained 
is the uterus that only serious violations of physical 
laws can cause deviations of position 

The Vagina (Plates II and III) is simply the ex- 
ternal outlet or passage from the uterus. It is longer 
in back than in front, being from three to four inches 
in front and from five to six Inches in the posterior 
portion. It is a cylindrical tube of firm elastic tissue, 
capable of great distension. The neck of the uterus 
dips into the upper part of the vagina about three- 
fou ths of an inch. The communication between 
these organs is the cervical canal, which in health is 



28 MAMMARY GLANDS — CONCEPTION. 

found closed, admitting a probe with difficulty. The 
uterus and vagina are not one and the same as many 
suppose, yet communicate with each other. The va- 
gina serves as a passage for the menstrual fluid, for 
the fetus at birth, and for the reception of the male 
organ in copulation, and in a state of health assists 
the perineal muscles in sustaining the uterus. 

The mammary glands or breasts (Plate XI) are 
accessory to the generative system. They secrete 
milk which supplies the child with nourishment after 
birth. They are rounded and prominent, keeping 
their form and position through life, if the surround- 
ing muscles and tissues have not been weakened by 
pressure of clothing. 

Conception or impregnation takes place by the 
union of the male sperm and female germ. Whether 
this is accomplished in \.\\q ovaries, \}i\Q oviducts ox \h& 
uterus, is still a question of discussion and investiga- 
tion by physiologists. 

The oviwi, or ^%^, matures and is taken up by the 
fimbriated extremities of the oviducts at the time of 
menstruation. To reach the outer world it must 
pass the length of the oviducts, the cavity and canal 
of the uterus and vagina. The fructifying principle 
of the semen consists of zoosperms, which under 
strong magnifying powers are seen to be filaments 
endowed with power of propulsion. 

Once entering the utering cavity there is no reason 
why they should not be able to pass into the oviducts 
or even to reach the ovaries. The probabilities are 
impregnation can take place at any point in the 
generative tract, providing the ovum and sperms 
come in contact while they still live. It is pretty 



DEVELOPMENT OF EMBRYO. 29 

well proven that the ovum after maturing and being 
dislodged from the ovaries may retain its life from 
six to eight days, and also be that length of time in 
making its exit from the uterus. That the sperms 
are viable, also, for some days, if retained in their 
own element at a certain temperature, has been 
established quite definitely. 

With many women the ovum passes off within 
twenty-four or forty-eight hours after menstruation 
begins. Some, by careful observation, are able to 
know with certainty when this takes place. It is 
often accompanied with malaise, nervousness, head- 
ache, or actual uterine pain. A minute substance 
like the white of an ^%g, with a fleck of blood in it, 
can frequently be seen upon the clothing. Ladies 
who have noticed this phenomenon testify to its 
recurring very regularly upon the same day after 
menstruation. Some delicate women have observed 
it as late as the fourteenth day. 

Nourishment and development of the em- 
bryo. — There are three distinct periods of nutrition 
in the uterine development of the human being: 

First — Yolk nutrition. 

Second — Tuft nutrition. 

Third — Placental nutrition. 

The period of yolk nutrition in the human is brief 
and probably variable. The minute size of the ^^^ 
renders it impossible for it to furnish nutriment for 
any length of time, as is the case with the embryo of 
the fowl. From five to eight days after conception 
takes place, a membrane is formed around the ovum, 
called the chorion. Outside of this is still another 
membrane attaching itself to the womb. The inter- 



30 PLACENTA— FETAL CIRCULATION. 

nal surface of the chorion is supplied with villi or 
tufts resembling mulberry seed. Through these the 
embryo receives its nutrition, until at the close of the 
second month, from these tufts the placenta^ or after- 
birth, begins to be developed. This is attached to 
some portion of the uterus, usually the upper lateral 
portion. 

The Placenta is a spongy, vascular organ, at full 
term eight to ten inches in diameter, and two or 
three inches thick at center, thinning at the edges, 
weighing from three-fourths to one and one-fourth 
pounds. In appearance it is not unlike a piece of 
liver, only less solid. 

It is the proper vascular apparatus serving the 
combined purpose of fetal nutrition, respiration and 
excretion. At least, through its absorption all these 
functions are accomplished. 

This, with the membranes surrounding the fetus 
and umbilical cord, is called the after-birth. 

The placenta (Plates VIII and IX) lies in complete 
juxtaposition with the uterus, with an almost imper- 
ceptible membrane interposed. The fibers and blood- 
vessels of the uterus and placenta do not interlace, as 
some suppose; each has a distinct set of blood essels 
and capillaries, and a separate circulation. Nutrition 
and excretion are carried on by exosmosis, or transu- 
dation through this very attenuated membrane. 

The FETAL CIRCULATION is an especially inter- 
esting phenomenon. Instead of the blood going to 
the lungs for oxygenation, the entire circuit is per- 
formed without this, the placenta serving the office 
ot lungs as well as of the digestive organs. 

From the placenta oxidized blood is brought 



UxMBILICAL CORD— BAG OF WATERS. , 3 1 

through the umbilical vein, a large portion of it pass- 
ing to the liver, but all eventually enters the heart 
by the ascending vena cava. By the Eustachian 
valve it is directed through the foramen ovale to the 
left auricle, from this to the left ventricle, which 
conveys it to the aorta. 

Part of the blood, instead of taking this course, 
enters the right ventricle, and in place of going to 
the lungs through pulmonary arteries, passes at once 
to the aorta, through what is called the ductus 
arteriosus. After traveling the entire circuit, it is 
taken back to the placenta by two umbilical arteries, 
which are given off from the iliac arteries. 

At birth the ductus arteriosus closes; the umbilical 
veins form the round ligament of the liver, and the 
umbilical arteries the round ligament of the uterus 
in the female, and the urachus, a ligament of the 
bladder, in the male 

TYi^ foramen ovale also closes, establishing a com- 
plete septum between the auricles of the heart. 

A blue baby or cyanosis neonatorimi is the result 
should this valve fail to close. The venous blood 
commingles with the arterial blood, and death is the 
result sooner or later 

The umbilical cord is made up of two arteries 
and one vein. It is from two to four feet in length, 
attached at one extremity to the placenta, and at the 
other to the navel of the child. This is the medium 
of the circulation between the placenta, and the fetus. 

The membrafies all unite before birth to form one 
thick, tenacious covering for the child, and also for 
the cord and fetal surface of the placenta. 

This inc'ioses the fluid — the licjuor amnii— which 



32 FETAL NUTRITION. 

serves to protect the fetus from blows or sudden jars. 
The membranes and the contained fluid form what 
is known as the ''bag of waters." Not rupturing 
before birth, they make what is called a veil or 
caul over the child's face, to which is attached vari- 
ous superstitions, such as the gift of "second sight," 
clairvoyance, etc. 

Healthy nutrition of t\i^ fetus depends entirely 
upon the mother. The placenta not only represents 
the digestive organs, but the lungs of the fetus. 
Consequently upon the condition of the mother 
depends the condition of the child. It has no other 
means of getting nutriment, or of disposing of waste 
material. After birth it has the same advantage as 
the adult in correcting errors in diet and nutrition by 
elimination. The skin, with its miles of perspiratory 
ducts, then conveys effete matter from the system, the 
lungs keep up by respiration a constant interchange 
of oxygen for carbon, while the liver, kidneys and 
bowels are active in their functions of depurition. In 
utero these functions are all dormant, consequently 
giving the fetus a disadvantage for healthy growth. 
Mothers often show a great solicitude about diet and 
conditions during lactation, while they are compara- 
tively indifferent tn these matters during pregnancy. 

Especially should they breathe deeply, and that, 
too, of pure air. Trail says: 'Tf the mother does not 
breathe sufficiently the child must suffer. Many a 
mother gives birth to a frail, scrofulous child, for no 
reason except that during the period of gestation she 
is too sedentary and plethoric. I have known women 
of vigorous constitutions, who had given birth to 
several healthy children, become the mothers of 



DURATION OF PREGNANCY. 33 

children so puny and scrofulous that it was impossi- 
ble for them to be raised to adult age. The reason 
is that the mother is obstructed in her respiratory 
system, and although she may breathe enough to 
sustain her own organization in a fair condition, she 
does not inhale oxygen enough to supply the needs 
of an intra-uterine being. Many 'still births' are 
explainable on this principle." 

The duration of pregnancy is nine calendar 
months or ten lunar months, about 280 days. If the 
date of impregnation is not known, the coinit should 
be made from the beginning of the last menstruation, 
and add eight days on account of the possibility of its 
occurring within that period. It is possible in some 
diseased conditions for the period to extend much 
beyond this time. I knew one case of amniotic 
dropsy where pregnancy extended forty-four weeks. 

Helen Idleson, M. D., in the Med, WochenschiHft, 
sums up the results of her investigations as follows: 
*' I. The duration of pregnancy amounts to 278 days, 
or nearly 40 weeks. 2. The sex of the infant influ- 
ences the duration, this being longer in female in- 
fants. (.'^) 3. The heavier the child, the longer is the 
duration. [}) 4. The duration is longer in multipara 
than in primipara. 5. The younger the woman the 
longer is the duration. 6. The duration is longer in 
married than in unmarried women. 7. The first 
movements of the child are felt, on an average, on 
the one hundred and thirty-fifth day, but later in 
primipara than in multipara. 

*' The growth of the embryo after fecundation is very 
rapid. On the tenth day it has the appearance of a 
semi-transparent, grayish flake. On the twelfth day ^ 



34 DURATION OF PREGNANCY. 

it is nearly the size of a pea, filled with fluid, in the 
middle of which is an opaque spot, presenting the 
first appearance of an embryo, which may be clearly 
seen as an oblong or curved body, and is plainly visi- 
ble to the naked eye on the foicrteenth day. The 
twenty-first day the embryo resembles an ant or a let- 
tuce-seed; its length is from four to five lines and its 
weight from three to four grains. Many of its parts 
now begin to show themselves, especially the cartilag- 
inous beginnings of the spinal column, the heart, etc. 

"The thirtieth day the embryo is as large as a 
horse-fly, and resembles a worm, bent together. 
There are as yet no limbs, and the head is larger 
than the rest of the body. When stretched out it is 
nearly half an inch long. Toward th.^ fifth week the 
heart increases greatly in proportion to the remain- 
der of the body, and the rudimentary eyes are indi- 
cated by two black spots turned toward the sides, 
and the heart exhibits its external form, bearing a 
close resemblance to that in the adult. 

'' In the seventh week bone begins to form in the 
lower jaw and clavicle. Narrow streaks on each 
side of the vertebral column show the beginning of 
the ribs. The heart is perfecting its form, the brain 
enlarging and the eyes and ears growing more per- 
fect, and the limbs sprouting from the body. The 
lungs are mere sacs, about one line in length, and 
the trachea is a delicate thread, but the liver is very 
large. In the seventh week are formed the renal 
capsules and kidneys. 

"At tzvo months the forearm and hand can be distin- 
guished, but not the arm; the hand is larger than the 
forearm, but it is not supplied with fingers. The dis- 



GROWTH OF THE EMBRYO. 35 

tinctlon of sex is yet difficult. The eyes are promi- 
nent. The nose forms an obtuse eminence. The nos- 
trils are rounded and separated. The mouth is gap- 
ing and the epidermis can be distinguished from the 
true skin. The embryo is from one and a half to two 
inches long and weighs from three to five drachms, 
the head forming more than one-third of the whole. 

*'At the end of three months the eyelids are distinct 
but shut; the lips are drawn together; the forehead 
and nose are clearly traceable, and the organs of 
generation prominent. The heart beats with force, 
the larger vessels carry red blood; the fingers and 
toes are well-defined, and muscles begin to be 
developed. 

"At \h.Qfow'th month the embryo takes the name of 
fetus. The body is six to eight inches in lengt-h and 
weighs from seven to eight ounces. The skin has a 
rosy color, and the muscles produce a sensible motion. 
A fetus born at this time might live several hours. 

*'At five months the length of the body is from 
eight to ten inches, and its weight from eight to 
eleven ounces. 

*'At six months the length is twelve and a half 
inches; weight, one pound. The hair appears upon 
the head, the eyes closed, the eyelids somewhat 
thicker, and their margins, as well as the eyebrows, 
are studded with very delicate hairs. 

"At seven months, every part has increased in vol- 
ume and perfection; the bony system is nearly com- 
plete; length, twelve to fourteen inches; weight, two 
and a half to three pounds. If born at this period 
the fetus is able to breathe, cry and nurse, and may 
live if properly cared for. 



36 EIGHTH MONTH BABY. 

"At cigJit months, XSxq fetus seems to grow rather in 
length than in thickness; it is only sixteen to eighteen 
inches long and yet weighs from four to five pounds. 
The skin is very red, and covered with down and a 
considerable quantity of sebaceous matter. The 
lower jaw, which at first was very short, is now as 
long as the upper one. 

''Finally, at term the fetus is about nineteen to 
twenty-three inches long, and weighs from six to 
nine pounds. The red blood circulates in the capil- 
laries, and the skin performs the functions of perspi- 
ration; the nails are fully developed." 

There is a superstition that a child born at eight 
months is not as liable to live as if born at seven 
months; indeed, many suppose that an eight months' 
child never survives. Facts do not prove this idea 
correct. 

Personally I have known several eight months' 
babies to live and do well, and I believe that their 
chance of life is much greater than if born at seven 
months. 

Position of the fetus. — The fetus usually lies 
with the head downward, the chin resting upon the 
breast. The feet are bent in front of the legs, the 
latter flexed upon the thighs. The knees are sepa- 
rated from each other, but the heels lie close together 
on the back of the thighs; the arms are crossed 
upon the breast, so placed that the chin can rest 
upon the hands. 

In this way it forms an oval, whose longest diam- 
eter is about eleven inches. This is the usual posi- 
tion, yet it often varies from it. 



CHAPTER III. 



PREGNANCY — SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS. 

The SIGNS of pregnancy are physiological and 
pathological; physiological, those common to all 
women; pathological, those which are the result of 
and accompany diseased conditions. 

Of the physiological, the four principal ones are 
cessation of menstrution, increase of size, quicken- 
ing, and the fetal heart beat. 

Cessation of menstruation in a married woman 
may ordinarily be considered a sign that conception 
has taken place. Yet suppression may be the result 
of cold, of inflammation, of some chronic uterine 
diseases, more especially dropsy or tumors, also of 
any slow, wasting disease like scrofula, consumption 
and diarrhea. 

Occasionally, too, women menstruate during the 
entire time of gestation. This, without doubt, is an 
abnormal condition, and should be remedied, as dis- 
astrous consequences may result. Also, women 
have been known to bear children who have never 
menstruated. 

Pregnancy seldom takes place where menstruation 
has never occurred, yet it frequently happens that 
women never menstruate from one pregnancy to 
another. In these cases this symptom is ruled out 
for diagnostic purposes. 

(37) 



38 SIGNS OF PREGNANCY. 

Increase of size begins to be experienced at about 
the third month, when the uterus enlarges and rises 
above the brim of the pelvis. Any enlargement pre- 
vious to this time must be due to bloating, flatulence 
or excess of fat, to which some are inclined in gesta- 
tion. This sign, taken alone, can not be relied upon 
as diagnostic. It may be occasioned by various 
causes, and often accompanies the very same con- 
ditions attending menstrual suppression. Instances 
occur in every town and neighborhood where women 
have made elaborate preparations for confinement^ 
only to be disappointed by finding they were suffer- 
ing from some serious disease causing suppression. 

Quickening. — The involuntary movements of the 
child occur from the eighteenth to the twentieth 
week. Sometimes these motions begin as early as 
the third month, and then are a feeble fluttering 
only, causing disagreeable sensations of faintness 
and nausea. The "motion" of the child is regarded 
by women, especially if they have previously borne 
children, as an unfailing sign. But cases are com- 
mon where the throbbing in a tumor, or the peri- 
staltic action acccompanying flatulence has been 
mistaken for fetal movements. 

Unless the motion is very marked, quick, elastic 
and distinct, it alone cannot be relied upon as a 
diagnostic symptom. Taken together with other 
signs it aids both physician and patient to a positive 
conclusion. 

The fetal heart beat.— The sign by which 
physicians can with certainty determine pregnancy 
is by noting the difference between the beating of 
the fetal and maternal hearts. The ordinary pulse 



FETAL HEART BEAT. $g 

of a woman is from 70 to 80 per minute, while that 
of the fetus is from 120 to 140. 

Auscultation through a stethoscope will reveal this 
fact, and thus give a certain diagnosis. If it is a 
throbbing or pulsating in a tumor it would be syn- 
chronous with the maternal cardiac action. This 
symptom is not of much value till after the fourth 
month. By that time, if a physician's ear Is edu- 
cated to fine discriminations, he will never make a 
mistake in his diagnosis. 

I can not leave this subject without urging upon 
women the necessity of educating their own fingers 
to judge of the heart's actions by the radial pulse. 
Get your physician to tell you and study in your 
^ooks the meaning of a quick, a throbbing, a slow, a 
weak, feeble or wiry pulse. It is one of the surest 
guides to abnormal conditions, and is a great aid to 
nurses in the administration of remedial measures, 
besides often determining the necessity of medical 
aid. In my convei'sations with v/omen, often in an 
audience of one hundred ladies, I find none who 
know even the frequency of the normal pulse. 

The enlargement of the breasts at about the third 
month, the secretion of a fluid in them, also the 
darkening of the areola around the nipples are of 
frequent or usual attendance upon gestation — but 
not always; consequently of themselves can not be 
taken as diagnostic symptoms. 

The PATHOLOGICAL symptoms are more numer- 
ous. Indeed, almost any symptom accompanying 
any disease may attend gestation. This is a sad 
reflection upon our enlightened civilization Were 
it not for this, Tokology would have no special mis- 



40 DISEASES OF PREGNANCY. 

sion. The facts now are that with most American 
women the 280 days of pregnancy are days of disease 
and suffering. The inconvenience, the discomfort 
and the pains attendant upon this condition, together 
with the dread of the final throes of travail, trans- 
form this period, which should be one of hope, of 
cheerfulness, of exalted pleasure, into days of suffer- 
ing, wretchedness, and direful forebodings. It is one 
long night-mare, and child-bearing is looked upon 
as a curse and not a blessing. Motherhood is robbed 
of its divinest joys. 

Dr. Cowan says: "The period of pregnancy should 
be one of increased health, rather than increased 
disorders. The mother who has hitherto led a true 
life, will, during this period, experience an exhilara- 
tion of spirits, a redundancy of health and cheerful- 
ness of mind that is not to be enjoyed at any other 
time." Alas! how few have this experience. 

Ordinarily pregnancy is classed both by physicians 
and women among the diseases. Physical sufferings 
and mental agonies are the common accompaniments 
of the condition. Murderous intent fills the mother's 
heart, and the fearful crime of feticide is daily com- 
mitted. 

Do physicians offer any relief for this state of 
things.? It is a lamentable fact that most do not. 
In one of my conversational lectures a lady testified 
that for seven months before her child was born she 
never knew one hour's relief from nausea — that she 
was not conscious of retaining any nourishment 
upon her stomach, and that no day elapsed without 
vomiting blood. No words can describe her suffer- 
ings through all those dreadful weeks, even up to 



NO HELP FROM DOCTORS. 41 

the hour of delivery. She consulted three different 
physicians, and each one told her nothing could be 
done except to wait for "nature's relief." She went 
home in despair and suffered to the end. When she 
heard the theories I teach, with suppressed emotion 
she exclaimed: "Thank God for the hope you give. 
To my dying day I shall use my feeble voice to pro- 
mulgate these truths, that others may not grope in 
the valley as I have done." 

Yes, women can be saved much suffering even 
during pregnancy. If they study this work intelli- 
gently, practicing the precepts therein given, they will 
ever be thankful for the light and hope obtained. 



CHAPTER IV. 



DISEASES OF PREGNANCY— INDIGESTION- 
NAUSEA, ETC. 

The most common ailments of pregnancy are dys- 
pepsia, nausea, vomiting, constipation, headache, 
heartburn, flatulence, salivation, diarrhoea, piles, 
greedy appetite, loss of appetite, longings, neuralgia, 
toothache, cramps, swellings of the extremities, pain 
in the side, insomnia, drowsiness, palpitation of the 
heart, leucorrhcea, pruritus, etc. 

Indigestion or dyspepsia is the most frequent 
complaint afflicting the human family. It is at the 
foundation of almost every other disease, many of 
the above symptoms of pregnancy being attendant 
upon and caused by it. Men and women in every 
station of life are more or less subject to it; few are 
entirely exempt. "A good digestion turneth all to 
health." Indigestion is usually attributed entirely to 
a failure of the stomach to perform its functions. The 
term is also applied to a defect in any of the assimi- 
lative operations throughout the digestive tract. 
The limits of this work will not permit a dissertation 
upon these processes and. their abnormal conditions. 

In passing, however, let me say while there are 
many causes of dyspepsia, there is no one more 
potent than the common attempt to nourish the 
body from food which cannot be digested in the 

(42) 



DYSPEPSIA. 43 

stomach. The principal articles upon which the acid 
gastric juice has no effect are starch and fats. They 
can be rendered soluble in alkaline fluids only, which 
are the saliva, pancreatic juice and the bile. By par- 
taking of the starch and fats to excess, the stomach 
is overtaxed in expelling them, besides which the 
body fails to get elements of nutrition in proper 
proportions from them. 

The natural food of the infant contains no starch, 
the carbonates of milk being sugar and butter. Usu- 
ally the first solid food given to a child contains little 
else but starch, such as bread from white flour, and 
potatoes, rendered more indigestible by the addition 
of butter and rich gravies. These are lacking in 
nitrogenous and saline products, consequently the 
muscles, bones and nerves may not be nourished. 

A substitution of the products of the entire wheat, 
barley, oats and other grains would obviate this diffi- 
culty, and lessen the frightful mortality of children. 
Dr. Bellows says: "So perfectly ignorant are people 
generally of the laws of nature that they give their 
pigs the food which their children need to develop 
muscle and brain, and give their children what their 
pigs need to develop fat. For examiple, the farmer 
separates from milk the muscle-making and brain- 
feeding nitrates and phosphates, and gives them to 
his pigs in the form of buttermilk, while the fatten- 
ing carbonates he gives to his children in butter. 
He sifts out the bran and outer crust from the wheat, 
which contains the nitrates and phosphates, and gives 
them also to his pigs and cattle, while the fine flour 
containing little else than heating carbonates, he 
gives to his children. Cheese, which contains the 



44 MORNING SICKNESS. 

concentrated nutriment of milk, is seldom seen on 
our tables, while butter, which contains not a particle 
of food for brain or muscle, is on every table at all 
times of day." 

Cheese, when digested, furnishes more muscle- 
feeding properties than any other food, and hence is 
desirable for working men, and all people engaged 
in out-door pursuits, but should be taken as food, 
not as s. relish only. 

The elements digested in the stomach are fibrine 
(its type found in lean meat), albumen, casein, gluten 
of the grains, and the nitrogenous principles of fruits 
and vegetables. 

These are the elements that build up the muscles, 
while the carbonaceous elements, such as sugar, 
starch and fats, by combination with oxygen, furnish 
animal heat. Too much of the latter tend to pro- 
duce inflammatory conditions, and should be par- 
taken of moderately by all people who do not lead 
an active out-door life. 

The pregnant woman, however, is especially liable 
to suffer from the multiform miseries of dyspepsia. 
Her nervous organization is peculiarly sensitive at 
this time. Many symptoms are also caused by reflex 
action from the gravid uterus upon the sympathetic 
ganglia which control the alimentary processes. 

Morning sickness. — Nausea, with or without 
vomiting, occurs so frequently in pregnancy that 
most women think it a natural accompaniment of 
their condition, relying upon it as a diagnostic symp- 
tom. It may begin the day following conception, but 
usually appears from the sixth to the eighth week. 
It is unlike nausea which accompanies biliousness, 



BILIOUSNESS. 45 

fevers, the effect of drugs, or even sea-sickness. It 
is a nausea that one feels from the crown of the head 
to the soles of the feet; one is *'sick to the stomach" 
all over. 

Asking the cause of this, ninety-nine out of a hun- 
dred aver they believe it to be natural, and more than 
all, not to be avoided. Besides, the grandmothei' of 
the neighborhood has told them that on account of 
this, the child will be more healthy, and the delivery 
easier. Facts do not bear her out in either assertion. 

The 7'eal causes are to be sought in the violation of 
physical laws, in dress, diet, exercise, etc. The con- 
ditions are, first, an irritation in the womb caused by 
some existing derangement, which by sympathetic 
or reflex action is communicated to the stomiach, and 
second, that state commonly called biliousness. 

The whole body is supplied with nerves distribu- 
ted from the brain and spinal column. Besides these, 
ganglia of sympathetic nerves communicate with all 
nerves and with each other, being so interlaced that 
almost every part of the body is in communication 
with every other part. It is really a complete system 
of telegraphy. Both the uterus and stomach are 
remarkable in their supply of nerves, and any dis- 
turbance in the former is instantly conveyed to 
the latter. 

It is not unusual that an inflammation or displace- 
ment of the womb gives no local symptoms — but by 
reflex action there are headaches, indigestion, neu- 
ralgia, and various ailments. So, of the gravid 
uterus, if from any existing local disease or any 
cause in the system, it does not take kindly to its 
new function, and derangement in the organ ensues, 



46 VARIOUS OPINIONS. 

instead of causing local pain and distress it will be 
communicated to other organs, most frequently to 
the stomach, producing nausea, vomiting, as well as 
often acute suffering. 

What is biliousncssf Ladies, you know the condi- 
tion to which you apply this term. Frequent head- 
aches, aversion to food, aching of the bones, languid, 
sleepy and tired feeling. You get up in the morning 
weary, cross, irritable, out of sorts with everybody, 
and everybody retaliates by being out of sorts with 
you. What has happened in the human organism.^ 
What do you understand by biliousness? Listen to 
the answers. One says, "It is an overflow of bile," 
others, "Too much bile," "The liver don't act," "The 
bile has reverted back to the blood," "The bile is 
secreted by the stomach," "Too high living," etc. 

Dr. Dio Lewis says: "Biliousness is piggishness." 
My habit has been to define it simply as overfeeding. 
At least, the elements of the bile are in the blood 
in excess of the power of the liver to eliminate them. 
This may be caused by either inaction of the organ 
itself, or superabundance of the materials from which 
the bile is made. Being thus retained the system is 
burdened, or to use a homely but expressive phrase, 
is clogged. To produce this, food may be too great 
in quantity, or too rich in quality. Especially is it 
caused by the excessive use of fats and sweets. 
How does this biliousness produce nausea in the 
pregnant woman, and why does it show itself in this 
way, when she was comparatively well previous to 
this condition.? 

In the new process of gestation the whole system 
is roused to action, and nature makes an ^ftort to 



MANY CAUSES OF NAUSEA. 47 

relieve the organs of all foreign or bilious matter. 
Her first means to produce this result is by nausea 
and vomiting. Many women have an attack of 
bilious fever, more or less severe, in the first months 
of pregnancy. 

Three causes may induce this state of the system: 
food which is too nutritive or too abundant; lack of 
exercise conducive to normal action in the assimila- 
tive organs; and clothing that in any way restricts 
this action. At any time, the bands and corsets so 
universally comprising a part of woman's dress are 
injurious, because they restrict the action of the liver 
and other organs, but they are doubly deleterious 
when there, is a natural increase in size. The direct 
pressure of the viscera upon the uterus will also 
produce irritation in that organ. 

I was spending a few days with an old friend who 
was four mionths advanced in pregnancy. She had 
had no unpleasant symptoms. One day as we were 
on the street walking, she was suddenly seized with 
vomiting. Trying to investigate the cause, I asked 
her if she wore the dress she was accustomed to. 
"No," she said; "I have not had this on for months, 
and it is too tight." She loosened it under her 
cloak, when the symptom disappeared. 

In the last* months of pregnancy, vomiting is often 
caused by pressure of the enlarged uterus upon the 
stomach. This cannot occur where the natural figure 
has always been unquestionably preserved. 

One potent cause of morning sickness is the habit 
of entering upon the sexual relation frequently dur- 
ing gestation. By this means a hyperaemia in the 
reproductive organs as well as exhaustion of the 



48 ENEMAS— THEIR USES. 

nerve supply is produced. By reflex action nausea 
is the result. Incalculable benefits would be derived 
if married people imitated the lessons of lower ani- 
mals in this matter — thereby conserving all forces 
for the benfit of offspring. 

Treatment for morning sickness.— If inflam- 
mation or ulceration of the uterus is chronic, one can 
not expect to overcome the nausea entirely in a short 
time (Chap. XXI.) 

In the case of biliousness, a plain, light diet 
with plenty of acid fruits, avoiding fats and szveets, 
will ameliorate if not remove it. Don't force the 
appetite. Let hunger demand food. In the morn- 
ing the sensitiveness of the stomach may be relieved 
by taking before rising a cup of hot water, hot milk, 
hot lemonade, rice or barley water, selecting accord- 
ing to preference. For this purpose many find coffee 
made from browned vvdieat or corn the best drink. 
Depend for a time upon liquid food that can be 
taken up by absorbents. 

The juice of lemons and other acid fruits is usu- 
ally grateful, and assists in assimilating any excess in 
nutriment. These may be diluted according to taste. 
With many, an Qgg lemonade proves relishing an i 
acceptable. 

In biliousness, with or without nausea, hot 
fomentations in the region of the stomach and liver, 
for an hour once or twice a day, followed by tepid 
bathing and hand friction will be found invaluable. 

Warm or hot enemas are exceedingly beneficial. 
In order to be effectual, follow minutely these direc- 
tions. Place in a Fountain Syringe two or three 
quarts of soft water as warm as can be taken. A 



DO NOT FORCE THE APPETITE. 49 

tablespoon of salt will make it more effective. Sus- 
pend the reservoir as high as the hose will allow. 
Lie upon the right side with knees flexed. Intro- 
duce the long rectal tube, or what is better for many, 
the vaginal tube far enough in the rectum to pass the 
internal sphincter muscle. It ought to enter three 
or four inches. Let the water pass into the bowels 
slowly, having them manipulated upward by an 
attendant, especially making passes up the right side. 

This causes the water to pass through the ileo- 
csecal valve from the large to the small intestines. 
Once in the latter, it is taken up by the capillaries of 
the portal vein, and more or less of it conveyed to 
the liver. This stimulates a secretion of bile and it 
is not unusual for five or six free evacuations to 
follow. It is quite as effectual as an active purgative 
without any poisonous results of the drug. This 
enema should be retained from twenty minutes to 
half an hour. It is also much more efficacious when 
preceded by the use of a hot fomentation over the 
liver. This injection is an exceedingly valuable 
remedial agent both in acute and chronic difficulties. 
By its use in sick hadache, bilious colic, congestions 
in the stomach or abdominal viscera, the physician's 
visit and fee will often be saved. 

The exercises recommended in Chap. V, for con- 
stipation, are invaluable for biliousness. 

Before closing this chapter, let me repeat and em- 
phasize, ''Do 7iot force tJie appetiteT Food which 
neither relishes nor digests will do more harm than 
good. Tradition and prejudice have all conspired to 
so engrave in your being that you must not only eat, 
but stuffs because you are eating for two, that both 



50 EXTRA NUTRIMENT. 

you and your friends think food must be taken at all 
hazards. So, what is your custom? You rise in the 
morning sick and disgusted. The very smell of food 
is intolerable. Still you sit at the table instead of 
getting away from it, and eat probably beefsteak and 
hot bread, washed down by a cup of coffee. Of 
course you must take what is the most nourishing! 
These are scarcely swallowed until you have proofs 
that so much provision is wasted. 

By nine o'clock you make another attempt. You 
go to the pantry, find some cold chicken, a piece of 
lemon pie, and a pickle. But no, the stomach refuses 
these. At eleven o'clock a confidential friend calls. 
She commiserates you, and knows that both you and 
the fetus w^ill starve. She goes to her own larder, 
brings you a piece of pound cake, some custard and 
jelly; possibly a piece of mince pie. Do these share 
the same fate.^ Perhaps not. Her cheery laugh and 
neighborly sympathy, and the more propitious time 
of day, make it possible for this to be retained. But 
pause, my friend. Has the blood received the best 
nutriment for building a healthy organization for 
yourself or child.-* 

Very little, if any extra food is essential to nourish 
the fetus, especially the first few weeks of pregnancy. 
The total average increase of weight is less than one- 
half an ounce a day, and one-fourth of this would be 
an approximate estimate for the first three months. 
It can readily be seen that simply the suppression of 
the menses would give nearly, if not quite, all the 
extra nutriment for the first few weeks, at least. Ap- 
propriate food, and the proper conditions for assimila- 
tion are far more important than increase in quantity 



CHAPTER V. 



Diseases of Pregnancy. — Constipation. 

Constipation of the bowels is not only a fre- 
quent attendant upon pregnancy, but is a common 
ailment of both men and women. From year to year 
this symptom is on the increase, until fully nine- 
tenths of the American women and one-half of the 
men are afflicted with it. 

Every person should have a free, soluble, satisfac- 
tory evacuation of the bowels daily. In pregnancy 
especially, not for one day should constipation be 
allowed. 

Constipation is usually the first notice of bodily 
derangement, and may be the precursor of a chronic 
state of ill health. The approach, too, of this affec- 
tion may be insidious, existing when the subject is 
not aware of it. The evacuations may be regular, 
yet not sufficiently free and copious to be compati- 
ble with health. 

The slightest torpidity of the bowels results in 
retention of residual matter, which becomes reab- 
sorbed into the system, acting as a foreign and poi- 
sonous substance. Other organs of elimination must, 
on this account, be overtaxed, in the vain attempt to 
overcome the obstruction. 

The urine becomes thick, turbid and highly col- 
ored, if not offensive. The skin emits an offensive 
4 (50 



52 RESULTS OF CONSTIPATION. 

odor and sooner or later becomes dry and scaly. The 
surface, from obstruction of the pores and venous 
capillaries, is alternately hot and cold, making the 
person sensitive to drafts and changes in temperature. 
The lungs must do double duty and the breath ig^ 
loaded with offensive exhalations. Here is the be- 
ginning of most cases of catarrh, bronchitis and 
phthisis. Indeed, there is no disease of the human 
organism which may not be traced to constipation. 

What are the principal causes of constipation.? 

Mainly sedentary habits, errors in diet, overtaxed 
brains, the use of cathartics, and in women errors 
ifi dress. 

Many persons, even some authors upon the subject, 
consider that constipation is the result of torpidity of 
the liver only, causing a lack of bile furnished for 
diluent purposes. While this is frequently the case, 
still there may be a diminution in the pancreatic 
juice as well as in the secretions peculiar to the intes- 
tines, causing a lack of moisture in the excrement. 

There may, too, be lack of bulk in the residual mat- 
ter to be acted upon by the fluids and impelled by 
the muscular coats of the intestines; which, again in 
their turn may want power to perform their peculiar 
function. In a sedejttary life the weakness of these 
muscles is enhanced and respiratory power is lacking. 
All processes of digestion depend upon deep breath- 
ing, which stimulates action in the abdominal viscera. 
Any exercise that tones or develops the involuntary 
muscles of breathing is an incalculable adjuvant to all 
the functions of the body. The person of sedentary 
habits not only loses the advantage of exercise, but is 
usually engaged in some occupation that gives great 



CAUSES OF CONSTIPATION. 53 

strain upon the nervous organization. This takes 
away the nerve stimulant so essential to assimilative 
processes. Dr. James H. Jackson, in his admirable 
treatise upon constipation, in speaking of the effects 
of occupation, says: 

" It is not the man or woman who lives regularly, 
eats temperately, and exercises the brain moderately, 
or even severely, if the habits are correct, and suffi- 
cient out-door air and exercise are had to oxygenize 
the blood and keep up muscular tone; it is not the 
muscle-worker, the agriculturist, the mechanic, the 
machinist; it is not the maid of all work, as a general 
thing. It is the brain-worker — the lawyer, merchant, 
doctor, banker, minister, teacher; it is the man who 
sits in his office or works in his store or shop in poor 
air and light, having little or no muscular exercise, 
who constantly thinks, is anxious, worried, careworn, 
a victim of the intense competition and excitement 
which modern business life imposes; it is the wife and 
mother who lives in the house all day, who is contin- 
ually worried by household cares and anxieties, who 
is socially taxed and excited; it is she who idles away 
her time, passing it in in-door indolence, who dresses 
unphysiologically, eats badly, feeds upon sensational 
literature, and lives under the reign of her emotional 
and passional nature; it is the poor factory girl or 
seamstress, plodding away through weary days, in 
stifling air and on starvation diet, as of baker's bread 
and tea, debarred from all out-door recreation; or the 
school teacher who barely earns her living, though 
she works brain and nerves, almost daily, to the point 
of exhaustion. In these classes, subject to unphysio- 
logical habits of work, want of recreation, unfavorable 



54 IMPROPER FOOD. 

surroundings, irregularity in eating, sleeping, etc. — 
more from lack of knowledge than from necessity — 
are found the victims." 

Improper food, prominent in the causes of con- 
stipation, poisons rather than nourishes the body, 
inducing congestion of the alimentary canal by the 
irritation set up. 

Highly seasoned food and stimulating drinks excite 
extra secretions when first taken, but the reaction 
or secondary effect of the overstrain is torpor, and 
consequently absence of secretion. Notably, too, we 
have the same effect from aperient drugs. Even the 
too free and constant use of salt causes a dryness of 
the intestinal canal, probably from the fact of its 
stimulating power. Nature daily attests this state- 
ment by the demand for drink after partaking of 
salted meats, fish, etc. 

Food lacking in elements of nerve nutrition proves 
constipating; foods that are too concentrated are 
usually those that are highly carbonaceous, notably 
fats and sweets^ as well as those abounding in starch. 
In these the insufificient residue fails to furnish the 
needed volume to fecal matter. The absence of 
water, too, furnished by vegetables and fruits, causes 
a dryness of the contents of the intestinal canal, 
which of itself is an impediment to their onward 
passage through the bowels. 

Of these carbonaceous foods, pastry, cakes, hot 
bread and white flour bread stand prominent. As 
elsewhere stated, hot breads, starch, and all of the 
fats do not digest in the acid fluid of the stomach. 
Passing into the duodenum the alkaline bile and 
pancreatic juice emulsify and liquify them- If the 



WHITE FLOUR AND HOT BREAD. 55 

quantity of these substances taken be too great there 
will be much the same result as the soap-maker gets 
when he puts in his kettle too much fat for his lye. 
The substances are not dissolved, and can not be 
taken up by the villi of the intestines for nutrition, 
and a concentrated mass lacking residuum passes 
into the excrement. 

The prevalent, if not foolish fashion of using only 
bolted or white flour for bread, a flour abounding in 
starch and lacking in gluten, is largely the cause of 
indigestion and constipation. The gluten lies next 
the bran and contains the nitrates and phosphates 
which digest in the stomach and feed muscles, brain 
and nerves, while the bran itself furnishes residuum 
for fecal matter. 

Another factor especially answerable for the recent 
increase of constipation, is the prevalent use of bak- 
ing powder. This makes a beautiful, light, friable 
and delicious bread, requiring but little time or care 
in its preparation. If adulterated with alum, astrin- 
gent effects follow. Even in a pure powder, we have 
an acid and an alkali, which, after chemical union has 
taken place, leaves a residual salt that has a depres- 
sing influence upon the nervous system. A sensitive 
person not accustomed to the use of bread from yeast 
powder, even if eaten cold, will in a few hours feel 
depressing influences, upon both mind and body. 

Dr. Beaumont, who had the privilege of watching 
the process of digestion in the stomach of Alexis St. 
Martin, tells us that "hot bread does not dissolve in 
the fluids of the stomach." This is owing to the 
presence of carbonic acid gas in the bread, and to the 
fact that it is not friable, consequently becoming an 



56 DRESS AND CONSTIPATION. 

insoluble, doughy mass that can not be permeated 
by the gastric fluid. Of course it passes in this state 
into the intestines, and much of it must become waste 
material. It is estimated that 8,000,000 lbs. of bak- 
ing powder is used annually in the United States 
alone. What wonder is it that dyspepsia and con- 
stipation are on the increase! 

Fat meats, dried and salted meats, are constipating. 
Fresh poultry has a like effect. There are few per- 
sons who do not remember the old time practice of 
arresting the action of a cathartic drug by the use of 
a chicken broth. 

Eggs and milk are constipating to many. The lat- 
ter is especially so if boiled or if the two articles are 
combined in custards, puddings, etc. Among the 
vegetables, beans (dried) are constipating. This, 
however, is largely the result of the mode of prepa- 
ration. They may not be sufficiently cooked, and 
the fat incorporated with them renders them indi- 
gestible. Cheese is constipating to many, also choc- 
olate and cocoa. Of the fruits, blackberries and 
raspberries are constipating, especially if the seeds 
are taken. More than any other articles of diet, 
these induce and agravate hemorrhoids. 

Any of the above mentioned foods may not prove 
constipating when eaten with a mixed diet. 

The ERRORS in dress conducive to torpid bowels, 
are lack of covering to the extremities, and excess of 
clothing in the abdominal region, thus favoring con- 
gestion of the vital organs. Garments that are tight 
and improperly supported restrict respiration, in- 
fringe upon all the digestive organs, and impede the 
circulation. 



CATHARTIC DRUGS. 57 

When women are freed from the trammels of dress, 
they will have taken a long stride toward freedom 
from invalidism. Is it Utopian to hope that it will 
also aid in giving them both political and social 
freedom? 

A very common means taken to overcome consti- 
pation only increases it and renders it less amenable 
to common sense treatment, and that is the prevalent 
use of cathartic drugs. ''They all depend for effect 
upon a certain quality they possess of exciting secre- 
tion and peristaltic activity. Of course they do this 
through the nervous system, few if any of them being 
mechanical in their action, but accomplishing their 
results by stimulating the nervous system to extra 
effort. In doing this, they necessarily exhaust the 
source of supply; for the tendency of all stimulation 
is to induce exhaustion as the consequence of un- 
natural exhibitions of nervous force. Persons using 
these so-called remedies- -laxatives, cathartics, and 
purgatives — thus securing temporarily the movement 
of the bowels, find that after their use it is more 
difficult to secure natural passages, and that the dose 
must be increased to produce any effect. Meantime 
the continued use of these drugs not only exhausts 
nervous force, but often creates inflammation of 
mucous surfaces, disturbing digestion, and poisoning 
the blood." This is more especially true of the 
saline cathartics. 

Such cases are much more rationally, comfortably 
and effectively treated by the use of enemas. 
(Chap. IV). 

Pregnancy aggravates or causes constipation, by 
reflex nervous action from an irritable uterus or 



58 TREATMENT OF CONSTIPATION. 

mechanically by pressure of fetus upon the colon or 
rectum. 

Other causes of this difficulty will be thought of — 
such as excessive exercise, violent emotions, as anger, 
grief, etc., wounds in any part of the body, irregu- 
larity in meals, late suppers, eating between meals, 
etc., etc. Practically it is not essential to enter into 
details in regard to them. No matter what the 
cause, all will experience benefit in adhering to the 
following hints upon the 

Treatment of constipation. — First ascertain 
the cause or causes, and remove them. One might 
as well expect to cure a burn, while pouring scalding 
water upon it, as to cure torpid bowels if the cause 
remains. Every person should establish the habit of 

Regularity in securing evacuations. — The 
nervous system acts under the law of periodicity to 
a large degree in controlling the functional operations 
of the body. This tendency should not only be gen- 
erally heeded, but utilized in regulating the bowels. 
A little intelligent care will generally secure a call 
for defecation at a specified time, which may be 
established to suit convenience, and which once 
established, should not be allowed to pass, except for 
the most urgent reasons. 

The number of evacuations per day will vary with 
the quality and amount of food consumed, and the 
vocation and temperament of the person. If two 
evacuations each day is the rule, then one should be 
after breakfast and the second shortly before the 
regular retiring hour for the night. If only one 
evacuation each day is the habit of the person, then 
if convenient, let it be the hour before retiring, unless 



REGULAR HABITS. 59 

a satisfactory habit is already fixed at some other 
hour. There are few things that promote good, 
sound, refreshing sleep, like a thorough emptying of 
the bowels before going to bed. 

If one ^o\Ad. prevent constipation and its evils, this 
practice should be heeded; and if one would cure 
constipation, it should be enforced in connection with 
any other necessary measures, as follows: "Go. to the 
closet at the appointed hour, sit for a few minutes, 
gently straining to effect a passage. The practice 
of forcing an evacuation by severe muscular effort is 
all wrong, and should never be indulged. Far better 
take an enema of water if necessary. The practice 
of sitting long at stool is also to be condemned. The 
bowels maybe made lazy in this way, and it leads to 
waste of time, and to hemorrhoids. If not success- 
ful, go till next day at the stated hour if you com- 
fortably can; then try again, and if you do not 
succeed, take an enema of water sufficient to produce 
the desired movement. The next day repeat this 
effort at the given time, and so continue." 

I am more and more convinced that all straining 
should be avoided. When the bowels do not move 
readily, wait a few moments passively for nature s 
call, avoiding all anxiety in the matter. Should this 
method fail, then, by will power, press the sphincter 
muscles back by short, quick, and repeated move- 
ments. This will lubricate the rectum, force back 
the feces, and shortly after result in a satisfactory 
discharge of the bowels. A little practice will bring 
these muscles under complete control, and by this 
means a habit of constipation may be cured. This 
same course is also found very beneficial for piles. 



60 SIMPLE MEASURES. 

Other simple measures will overcome constipation, 
especially if of recent origin or of mild form. Drink- 
ing one or two glasses of cold soft water before 
breakfast is often sufficient. Some eat ice for the 
same purpose. These are diluents, besides acting 
upon the nerves producing contractile effects of the 
muscular coats of the digestive tract. 

With others, eating a raw apple or orange before 
breakfast is sufficient. Drinking a glass of water, 
into which a tablespoonful of bran has been stirred, 
is very efficacious for some. A lady in Iowa had had 
very obstinate constipation for years. Allopathic 
and homeopathic remedies had no effect. Exercise 
and the strictest hygienic living seemed equally of 
no avail. If, however, before eating her breakfast, 
she would eat half a cup of bran stirred in water cr 
milk, the desired result would be obtained. Thfs 
affords residuum for the alimentary canal, as well as 
mechanical stimulus to the mucous coat. 

In long standing, obstinate cases, these simple 
remedies will not suffice. There must be an entire 
and radical change in diet as well as other rational 
measures used to overcome the conditions. 

Our native wheat meets the need for this change, 
perhaps more fully than any other food, provided 
the whole of the grain is used. Such preparations of 
it may be found in varied and attractive forms, first 
among which, because almost everywhere procurable 
and easily prepared, is graham flour. Complaints 
are sometimes made against this excellent and nour- 
ishing food, that it is too harsh for delicate stomachs. 

The complaint should rather be made against care- 
less and ignorant millers, who put upon the market 



ENTIRE WHEAT FLOUR. 6l 

an article ground from their lowest grade of wheat, 
often, too, without proper cleaning. When the best 
wheat is properly scoured and prepared by 'a skillful 
miller, very few will find difficulty in its digestion. 
Rolled or cracked wheat, wheatlet, and flour of the 
entire wheat, are very useful in establishing a cor- 
rect habit. 

In these the gluten which lies next the bran is 
preserved — this contains the nitrates that feed mus- 
cular tissues and the mineral product that nourishes 
and sustains the nervous system. For constipation, 
these foods are the natural remedy and preventive, 
as they give the ganglionic nerve centers nutriment, 
and hence enable them to preside over the functions 
of digestion. 

Entire Wheat Flour, Franklin Mill Co., Lockport, 
N. Y.-, fulfills these conditions, and is one of the 
noblest additions to the foods of the world. The 
grain is denuded of the outside silicious bark and 
then ground into a fine flour, and all the elements 
of the grain are preserved. 

Wheat, more than any other article of food, fur- 
nishes all the elements and in the right proportion 
required to nourish the body. In bolting the flour 
to make fine white flour, four-fifths of the gluten, the 
very most nutritious part of the grain, is taken out 
to be fed to cows and hogs. 

Dr. Ephraim Cutter, of Harvard, in an able illus- 
trated article on ''Cereal Foods" in the American 
Medical Weekly^ says: "The gluten of cereal foods is 
their nitrogenized element, the element on which 
depends their life-sustaining value, and this element 
is, in the white 2.rvA foolishly fashionable flour ^ almost 



62 BEST FOOD FOR CHILDREN. 

entirely removed, while the starch, the inferior ele- 
ment, is left behind and constitutes the entire bulk 
and inferior nutriment of such flours. To use flour 
from which the gluten (in the bran) has been re- 
moved, is almost a'iminal. That it is foolish and use- 
less needs no further demonstration. In sickness, and 
in the sickness of infants especially, starch is highly in- 
jurious, while gluten is life-giving and restorative." 

In the valuable article from which the above 
extract is taken, microscopical examination is given 
of forty-four kinds of flour and health foods. Of the 
Franklin Mill Co. flour he says: "The field is filled 
with gluten cells. Repeated examinations prove this 
to be the best flour examined." One can readily see, 
being more nutritious, in point of economy, even, this 
flour is invaluable. It is preferable for making any- 
thing that is ordinarily made from white flour; 
makes better pie crust, better cake, and griddle- 
cakes, and for toast, pudding and gems, has no com- 
parison with other flour. Still further, what will 
with many be considered the best argument for its 
use, the taste of this flour is sweeter and more 
"nutty." Once accustomed to the "Flour of the 
Entire Wheat," white flour seems tasteless and 
insipid, and none will return to its use from choice. 
Hundreds of cases within my knowledge attest to 
this fact. 

The effect of this food in alleviating and curing 
constipation is something of which all should know. 
A family at one time came to live near me in which 
was a baby boy about sixteen months of age. I was 
attracted by his pretty ways, but saw that he was 
far from well, his skin being white and waxy, his 



INTERESTING EVIDENCE. 63 

flesh pui^y. I said to the mother, ''Your little boy 
is not well." 

"Do you think so?" she answered in surprise. 
"Everybody thinks he looks so well." 

"He certainly is not well with that appearance of 
his skin. What is the matter.'*" 

"Why, nothing at all, except that he is dreadfully 
constipated, and has been for months. His bowels 
do not move oftener than once in two or three days, 
and then he suffers terribly, screaming and crying 
piteously. His rectum often protrudes, and blood 
comes with the passage." 

"Poor little fellow. That will never do. What 
do you feed him.^" "Mostly bread and milk." 

"White bread.^" "Yes, baker's bread." 

"Did you ever use bread of the entire wheat 
fiour.?" 

She had never heard of it but was willing to try 
anything that might give relief. I sent her a nice 
loaf, and not only the baby but all the family enjoyed 
it. The mother desired to learn how to make the 
bread, and Wally soon made his chief living off it, 
and was in a short time, without the use of any other 
means, entirely cured of his distressing ailment. 
After that, a sweeter, more joyous baby I never saw, 
hearty and happy; roses supplanting lilies on his 
cheeks, his flesh becoming firm and hard, and his 
fretful, nervous temper growing sweet and even. 
The happy mother could not sufficiently attest her 
gratitude, saying many times that she should always 
be glad that she moved into our neighborhood, sim- 
ply on account of having learned of this one useful 
article of diet. 



64 WHEATLET AND ROLLED WHEAT. 

Wheatlet, a new preparation which is manufac- 
tured by the Franklin Mill Co., of Lockport, N. Y., 
meets a demand for a food adapted to the relief of 
constipation. It is equally good for the use of dys- 
peptics and those who are nervously debilitated. It 
is rich in the nitrogenous and phosphatic elements of 
the wheat, and being highly nourishing, strengthens 
the nerve system which presides over the organs of 
digestion. For some stomachs in a diseased and 
highly sensitive state, it is preferable to cracked 
wheat or rolled oats, being more delicate than either. 
It is invaluable for children, especially when they 
are first weaned. 

Cracked or rolled wheat stands with or above 
the entire wheat flour in its value to overcome tor- 
pid bowels. Often by making no other change in 
diet, but adding this one article properly cooked, 
constipation will be entirely removed. I have been 
recommending it for thirty years, with uniformly 
satisfactory results. In a family with whom I staid 
while lecturing in Southern Illinois, was a bright boy 
three years of age. The next morning after my arri- 
val, the mother entered my room, her face the picture 
of despair. 

**Can you, doctor, tell me anything I can do for 
Charlie? For nearly twelve months he has not had 
a natural passage. Strong cathartics have ceased to 
have any effect, and he has a terror of enemas." 

I noticed the night previous that the child ate a 
late supper, consisting entirely of cold mutton and 
sweet cake. I wondered then if it was possible he. 
could feed on such food and be well. I said to her, 
''Have you tried diet?" 



FEAST ON FRUITS FREELY. 65 

''Only to give him figs, and these he dislikes. I 
don't know what to give him." 

Alas, how many mothers do not know! 

*'Do you not ever use graham bread.'*" 

'•None of us like it." 

"Have you ever given him cracked wheat.-*" 

"I never heard of it." 

"Send and get a package. I will show you how 
to cook it, and we will lunch upon it." 

Charlie ate of it, not freely, for his lunch and sup- 
per. The following day he had two r.atural, easy 
evacuations. I counseled her to give him less meat 
and cake, have him eat the wheat at least once a day, 
and partake of more fruit. Months afterward she 
reported no return of the constipation. Oftentimes 
it is the simplest things that are the most effectual. 

Feast on fruits! Would that this could be a 
motto upon the wall of every dining room in the 
land! Next to the whole of the wheat, fruit is the 
best laxative to the bowels. 

Dr. Jackson says: 'T advise the use of fruit in the 
morning if taken only once a day; but I heartily ap- 
prove of its forming a part of every meal, though I 
strongly condemn the indulgence in fruit between 
meals." 

I coincide with him, and emphasize by 's^'d.ym'g feast 
on fruit freely ! Don't stint the supply to sauce dishes. 
Use large saucers and not only once full but twice or 
thrice full at every meal. Acid fruits are preferable. 
They are the staple, and properly prepared, one 
never tires of them. The acid of the fruit is largely 
oxygen, and uniting with the carbon of other food, 
in this way assists in digestion. 



66 FEAST ON FRUITS FREELY. 

For constipation some of the dried fruits well 
cooked are valuable. Of these peaches, plums, 
prunes, apricots, etc., that are rich in hydrocyanic 
acid, are preferable. Get the best, stew several hours. 
Never prepare a meal without it. Do not say it is 
expensive, and you cannot afford it. Take half the 
money you put in meat and lard, and purchase fruit. 
You will get interest and principal returned in 
health for yourself, in rosy, buoyant children, and 
noticeable absence of doctors' fees. 

Most of the garden vegetables are also valuable. 
Rhubarb, onions, tomatoes, asparagus, green peas, 
squash, cauliflower, green corn, etc, etc., are good, 
and should be well cooked without butter. The fruits 
and vegetables supply water, laxative in its effects 
upon the mucous surfaces. They increase the resid- 
ual matter of the excrement, and supply stimuli for 
peristaltic action. 

Avoid strong tea, especially if steeped a long time. 
Tannic acid is developed, giving an astringent effect. 
Coffee, especially the higher grades, in the occasional 
use, stimulates the bowels to action, but the habit of 
taking strong coffee gives the secondary effect, and 
torpidity is the result. 

It may be a wise provision of nature that the 
poorer and cheaper the coffee, the less deleterious is 
its character. Java and. Mocha may be really poison- 
ous to an individual, while Rio is quite inoffensive, 
Most of the adulterations of coffee are harmless. One 
"feasting on fruits freely" will not feel the need of 
any drink at meals, and in total abstinence great gain 
will be made in overcoming symptoms of indigestion, 



TABLE OF I'OODS. 



67 



LAXATIVE. 

Rolled and cracked wheat. 
Bread, gems, biscuit, griddle 
cakes, crackers and mush 
from flour of the entire wheat, 
and graham flour. 

Granula. 

Bran gruel and jelly. 

Fruit puddings. 

Fruit pies. 

All fresh acid fruits, includ- 
ing tropical fruits, like banan- 
as, oranges, lemons, etc. 

Dried figs. 

French prunes and prunel- 
las, eaten raw. 

Stewed dried fruits, con- 
taining hydrocyanic acid, of 
which peaches, plums and 
prunes are the best. 

New Orleans asses. 

Rhubarb. 

Onions. 

Celery. 

Tomatoes. 

Cabbage, raw. 

Corn. 

Squash. 

Cauliflower. 

Green peas. 

Spinach. 

Beets, etc. 

Liver. 

Oysters. 

Wild game. 



CONSTIPATING 

Hot bread. 

White bread. 

White crackersc 

Black pepper and spices. 

Pastry made of white flour 
and lard. 

Bread, rolls, dumplings, 
etc., made with baking pow- 
ders. 

Cake. 

All custard puddings. 

Salted meats. 

Salted fish. 

Dried meats. 

Dried fish. 

Smoked meats. 

Poultry. 

Cheese. 

Chocolate. 

Cocoa. 

Boiled milk. 

Tea. 

Coffee. 

Coffee made from wheat, 
corn, barley, toast, etc. 

Beans (dried). 

Potatoes. 

Farina. 

Sago. 

Stare 

Tapioca. 

Rice. 

Raspberries. 

Blackberries. 



Lean fresh meats, fresh fish, eggs, raw milk, oat- 
meal, barley, buckwheat, corn meal, and sweet pota- 
toes have no marked action either way, unless in 
exceptional cases. 
5 



68 APPROPRIATE EXERCISE. 

Appropriate and sufficient exercise is next 
in importance to having proper food, in overcoming; 
constipation. General and habitual exercise is 
essential to promote good circulation, a healthy 
nervous tone, complete respiration, and also power 
and elasticity of the muscles. The stomach, liver 
and indeed all the alimentary tract require also local 
exercise in order that a healthy standard may be 
gained and maintained. 

The worm-like or peristaltic action of the intestines 
is produced by the contraction of the muscular coat. 
It is by this action that the contents of the canal are 
carried forward. Is it not plain that if exercise can 
develop the muscles of the arm or leg it can give 
tone and power to these muscles as well.'* Dr. Taylor, 
in "Health by Exercise," says: *Tt is a curious and 
most interesting fact that children and young ani- 
mals, whose desire for motion is inherent, are inclined 
chiefly to those exercises and those positions which 
necessarily affect the abdominal contents. 

*Tt is in such exercises as climbing^ rollings a^awl- 
zngy jumping and p/aying generally tha.t these contents 
are most disturbed. We are convinced that the 
means prescribed by nature will secure healthful de~ 
velopment and power in these most essential parts of 
the body. As if to insure these healthful effects, 
nature has ordained that by respiration, as an efficient 
and constant means, these motions shall be secured 
to the alimentary canal. The abdominal contents 
may be considered as being located between two 
great muscular organs, the diaphragm and abdominal 
walls. These muscles act conjointly and simultane- 
ously and upon all the included parts, causing them 



LONGEVITY AND LUNG POWER. 69 

to play incessantly upon each, and subjecting them 
to a constant and gentle pressure." 

Deep breathmg, using the diaphragm and abdomi- 
nal muscles, of which the majority of women have no 
practical knowledge, gives the most efficient exercise 
to the digestive tract. The A, B, C, of health lessons 
is in deep natural respiration. The lungs must be 
filled to the bottom^ and the involuntary muscles of 
breathing brought into action. The most eminent 
vocal teacher of this country asserts that in breath- 
ing ''the main action should be at the waist and 
below the waist." Animals and children have this 
natural breathing. Men and women lose it from lack 
of exercise, and constrictions of dress. Health, 
strength, longevity and power of endurance depend 
mainly upon lung capacity. 

For constipation, those exercises must be taken 
that develop the diaphragm and other respiratory 
muscles, that strengthen the muscles of the abdomen 
and trunk as well as the muscular tissue of the intes- 
tines themselves, 

SPECIAL EXERCISES FOR CONSTIPATION. 

1. Lying upon the back, with abdomen relaxed, 
have bowels thoroughly kneaded: make rapid, gentle 
movements with balls of the fingers and palm of the 
hands, not the knuckles. 

2. Same position, move diaphragm up and down 
without breathing. This requires a little experience 
and can be aided at first by external pressure of the 
hand, following the motion. This is one of the most 
desirable for the object required, and must not be 



70 EXERCISES FOR CONSTIPATION. 

abandoned because of a few failures. The diaphragm 
can be taught to obey the will. 

3. Reclining on the back on a spring bed; flex the 
knees, inflate the lungs; move hips up and down 
with the springs twenty or thirty times. This can be 
performed by even quite a weak person, and is bene- 
ficial to the strongest. Brings into action moderately 
a great variety of muscles. 

4. Flex the knees and elevate the hips, resting the 
body on shoulders and feet. Move slowly up and 
down ten times. Hold to count ten, and then rest to 
count the same. Lungs with this had better be in- 
flated. No exercise is more valuable for developing 
deep breathing. Sick and well would be benefited 
by taking this execise morning and night. 

5. Stand with toes at angle of 45°, knees together, 
hands crossed upon the back. Bend the knees. The 
body is kept perpendicular and slowly descends until 
sitting upon the heels. Then slowly straightened, 
keeping trunk in same position. Count four With 
each movement, and from four to ten with the rest. 
This is a severe exercise, and needs to be taken cau- 
tiously at first by the invalid. There is no better, 
however, for torpid bowels. 

6. Stand as before. Palms of hands placed over 
lower ribs, fingers forward. Inhale through the nos- 
trils and expand the waist as if to burst the belt. 
Expel the breath slowly and assist it by pressing 
with the palms against the ribs. 

7. Same position; inhale through the nostrils; 
retain, to count twenty; expel through the mouth 
as whispering the syllable Hoo! to a person forty 
feet away. 



EXERCISES FOR CONSTIPATION. /I 

8. Sit on the floor; limbs horizontal and parallel; 
iungs inflated; hands joined over the head; move 
backward and forward slowly as far as possible; rest; 
same position, move sideways. 

9. Horizontal position on back; hands clasped 
over the head; raise both feet and head at same time 
making the body assume a curved shape; hold to 
count ten; repeat this only five or six times at first. 
This is a powerful exercise, affecting the abdominal 
\^iscera and general circulation. 

10. Lie in the horizontal position; hands clasped 
over the head; the head and heels only resting on 
supports, as two stools, while the body is quite free; 
hold in this position from five to ten minutes, accord- 
ing to strength, practicing waist breathing; at first 
one might place the stools nearer together. 

11. Kneel with one leg; place the other forward 
with the foot firm upon the floor; arms parallel, 
stretched upward to the side of the head; move 
backward and forward slowly, while counting four 
to each movement, and for rest; repeat three or four 
times, and change to the other knee. This is a good 
exercise for hips, groin and lower abdomen. 

12. Upon both knees wide apart, hands on hips, 
fingers forward. Move quickly from right to left, 
and back as far as possible. This is a good exercise 
for liver, spleen and muscles of the side. 

Nos. 5, 10, 1 1 and 12 should not be attempted by a 
weak person until the others have been practiced 
at least a month, and then begin with caution. All 
these exercises should be taken in a loose wrapper. 
There must be no restraint upon any part of the 
body. One walking or working need not be de- 



72 SIMPLE CURATIVE MEASURES. 

terred from taking them. They bring into action 
unused muscles, and consequently rest those that 
have been overworked. I knew a lady who did 
much of the heavy labor of a large greenhouse. She 
never retired without performing gymnastics similar 
to the above. She claimed that they rested her by 
the derivative effect, and the sleep that followed was 
more satisfactory. 

Women cannot expect to successfully and per- 
manently overcome constipation, if the organs are 
in any way restricted by dress. Nature's laws are 
inexorable, and the penalty of violation must be 
paid. See Chap. VII. 

Do not resort to drugs, even for temporary relief. 
Almost all aperient medicines act through the nerv- 
ous system, stimulating the secretions to increased 
flow. All stimulation of the nervous system is fol- 
lowed by a corresponding or increased depression. 
In consequence the torpor of- the bowels is worse 
after a few days, instead of better. If people would 
only note real results, instead of seeming ones, very 
little medicine would be taken, at least such as has 
only palliating effects. 

In constipation, until permanent benefits can be 
obtained by the means proposed, if it is necessary to 
have temporary relief, resort to enemas in preference 
to drugs. A small quantity of tepid water will 
usually remove the contents of the rectum. If a 
thorough evacuation is desired, follow directions on 
page 48. 

Retaining a pint of warm water over night has 
proved beneficial in many cases. Very obstinate im- 
paction in the rectum can be relieved by injecting 



PERSISTENCE ESSENTIAL. 73 

from one to two ounces of linseed oil in the rectum, 
and retaining it over night. Use a rubber piston 
child's syringe for this purpose. 

Making one meal of raw grains often proves in- 
valuable in constipation. Many persons are adopt- 
ing for diet, what they call Edenic food. They live 
entirely upon uncooked food, claiming that it gives 
natural nutriment, and overcomes morbific condi- 
tions. For many years I have occasionally recom- 
mended the use of raw grains, rolled oats or wheat, 
for constipation, nervousness, sleeplessness, etc. It 
serves its purpose best by being eaten dry, but may 
be taken with honey, fruit juice or milk. 

Going entirely without supper, or adopting the 
Hvo meal system has proved beneficial in obstinate 
cases where all other means have failed. The fre- 
quency and time of eating is a great matter of habit. 
By constant feeding, one gets himself to crave food 
five or six times a day, while the system can be sat- 
isfactorily nourished upon one meal a day. Brain 
workers especially, will find great advantage in tax- 
ing the alimentary processes less frequently. On de- 
ciding to do without supper, at the usual meal time a 
craving for food can be satisfied by taking a cup of 
hot water, hot lemonade, or some fruit juice. 

Finally, let me urge thoroughness and persistence in 
the means laid down to overcome torpidity of the 
bowels. Do not expect a miracle, but know that by 
giving proper conditions, normal action will surely 
be restored, consequently great advantages gained in 
every direction. Once the functions of the bowels 
lecome perfectly normal, all complaints of the sys- 
tem have a fair chance to cure themselves. 



CHAPTER VI. 



DISEASES OF PREGNANCY. 
Headache — Neuralgia — Heartburn^ etc. 

Headache in pregnancy is caused either by uter- 
ine irritation, by derangement in digestion, or by 
both combined. 

If caused by uterine irritation, there will be burn- 
ing pain in the top of the head or at the base of the 
brain, accompanied by great soreness, which the 
patient describes as a sore pain. This pain, too, is 
constant, and likely to affect both vision and memory. 
It usually increases toward evening, and is relieved 
by lying down. 

For this, take warm sitz baths daily, apply hot fo- 
mentations to back of the head, and keep in a reclin- 
ing position as much as possible. (See Chap. XXI.) 

Sick headache is a severe pain in the forehead 
and through the temples, accompanied by nausea 
and vomiting, often, too, by coldness of the extrem- 
ities and great prostration. The attacks are irregular 
in frequency and duration. The causes are indiges- 
tion, biliousness, constipation, fatigue, anxiety, etc. 

One under ordinary circumstances ought to be 
ashamed to have sick headache. A little common sense 
in the methods of living will do away with the causes. 

Tea-drinking as a habit has much to do in pro- 

(74^ 



TEA AND SICK HEADACHE. 75 

ducing headaches. Tea is stimulating. One ever so 
weary, after drinking a cup of tea, feels as good as 
new, is invigorated, hopeful, chatty, and entertaining. 
The social cup of tea! Has it really restored wasted 
tissues.f* Is it a genuine nerve feeder.-* Or does it 
stimulate native forces to greater action.^ Is it like 
a whip to the fagged horse, spurring it on to more 
toil.-* Very little tea is appropriated to build up 
worn-out tissues. It gives false strength. In the 
reaction headache ensues. It is the penalty that 
follows over-wrought vitality. 

Dr. Gregg's article in the Homeopathic Quarterly on 
tea as a cause of sick headache is worthy of the at- 
tention of those who suffer with this common malady. 
The doctor alleges that this beverage is the cause of 
this disease more than all other causes put together, 
and gives a number of instances where, after leaving 
off its use, persons who had previously been afflicted 
were exempt from further attacks. One evidence the 
doctor gives of the injurious effect of this agent is 
the fact that tea-drinkers are liable to have headaches 
if they omit its use at the regular times of taking it, 
and that the pain ceases on again resuming the cups. 

"This latter, with many other facts contained in 
the article, has often been observed," says the doctor^ 
"not only on myself but on others, for I had in- 
herited the disease from my mother. It had been the 
plague of her life as well as my own We had both 
been not excessive bnt regular tea-drinkers; and 
although she lived to be over eighty years of age, 
she was never exempt from an attack of greater or 
less severity, for more than a few weeks at a time, 
for a period of nearly or quite half a century. 



76 DR. GREGG'S EXPERIENCE. 

"Knowing this fact, and that from my earliest recol- 
lection I had been similarly affected, I was content 
when the pain returned, to relieve it with the appro- 
priate remedies, with little hope or thought of ever 
being able to eradicate it. Some twenty years ago 
I had abandoned the use of coffee and green tea, 
using only the black and Japan. Pork, pastry, spices, 
acids and most kinds of raw fruits were sure, if in- 
dulged in, to bring on an attack of my old trouble; 
and this weakness of the stomach seemed to be grad- 
ually on the increase, besides a train of nervous 
symptoms, such as sleeplessness, palpitation of the 
heart, unsteadiness of the hand when writing, etc., 
etc., giving me no little annoyance. 

"After reading the article referred to, I concluded 
some three months ago, to use no more tea, substitu- 
ting in its stead hot water with a little milk. The 
result for the first week or ten days was much as I 
had anticipated, being, during the whole of that time, 
scarcely ever free from headache. At length the pain 
became lighter and when it did return, was of short 
duration. My nervous symptoms grew less, palpi- 
tation left entirely, my stomach became much 
stronger. I can now eat with impunity many things 
which for years had been sure to disagree. The 
headache now very rarely returns, and never with 
severity; besides, within the past two months my 
weight was increased sixteen pounds." 

For many years I was subject to sick headaches at 
irregular intervals. They would come on from a 
cold, from want of sleep, or under mental strain. 
When I began to travel and lecture I gave up the 
use of butter because T could not always get that 



HEADACHE CAN BE CURED. 77 

which was good. Since that I have never had a 
severe attack of headache. I have recommended 
many others to deny themselves of butter and other 
fats with good results, using honey, fruit juice or 
milk instead. 

With many, potatoes cause sick headaches, espe- 
cially if mashed with a great deal of butter. They 
become soggy, and cannot be penetrated by the 
gastric juice. Some think that they should never 
be eaten at the same meal with acid fruits. 

The very worst sick headaches can be cured by 
temperate living. A delicate lady was subject to 
fearful attacks of sick headache, at least twice a 
month. They would last from twenty-four to forty- 
eight hours. Her sufferings were simply terrible. 
She had dyspepsia, with grave uterine complications. 
She was liable to die in one of these attacks, and 
could not get well at home. By my advice she went 
to a hygienic institute where she could get baths, 
the best diet and proper attention. 

After beginning treatment she never had a severe 
headache. Every attack was warded off, and she 
returned not only thoroughly cured, but a convert 
to the belief that fruits and grains afford the best 
diet for health and longevity. One has not always 
the appliances or the determination (for long sickness 
weakens the will) to carry out a settled and desirable 
course of treatment at home. In such a case, a well 
regulated hygienic institute should be sought. 

For prevention of attacks, the treatment for bilious- 
ness and constipation will be effectual. Rubbing, 
spatting, brushing and combing the head often wards 
off the pain. Large drafts of hot water, or hot 



78 HEARTBURN. 

lemonade, or salt and water may give relief. Put 
hot applications to the feet and fomentations upon 
the stomach. Also take a hot enema of three quarts 
of water and two tablespoons of salt. The latter 
seldom fails to ward off an attack if taken in time. 

The following remedies have proved invaluable: 

Cimicifugay 2d. — Sore, aching pain at base of brain, 
heat in top of head, boring pain in the eyeballs, ach- 
ing in the limbs, restlessness. Six pellets every hour. 

Ignatiay 2d. — Pain in forehead, nausea, fainting, de- 
pression of spirits. Pain relieved by lying down. 
Six pellets every two hours, 

Sanguinaria, jd. — Sick headache, worse from mo- 
tion, noise or light, pain in back of head and running 
upward, dull, heavy pain in stomach. Six pellets 
every half hour. 

Nux Vom.y 2d trit. — Sick headache with vomiting, 
pains intermittent, feet cold, congestion, with pale 
face. Put one grain in six spoons of water, and take 
a spoonful every half hour. 

Puls.yjd. — Pain in top of head, sharp pains in back 
and limbs. Six pellets every hour. 

Gelseminum, 2d. — Pain in right side of head, run- 
ning down the spine. One feels herself getting 
blind, pain relieved by tipping head backward, recurs 
periodically. Six pellets every half hour. 

Heartburn is acidity of the stomach, caused by 
improper food or a failure in digestion. Avoid 
starchy foods, fats and meats. Avoid gravies. I 
know a lady who always has extreme acidity after 
partaking of chicken or turkey gravy, while nothing 
else has a similar effect. To remedy heartburn, take 
the meals entirely without drinking. The gastric 



COLrC— HEMORRHOIDS. 79 

juice that dissolves the food is not secreted until the 
liquids have passed from the stomach by absorption. 
Anything that lowers the tone of the stomach pre- 
vents it having power to perform both of these func- 
tions, consequently the food remains, to ferment and 
sour. If acidity is present, the gastric juice can be 
stimulated by eating a piece of burnt toast, or taking 
pulverized charcoal. Some, understanding this, make 
crackers containing charcoal. A few mouthfuls of 
these after the meal will answer the purpose. 

Avoid a variety at one meal. Choose such articles 
as experience has proved to be best assimilated. Do 
not take magnesia, lime, soda, or any other alkaline 
for this trouble. They injure the mucous coat of the 
stomach, and the difificulty is more likely to recur 
another day. Drinking copiously of warm water 
may be resorted to, if the burning is severe. This 
will cause vomiting, and give relief. Abstain from 
food until the fellowing day, and eat sparingly until 
the stomach has recovered a healthy tone. 

Flatulence and colic arise from a failure of 
intestinal digestion. Many of the vegetables are 
inclined to cause flatulence: beans, sweet potatoes, 
and cabbage most frequently. Corn meal, oat meal, 
and rolled wheat will produce flatulence, if not thor- 
oughly cooked. All of these require more time in 
preparation than is usually given. See chapter on 
Dietetics for proper cooking of these. 

To remedy flatulence, drink hot water warm 

water enemas, or use the fomenter over the stomach. 
Avoid such articles of food as cause the trauble. 

Hemorrhoids or piles are often caused in preg- 
nancy by inflammation of the rectum or pressure of 



8o EXCESSIVE SALIVA. 

the gravid uterus. Yet they are many times a local 
indication of a constitutional disturbance, and local 
applications can give only temporary relief. The 
most obstinate cases can be overcome in time by 
correct living. The diet and exercises should be 
similar to those for constipation. 

Dr. Shew says: "There is nothing in the world 
that will produce so great relief in piles as fasting. 
If the attack is severe, live a whole day or even two 
days, if necessary, upon pure, cold, soft water alone." 
I would substitute hot water and hot lemonade, fol- 
lowed for several days by liquid foods only. Of 
these bran gruel is the best. When there is some 
internal heat, and even considerable inflammation, 
tepid sitz-baths and cold compresses are of great 
benefit. An enema of hot water relieves the pain in- 
cident to hemorrhoids. For cases not of long stand- 
ing, the following recipe will seldom fail to relieve: 

5 Fl. Ex, Hamamelis, 3ij. 
Linseed oil, ^ij. 

Mix. — Apply externally two or three times a day, 
or inject with a small syringe. 

Excessive secretion of saliva is only another 
indication of indigestion, and rarely troubles one 
who lives plainly. Drinking hot water will relieve it. 
Also holding in the mouth very hot or very cold 
water, or pieces of ice, will give temporary relief. 
It rarely fails to disappear under the fruit diet. 
Eating a few almonds or a peach kernel after a meal 
frequently produces desirable results. Indeed, these 
are often valuable for indigestion. 

Greedy appetite is more to be feared than loss 



LOSS OF APPETITE. , 8 1 

of appetite. One is hungry at all times, complains 
she can not get enough to eat. This is strong 
evidence that there are morbid conditions. The sys- 
tem is likely to take on excess of fat, and become 
loaded with poisonous elements. 

To fight an excessive appetite is the hardest battle 
of the pregnant woman. If convinced herself that 
over-eating is injurious, her friends are delighted to 
see her enjoy her foody and furnish everything that 
pleases her taste, and she eats in season and out of 
season. She even **gets 'so hungry she can not 
sleep," and in the night partakes of a pantry feast. 
If the best conditions are sought for self and child, 
this morbid appetite must be overcome. 

Observe religiously a few rules: 

On no account eat between meals. 

Partake mostly of fruits and vegetables. 

Keep away from the odor of food. 

Take plenty of outdoor exercise. 

When a sense of hunger comes on, drink hot water, 
or hot lemonade. Have a strong will to conquer and 
the victory will be won. 

Loss OF APPETITE is seldom sufficiently persistent 
to occasion anxiety, unless accompanied by nausea, 
or constipation. (See Chapter V.) Usually it is 
nature's method of restoring normal conditions, and 
if let alone completely will right itself. One, however, 
is so imbued with the fear of not being nourished 
that she forces herself to eat, and hence thwarts 
nature. If there is ?to appetite^ eat nothing, for the food 
will not be digested. If in following this rule one 
feels a faintness or a '^goneness" at the stomach, 
drink thin bran gruel hot, or a cup of wheat coffee. 



82 LONGINGS — DIARRHEA. 

Wait for the next meal — if still there is no appetite, 
pursue the same course. 

Longings. — Many women all through pregnancy 
seem possessed to fill their systems with the vilest 
trash. They must have chalk, slate pencils, magnesia, 
starch, condiments, etc. Sometimes these longings 
are from an actual want in the system; then, again, 
morbid conditions crave what they feed upon. No 
one lives a sufficiently natural life to depend upon 
the instinct for food. Without knowing the case it 
would be hard to say whether the fancy should be 
gratified. Hundreds, however, can testify that by 
adopting the diet laid down in this book, the system 
is naturally fed, is fully nourished in all the elements, 
and one seldom suffers from craving demands. If the 
article desired is known to be injurious, like cloves, 
pickles, alcoholic stimulants, magnesia, starch, etc., 
it is better to overcome the desire. The juice of a 
lemon in hot water, a brisk walk, a ride, or a merry 
chat with a friend will dissipate the fancy. Put the 
mind on something above physical desires. Commit 
to memory a poem, learn a song, paint a picture, 
make a garment, or do a good, generous deed. If 
possible, rise above appetite. 

Diarrhea in pregnancy is not of frequent occur- 
rence. Ordinarily, it is only an effort of nature to 
correct abnormal conditions; in such cases it requires 
no attention. If, however, it becomes persistent and 
troublesome, it will, contrary to common prejudice, 
usually yield to the use of acidulated drinks or the 
fruit diet. It may be best for a few days to keep 
quiet and avoid solid food. Enemas of hot water 
are frequently beneficial. 



NEURALGIA— NERVE FOOD. 83 

The following remedies are indicated: 

Arsenicum^ jd. — Discharges light and copious with 
great thirst. Six pellets every four hours. 

Merc. Cor., 6th. — Frequent urging and straining, 
severe pain. Discharges slight, greenish, or mixed 
with mucous. Six pellets four times a day. 

The symptoms of pregnancy treated thus far are 
usually the result of some disturbance in the opera- 
tions of alimentation. The few remaining to be 
considered would scarcely ever occur, if the entire 
system were rightly nourished. Still, not being im- 
mediately the result of failure in the digestive act, 
they merit special attention. 

Neuralgia and neuralgic toothache are common 
and distressing symptoms during gestation. The 
child of the forest, the peasant girl of Europe and 
the dusky cotton picker of the South probably have 
no conception of a neuralgic pain. 

Our cultured civilization incurs the infraction of so 
many physical laws that it is difificult to find the 
cause of any disease. Neuralgia is not unfrequently 
the constant companion of the bilious, ovei'/cd^ or 
perhaps, I should say, the carbonaceously fed subject. 
Too much fuel, and too little oxygen! 

Lack of nerve food is another cause. The phos- 
phates and other saline elements are insufficient. Also 
exhausted and weakened nerves, making an effort to 
recuperate, give the possessor great suffering. The 
mother, who already has several children, wearied 
and worried by their many wants, whose domestic 
cares are a continual burden, who has no surcease 
from the sexual relation, is the one likely to suffer 
from neuralgia. Often the pregnant woman strains 



84 A CASE FROM PRACTICE. 

every nerve that her house be put and kept in order. 
She spends anxious days and sleepless nights in weary 
watching over a sick child or husband. Suffering 
must surely follow. The tonics, stimulants and opiates 
prescribed by most physicians cause worse symptoms 
than the original trouble. Nature demands only rest. 
The relief obtained by drugs is at too great a sacri- 
fice of vital force. Nearly all that take opiates attest 
that on the following day sufferings ensue from 
nausea, headache, loss of appetite, constipation, etc. 

In most cases hot applications will give sure relief. 
Why is it, that simple measures are the last thought 
of."^ Use the fomenter locally; if that is not sufficient, 
give a full hot or thermal bath. (See Chap. VIII.) 

Human magnetism is superior to all other agents 
for neuralgia. Nearly every family has some mem- 
ber that possesses the gift of healing by the "laying 
on of hands." The spine and extremities should be 
manipulated, and then the affected part. The patient 
will fall into a restful sleep, awaken refreshed, if not 
cured, and have no poisonous drugs to be eliminated 
from the system. 

Some years ago I was called late at night to a lady 
who for days had suffered untold agony from facial 
neuralgia. Her face was greatly swollen and the 
pain was so intense that she had nearly lost her rea- 
son. An eminent physician, under the popular 
delusion that it was malaria, had prescribed quinine. 
As she had protested against its internal administra- 
tion, he ordered her bathed in an unction of quinine 
and cosmoline. Each day finding the patient worse, 
he increased the frequency of the quinine bath. 

Upon my entering the room, she seized my hand 



BURNING FEET— CRAMPS. 85 

with a vise-like grip and cried: "Doctor, give me 
something, or I must die of this agony!" 

I assured her that she should have help. Turning 
to her husband, I said: "Bring me a wash-bowl 
with hot water and ammonia in it. Put four bricks 
in the furnace as soon as you can." 

Quickly the whole surface was cleansed of the ob- 
struction to the pores. The heated bricks were 
wrapped in wet cloths and one placed each side of 
her face. Friction was applied to the extremities, 
and in less than half an hour after I entered the house 
the anxious husband and friends were rejoiced to see 
the patient enjoying a restful sleep. She made a 
speedy recovery. There are few cases of neuralgia 
that can not be relieved by this, or similar means. 
"Will not the pain return.-*" Perhaps, but not as 
likely as where the nervous sensibility has been 
benumbed with drugs. 

If the mother has facial neuralgia or toothache, 
and can not be spared from family cares to take the 
needful bath and rest, or can not get magnetic treat- 
ment, temporary relief can be obtained by bathing 
the affected part in the tincture of aconite. This is 
rarely followed by unpleasant results, but should be 
used cautiously and only externally. 

Burning feet are best relieved by bathing them 
in very hot water. A sand bath, too, is excellent. 
Have a box of moist sand, in which bury the feet 
for thirty or forty minutes. In summer one will find 
it very grateful to allow the bare feet to come in 
contact with green grass or freshly turned earth. 

Cramps in the limbs are occasioned by pressure 
upon the crural and sciatic nerves; are frequently the 



S6 SWELLING OF THE EXTREMITIES. 

direct result of pressure from clothing. For tem- 
porary relief lie flat upon the back, head and shoul- 
ders low, and hips elevated. Apply hand friction to 
the limbs and back. The only permanent relief is to 
take the exercises that will expand the ribs and walls 
of the abdomen, thus giving more room for fetal 
house-keeping. 

Swelling of the extremities is caused from 
biliousness and sluggish circulation. Oftentimes the 
venous circulation is so deficient that varicose veins 
are the result. Sometimes these swell and form knots 
and tumors of great size. I recall a patient who had 
a varicose tumor as large as the doubled hand, situ- 
ated upon the labia. These knotted veins give great 
distress, and cause much anxiety. I have never 
known of their annoying a person who had adopted 
ih.Q fruit diet and other hygienic measures. 

Temporary relief can be obtained by bathing the 
limbs in cold water, and putting on a roller bandage 
made of strips of rubber. This should be from an 
inch and a half to two inches wide. It must be put 
on smoothly and equably. Begin at the toes, lap the 
edges about half an inch, make reverses to prevent 
creases, and extend above the swelled veins. 

Pain in the side, either right or left, may be from 
the same cause as cramps or pains in the limbs. Put 
on hot fomentations and follow the directions for 
cramps. These pains may extend to the abdomen, 
and may be neuralgic in their character, or may 
assume an intermittent form, producing what is called 
false pains. They often simulate labor pains so 
closely as to deceive patient and friends. To distin- 
guish them, place the hand upon the abdomen during 



SLEEPLESSNESS. 8/ 

the pain. If contraction of the uterus is felt, there is 
true labor, but if there is no change in the walls, they 
are false pains. Frequent warm sitz-baths will give 
relief. The temperature should be about 95° Fr. 

For rigidity of the integument of the abdo- 
men, bathe in hot water, then rub in olive oil or 
cosmoline. This symptom is not likely to be trouble- 
some if the exercises recommended are being taken. 

Insomnia is the result of reflex nervous action 
from stomach or uterus. The causes must be re- 
moved. Bathing feet and legs in cold water, or 
taking a sitz-bath, temperature 90 degrees, followed 
by thorough friction, will usually give sound, refresh- 
ing sleep. A compress applied to the back of the 
neck is good, especially if there is heat in the head. 
Try changing from the customary bed to a lounge 
or another apartment. Hand magnetism or the mag- 
netic cap will afford relief to many. Tea and coffee 
often produce wakefulness, and should be omitted. 

In place of the evening meal, take a cup of hot 
water or wheat coffee. When all other means are 
without avail, this abstinence seldom fails to secure 
sound, refreshing sleep, that is truly "Nature's sweet 
restorer." 

Avoid opiates. Mother and child suffer less from 
insomnia itself than from the effects of drugs that 
produce sleep by their anodyne effects. By these the 
processes of nature are disturbed and all the opera- 
tions of the body deranged. After going to bed sip 
slowly a cup of hot water and milk, equal parts. 
This is especially desirable where there is nervous 
irritability and weak digestion. 

For many years I was subject to insomnia. I found 



88 LEUCORRHEA. 

temporary benefit from looking steadily at one 
object, keeping the eyes wide open. It is better to 
have the object above and back of the head, so that 
the eye is forced to roll backward and upward. 
Keep the eyes open as long as possible. When at 
last they close, still in imagination look at the object, 
keeping the mind steadily upon it. There is one 
measure still better than this for insomnia; that is, to 
become entirely indifferent as to whether you sleep 
or not. Possess yourself of the belief that sleep is 
unnecessary for you, that you are as well off without 
it. Occupy your mind by reciting poetry, recalling 
the past, or planning work for the future, assuring 
yourself that your body is getting rest. If you can 
become entirely convinced of this fact, with no lurk- 
ing combative belief, you will be surprised to see 
that you have obtained a condition which will soon 
result in oblivion. 

LEUCORRHEA. — A thin, milky greenish or watery 
discharge is not unfrequently a great annoyance in 
pregnancy, and a drain upon the vitality. It is usu- 
ally the result of inflammation in the uterus *and 
vagina, or an irritation set up by hardened feces in 
the rectum. Leucorrhea is not a disease, but is sim- 
ply the symptom of a disease, as the cough or sputa 
are symptoms of bronchitis. This is nature's effort 
to throw off inflammation. She fails in the attempt, 
and such a condition is produced that the discharge 
becomes chronic. 

Do not use astringents for leucorrhea. They only 
palliate by drying the secretion for a short time. 
When the remedy is omitted the discharge returns, 
or more grave symptoms appear. The cause should 



PRURITUS. 89 

be treated. For many cases good results will follow 
the use of hot injections of carbolic soap ^uds. Two 
hours a day, wear cotton in the vagina saturated 
with glycerine. This temporarily increases the dis- 
charge, but aids to remove irritation. Like other 
symptoms this yields to thorough hygienic measures. 
Pruritus of the vulva often becomes very trouble- 
some; may be the result of a sanious leucorrhea, ex- 
cessive dryness, inflammation or eruptions. For the 
first cause, treat accordingly. For inflammation of 
the labia apply cloths in a cold lotion of borax, one 
teaspoonful to a quart of water. For dryness apply 
glycerine upon cotton. Pruritus will usually be re- 
lieved by the following lotion: 

^ Tincture Lobelia 



Benzoin f ^ ^ ^^^ 
Glycerine i n a ?i 

Alcohol f a a 5] 

Add benzoin last, slowly. 

Apply upon absorbent cotton or oakum. Cleanse 
the parts frequently with carbolic soap suds. 

As hygienic treatment of pregnancy is fully given, 
other symptoms are omitted. Remember that suf- 
fering is the result of violated laws. With physical 
as moral law: 

" Each man's life 
The outcome of his former living is. 

The bygone wrongs bring forth sorrow and woes; 
The bygone right breeds bliss, 

That which ye sow, ye reap." 



CHAPTER VII. 



HYGIENE OF PREGNANCY. — DRESS. 

What more charming sight than a rosy, robust 
young woman! Full of vigor, life, strength, power; 
her step elastic, bounding, her face radiant, her pres- 
ence magnetic! To such there are no fears, no 
forebodings in maternity! 

She needs not the counsels of physician or books. 
Her own life fulfills the law. It is not for her I write, 
but for those who, constantly violating physical laws, 
never know the blessedness of health. 

A woman possessed of a good constitution, having 
had proper physical training, is fully prepared to 
assume the responsibilities of marriage and mater- 
nity. As Nature's own child, she needs to make but 
little change in her habits during the period of 
gestation. 

Realizing her obligations to offspring and posterity, 
long before assuming the marriage relation she has 
practiced all known laws of health. 

Dr. Holbrook says: ''Those ailments to which 
pregnant women are liable, are, most of them, incon- 
veniences rather than diseases, although they may 
be aggravated to a degree of real danger. Arising, 
as they do, from the temporary physical condition of 
the organism, what they require is, not such medical 
treatment as may be needed for a true disease, but 

(90) 



CONGENIAL SURROUNDINGS. 9I 

rather a general hygienic regimen. For a similar 
reason, while on the one hand it may not be possible 
to remove them entirely, yet on the other they can 
almost always be greatly alleviated. 

*'In general, however, it maybe first observed that 
such a way of living as shall maintain and elevate the 
usual standard of mental and physical health, will, of 
course, increase the power of resisting and surmounting 
all ailments whatever T 

The aim of this work is to show how this standard 
may be gained and maintained. The directions 
given in the following pages are simply teachings of 
nature. No nostrums or mysterious prescriptions 
are recommended, but the simple lessons herein 
given are an effort to teach women how to regain 
that which they have lost through the errors of 
civilization. 

Congenial surroundings are essential for health 
of both mother and child. Wealth and luxuries are 
not needful, but comfort and agreeable companion- 
ship are desirable, with freedom from excessive phys- 
ical burdens and mental anxieties. 

Men and women are to-day suffering from lack of 
vitality, caused by the overwork and burdens of our 
pioneer mothers during gestation. The farmer who 
would not work his mare in foal, counsels or provides 
for his pregnant wife no relief from toil and care. 
The mechanic's wife, knowing the need of making 
every dollar do its utmost, performs the severest 
drudgery, with only aches, pains and puny offspring 
for her compensation. 

It is true that gestation often gives to woman more 
than ordinary ambition, which may excel her phys- 



92 AN OLD lady's STORY. 

ical strength. With usual health and suitable sur- 
roundings, she frequently experiences a mental state 
of exaltation. She expresses herself as feeling "as if 
she trod upon air." Her whole being drinks from 
the fountain of life. She is brought en rapport with 
all things divine. She herself is a creator, and is it 
not divine to create.-* 

In this state of exaltation she is no judge of her 
physical strength. The prudent, watchful husband 
and loving friends must be her guardians. She must 
be held in check and admonished of self-interest and 
the well-being of her child. Otherwise great injuries 
are likely to be inflicted upon herself and offspring. 

I am acquainted with a charming old lady, whose 
seventy-eight summers have left her in possession of 
health and happiness, as a heritage of a well-spent 
life. In talking of these things, she says: 

"Doctor, why is it that my daughters, Jane, Re- 
becca and Mary Ann, have no powers of endurance.-* 
Their father was never sick. My own health and 
strength have been a marvel to every one. Why! 
the three girls together cannot do the work I could 
when I was their age. Girls are no account now-a- 
days. When I was like for my children, I could get 
up and milk the cows, churn and make cheese. This 
was not all; I could take the wool from the sheep's 
back, wash, card, spin, weave and make it into gar- 
ments. I could walk two miles to church, I slept 
soundly and ate heartily. Why, what would have 
become of us, if I had been lying about in wrappers 
and slippers, dosing with drugs as my girls do now.-*" 

Bless the heart of the dear old lady! Just because 
she did all this, her daughters are not her equals in 



A STORY OF HIGH LIFE. 93 

strength. She robbed them of their inheritance, by 
spending all her vitality in exhausting labor, and 
vicariously they atone for her wrong-doing. 

The woman who indulges in the excessive gayety 
of fashionable life, as well as the overworked woman, 
deprives her child of vitality. She attends parties 
in a dress that is unphysiological in warmth, distri- 
bution and adjustment, in rooms badly ventilated; 
partakes of a supper of indigestible compounds, and 
remains into the *'wee, sma' hours," her nervous sys- 
tem taxed to the utmost. 

Although faint, weary and exhausted, the follow- 
ing day is spent in receptions and calls, closing with 
theater or opera. If abortion is not the result, can 
any sane woman expect her child under such circum- 
stances to be in possession of vigor and strength.-* 
Bounding health is the inheritance of childhood. 
Woe to the parent who robs it of this inheritance! 

I was summoned one morning by a Mr. B., a 
cheery, successful business man, to see his wife. 

He says: ^'Doctor, I have exhausted my skill, and 
must have advice from higher authority." 

"What is your diagnosis.-*" 

"Pregnancy, five months, accompanied by hysteria; 
unlike herself, she is irritable, fretful and morose; 
sleeps but little, and has no patience with the chil- 
dren or servants." 

This is no unusual case. I found Mrs. B. living in 
a handsome three-story dwelling elegantly furnished. 
Every luxury was at her command. She had a deli- 
cate, sensitive organization, extremely susceptible to 
all influences. Her five children were full of spirit, 
n6isy and exacting. A late breakfast caused hurry 



94 STORY CONTINUED. 

and confusion in preparation for school. Upon arriv- 
ing I found my lady weeping uncontrollably, and 
apparently in great trouble. I took her hand, say- 
ing: *'My-poor child, what is it?" 

"Oh, I wish I could get away from myself; life is 
not worth living." 

''None can do that; tell me all, and let us see if 
your sorrows and ills cannot be alleviated." 

The truth was that, although an indulged wife, her 
burdens were beyond her strength. The Irish cook, 
good-natured and efificient, had been detected in car- 
rying provisions to a sick friend. The second girl 
had a beau every night, who remained so late that 
she had insufficient sleep. In consequence she was 
fretful to the children and unfitted for all her duties. 
The youngest child, still a mere baby, was teething 
and required attention night and day. Though sur- 
rounded by every comfort that love could procure, 
her strength was too greatly taxed. Later in the day 
her husband called at my office. 

He says: "What \'^ your diagnosis, doctor.?" 

"Overtaxed; her nervous system is worn out." 

"Why, she has all the help she wants, and needs to 
do nothing." 

"True; but there is no help to be had for the very 
things that have worn her out. No one can take a 
mother's place. She has children too fast for her 
strength. She is a conscientious mother, desiring to 
give every child proper training. To do this requires 
that domestic arrangements be systematic and 
complete. Successful housekeeping, under modern 
improvements, requires the combined heads of an 
army general and a secretary of state." 



PARENTAL OBLIGATION. 95 

**Well, doctor, what is your prescription?" 

"Take her away from it all." 

"Where had she better go.-^" 

"To her mother, a hygienic institute, or what is 
better, can't you get away from business awhile, and 
go with her yourself.-* It would do her a world of 
good. Have a second honeymoon; let her see, hear 
and do what pleases her best, and, mark my word, 
you will be well paid." 

"I declare! I never thought of matters in that 
light before. I believe that you are right. I can 
get away next week, and I will. Mother can come 
in and take care of the children while we are gone 
just as well as not." 

To parents I would say with Fowler: "By all the 
value of splendid children over poor or none,^hould 
all other interests be subservient to maternity, not it 
to them. Brush aside, like cobwebs, pecuniary, am- 
bitional, and all other ends, and make it imperious 
lord over all. Your family may better live on bread 
and water, and you have splendid children, than do 
all this work, and have ill-natured, sickly ones. 
What are stylish rooms and furniture, many and 
high-seasoned dishes, in comparison with a sweet and 
healthful -child.'* . . . Your child-rearing mission 
is your one duty. Do this in the very best manner 
possible, but make all else secondary. See that the 
prospective mothers want nothing. They deserve, 
and, as society advances, will yet receive universal 
sympathy, along with the utmost care and affection." 

On account of the foregoing remarks, do not sup- 
pose that an idle, dependent life is counseled. By no 
means. A woman in pregnancy, as at other times, 



96 LUCRATIVE WORK. 

should be actively employed, and if it can be in some 
absorbing, congenial, lucrative work, so much the 
better. It is the incessant nothings of woman's work 
which, while accomplishing so little, yet wear out 
the nerves, and exhaust the patience. 

'♦ abor is life! 'Tis the still water faileth! 
Idleness ever despaireth, bewaileth! 
Keep the watch wound, or the dark rust assaileth; 

Flowers droop and die in the stillness of noon. 
Labor is gloryj The flying cloud lightens: 
Only the waving wing changes and brightens, 
Idle hearts only the dark future frightens. 

Play the sweet keys, wouldst thou keep them in tune!" 

A lady well known to a large circle of friends as a 
successful writer and business woman, the mother of 
a large family of sons and daughters, who, at the age 
of forty-five is the personification of health and en- 
ergy, had this remarkable experience: During the 
period preceding the birth of her fourth child, pecu- 
niary misfortune, and the ill-health of her husband, 
combined to make it necessary for her to carry on 
his business. She was obliged to walk nearly two 
miles every day to his store, where she staid all day 
absorbingly engaged in the duties of looking after 
the details of sales, keeping the books, accounts, etc., 
after which day's work she walked back to her home. 

Everybody said Mrs. B. would surely break down, 
but instead of doing so she preserved the most vig- 
orous health, and experienced none of the sick and 
nervous feelings usually incidental to pregnancy. 
When the child was born, the extraordinary circum- 
stance that its birth was attended with scarcely any 
pain, led the physician and the lady herself to inquire 



A NOTED woman's EXPERIENCE. 97 

what might be the cause of such a happy departure 
from the usual rule. 

No other reason could be assigned than the long, 
regular walks, and the vigorous state of her bodily 
health. Taking a hint from these facts, in all her 
subsequent pregnancies, she adopted the plan of 
taking a large amount of out-door exercise, and 
keeping her mind occupied by useful employment, 
and in every succeeding birth the same happy results 
were obtained. 

That she was engaged in an absorbing and con- 
genial occupation, no doubt had much to do with the 
fact that maternity to her seemed only one of the 
incidents of life. She had no time to foster aches 
and pains. The conviction that, by her business 
management, the support of the family was main- 
tained during her husband's illness, inspired her with 
unusual energies and hopes. Could women uplift 
their home life, realizing the noble work they are 
accomplishing in their every day duties, they would 
find in them an inspiration which avails much against 
physical debility. 

Let me prophesy that different and improved 
methods will be devised to accomplish woman's 
work. The mothers of the future will be less bur- 
dened, and at the same time achieve more satisfac- 
tory results in the labor performed. 

This can be done, and the ideal home preserved. 
Under the present system, many instances of demor- 
alization in domestic life are in consequence of the 
mother's inability to fulfill all the requirements of her 
position. She is the tie that holds the home — the 
mainspring of home-life. In the prophesied future, 



98 DRESS IN PREGNANCY. 

she may not wash all the dishes and bake all the 
bread, any more than she now does the spinning and 
weaving; yet the maternal love, life and instinct will 
build a nest far more adapted to successful rearing 
of offspring than is (^one under present conditions. 

DRESS. 

♦' Give me a form, give me a face 
That lend simplicity and grace; 
Robes loosely flowing, hair as free, — 
Such sweet neglect more taketh me 
Than all the adulteries of art; 
They strike mine eyes, but not mine heart," 

From first to last, the pregnant woman's dress 
should be physiological aud hygienic. Perfect free- 
dom for every physical power must be secured. 
What does this demand.-* Emphatically looseness and 
lightness, as well as sufficient and equable warmth. 
See to it that not one article of dress impedes, in the 
slightest degree, the functions of the body. To 
accomplish this, one must do away with bands, bones 
and petticoats. 

One already dressing healthfully needs to make 
but little change for pregnancy. Under all circum- 
stances and at all times, dress should cause no re- 
striction to respiration; no interference with diges- 
tion; no obstruction to circulation. In pregnancy, 
furthermore, there should be no hindrance to the 
development and elevation of the uterus. To ac- 
complish this, a radical change must be made in the 
usual dress of woman. It is now a complete failure 
as far as fulfilling any useful requirements, and for 
decorative purposes rules of art are violated. 



COMMON SENSE SHOES. 99 

Dr. Trail says, "If he were asked what one agency 
stands at the very head of morbific influences, in 
causing frailty and malformation, he should answer 
woman's dress'' 

The present movement in dress reform, or correct 
dress, combines art, health and utility. One of the 
most notable features is that each lady is free to 
construct her own styles, and in no wise feels bound 
to conform to fashion. This movement is wide- 
spread and seems to have a firm foothold among 
women of all classes. 

One can be dressed decently, decorously, harmoni- 
ously; yes, even elegantly, and still commit no grave 
violation against physiological law. How can 
this be done ? What changes from the ordinary 
dress does this involve 1 Let us begin at the foun^ 
dation: 

A common sense shoe should be worn. This i^ 
constructed upon anatomical principles, allowing 
freedom of all the muscles and producing no pres- 
sure upon the nerves or blood-vessels. The sole is 
as zuide as the bottom of the foot, the heel is little 
if any higher than the sole. The curve and elas- 
ticity of the arch and the freedom of the toes are 
assured. 

Many women suffer from headache, defects in vis- 
ion, loss of voice, indigestion, backache, etc., simply 
from reflex action of the pressure of the shoes upon 
nerves of the foot. I have seen young girls often re- 
lieved of tedious backache, by following simply, and 
only the prescription of a change to common sense 
shoes. An elocutionist of fine physical development, 
weighing at least 170 pounds testified that he could 



lOO FASHION IN DEFORMITY. 

not command the chest tones of his voice, if his boots 
caused the slightest compression of his feet. Are 
not women's nerves as tell-tale in their communica- 
tions as were those of this stalwart man! 

Two bright, intelligent young ladies entered a 
very crowded south side car. One, with a scowl of 
pain and fatigue upon her face, said, '* I do wish 
some gentleman would give me a seat. My feet are 
just coming off." Her companion answered gaily: 
"Oh, I don't care to sit down. I can stand as well 
as any man, and so could you if you wore common 
sense shoes." 

Reader, this is not all you could do **as well as a 
man " if your feet were your untrammeled servants. 

Do you say that these shoes are inelegant and you 
can not endure them ? No sensible person can 
really suppose that there is anything in itself ugly or 
even unsightly in the form of a perfect human foot; 
and yet all attempts to construct shoes upon its 
model are constantly met with the objection that 
something extremely inelegant must be the result. 
It will perhaps be a form to which the eye is not ac- 
customed; but there is no more trite saying than 
the ordinary nature of fashion in her dealings with 
our outward appearance, and we all know how any- 
thing that has received her sanction is for the time 
being considered elegant and tasteful, though a few 
years later it may come to be looked upon as posi- 
tively ridiculous. 

That our eye would soon get used to admiring a 
different shape may be easily proven by any one who 
will for a short time wear shoes constructed upon a 
more correct principle. The prevailing shoe, sug- 



UNION UNDERGARMENTS. lOI 

gestive of cramped and atrophied toes, soon becomes 
positively painful to look upon! These improved 
shoes are gradually gaining ground even in the fash- 
ionable world. We see them worn by the best 
dressed ladies on the streets of our cities. They are 
found in show cases and windows of shoe-dealers 
who clothe the feet of aristocracy. 

If one persists in wearing the customary shoe in 
pregnancy, the feet may swell, and untold discomfort 
result. Relief is frequently obtained at the expense 
of the husband's slippers. Let him provide his wife 
a pair of youth's slippers at least two sizes larger 
than those she ordinarily wears. This will save his 
Christmas gift and possibly teach the wife a valuable 
lesson about common sense shoes. 

In the Union Under Gannents, or combination suits, 
there is a world of comfort and freedom. No 
woman once adopting these garments, properly fitted, 
will *' back-slide "to the old chemise and drawers. 

The chemise, as the word indicates, is of Arabic 
origin. Being made of wash material, its original 
intent was to protect other clothing from emanations 
of the body. In its native country it is high necked 
and long sleeved. Its present uncomfortable style 
had its origin with Parisian demi-monde. It constricts 
the shoulders, and affords insufficient warmth to the 
arms and upper part of the back and chest. The 
superior portion of the lungs needs even more pro- 
tection than the lower, especially on the back. The 
drawers can never be so adjusted that the band will 
allow the free use and development of the muscles 
upon which it presses. 

The union suits can be found in dress reform 



I02 SECURE PERFECT PATTERNS. 

rooms, and in most shops. They are made of filk, 
all wool, half-wool, and lisle thread. Not being able 
to procure them, one can herself readily convert the 
ordinary undergarments into a union suit. Rip off 
the band from the drawers, try them on with the 
the vest, and adjust them perfectly. Remove the 
surplus length in the front from the drawers, and in 
the back from the vest; put them together with a lap 
seam, leaving the extra fullness of the drawers in the 
back. In this way a satisfactory suit can be pro- 
duced. These can be worn winter and summer, if 
demanded by the needs of the climate or indi- 
vidual. 

The chemiloon is a union of the chemise and draw- 
ers. In the summer this garment can be made of 
cotton or linen, and worn with or without the union 
under flannels. It can be trimmed and embroidered 
to one's taste. In the winter it should be of flan- 
nel or ladies' cloth. Chemiloon patterns can be 
obtained of pattern dealers. Do not expect that 
other people's patterns, or those that you buy will 
be perfectly adapted to you. It is well to fit a suit 
from old material first. Be sure that it is sufificiently 
long in the back. Shortness in the seat is a prevail- 
ing fault with patterns for sale. Remedy this by 
putting a two inch fold in the cloth on the side, 
where the back of the pattern comes. The sleeves 
of these chemiloons should be long, especially the 
flannel for winter. Remember always that the com- 
fort of these garments depends upon a perfect fit. 

K princess garment is a waist and skirt combined. 
This can be made of muslin, pongee, or other wash 
silks. For extra warmth use of tennis flannel. It can 



CORRECT DRESS 103 

be cut from a polonaise or princess dress pattern, hav- 
ing it about the length of an ordinary underskirt. 

This undergarment can have eyelet lacings in the front, 
darts and thus make it adjustable to the increasing 
size. 

A princess lining to a dress with the same dart lacings 
makes a convenient maternity gown. The outside goods 
of any material can be draped upon this according to 
taste or fashion. 

The Divided Skirt has become a popular garment 
with those making a change in dress. This is made 
of pongee or other wash silks, mohair or ladies' 
cloth. It is cut like drawers, but has a width of 44 
to 50 inches of goods in each leg. This is attached 
to a yoke, instead of a band, and cut on the bias, to 
fit the hips. A combination of the Divided Skirt 
and Bates Waist makes a very satisfactory garment. 
This is made by cutting the front of the waist and 
the skirt or drawers in one. The back of the skirt 
is cut separate from the waist, and made longer at 
the top. The extra fullness is put in at the hips and 
back. It should lap about two inches in the back. 
This is worn over a union suit, and takes the place of 
all underskirts or petticoats. 

Equestrian Tights are now worn by many ladies as 
a complete substitute for petticoats. These are 
usually black, and are woven of silk, wool and cot- 
ton. Some ladies purchase those that cover the 
entire body, like the Union Suits, others wear the 
drawers only. They can be found in the prominent 
dry goods houses of our large cities. With some 
fullness or drapery to the dress, the absence of skirts 
is not as noticeable as one would suppose. 



I04 THE EMANCIPATED WOMAN. 

The dress itself is made on a princess lining, style 
and drapery being adjusted and trimmed to suit the 
taste and need of the wearer. 

Clothed in the above garments, with the dress 
loose enough for the performance of every bodily 
function, one v/ill feel as if she had really broken 
chains, or escaped prison bars. 

A tall, noble, brilliant, queenly woman had been a 
great sufferer from disease, drugs, doctors and dress. 
To regain health, she had with characteristic en- 
ergy made a complete change in her garments. No 
one who saw her will fbrget her electrifying expres- 
sion of triumph as she exclaimed: "For the first time 
in my life I am an emancipated woman." 

Freedom in dress had given her freedom to breathe, 
live, think, walk and work. Freedom in dress, with 
physical training, makes it possible for every young 
girl to possess the form of a Venus or Minerva. 

What is a test of the dress being sufficiently 
loose? This is good: lie flat upon the back, and with 
the hips slightly elevated, be able to take a full, deep 
and prolonged respiration without hindrance. An- 
other is to hold a book between the tips of the mid- 
dle fingers, raise the 2.rvci^ perfectly perpendicular 2Sidi 
parallel to the sides of the head, inflate the lungs, 
and promenade the room. If this can be done easily, 
the dress offers no restraint for any movement. 

By the ordinary dress, even if there is not actually 
tight lacing, simply a smig fity we get alterations in 
the shape and position of the organs. ''When it is 
considered that the organs compressed are those by 
which the important functions of respiration, circu- 
lation and digestion are carried on, as well as those 



CORSET CHORUS. IO5 

essential to the proper development and healthy 
growth of a fetus, it is no wonder that people 
suffer who have brought themselves under such 
conditions." 

The present styles afford many pretty ways for 
making wrappers and snug-fitting gowns. In the 
true woman any morbid sensibility in regard to ap- 
pearance will be lost sight of in the great good 
gained for herself and child by having a healthful 
dress. 

Hark! I hear a distant murmur of questions. 
From many, these reach my ear: Are the garments 
you describe all a lady is to wear.? Does she not 
need a corset.-* What if one cannot hold herself up 
without a corset.'* Will she wear a corset under or 
over the princess waist.-* Does a loose corset do any 
harm.? Wouldn't you recommend Madame Foy's 
corset.? Won't she be benefited by a health (.?) corset.? 
What about health reform corsets.? And faster and 
faster the questions come, until my ears are deafened 
with corset! corset! corset! 

If women had common sense ^ instead oi fashion sense^ 
the corset would not exist. There are not words in 
the English language to express my convictions upon 
this subject. The corset, more than any other one 
thing, is responsible for woman's being the victim of 
disease and doctors. 

Mark this: that part of the body around which we 
place corset and bands has no bony structure for its 
protection. This very pliability renders it possible 
for one unconsciously yet easily to produce a deform- 
ity in a few weeks. 

Who can begin to prophesy the untold and mani- 



I06 DEATH RATE OF CHILDREN. 

fold sufferings for which a factory full of corsets 
must be responsible? And where is the end? If the 
wearer only had to pay the penalty with pain and 
weakness, we might hold our peace. 

What is the effect upon the child? One-half of the 
children born in this country die before they are five 
years of age. Who can tell how much this state of 
things is due to the enervation of maternal life forces 
by this one instrument of torture? 

I am a temperance w'oman. No one can realize 
more than I the devastation and ruin alcohol in its 
many tempting forms has brought to the human fam- 
ily. Still I solemnly believe that in weakness and 
deterioration of health, the corset has more to answer 
for than intoxicating drinks. 

What affects the physical affects the spiritual; 
what affects the animal life affects the mental. Given 
a physical body dwarfed and deteriorated in any 
respect, and a corresponding deficiency in spiritual, 
intellectual and moral worth is likely to exist. Look 
at our men and women who have been grand and 
successful in achievement, noble in purpose, and vig- 
orous in intellect. With few exceptions they are 
men and women of harmonious, strong, athletic 
physiques. Women cannot possibly attain to this 
condition under the restricting influence of boned 
and steeled garments. 

"What possible harm can a corset do if worn 
loose?" My friend, put a band quilted full of cords 
and bones upon the arm of your active boy, whose 
athletic feats are your pride; let him wear it ever so 
loosely, and witness the deteriorating effect upon 
his biceps and triceps muscles! Put a similar ban- 



A CONFIDENTIAL INQUIRY. 10/ 

dage upon your pet cat or dog, just as loosely as can 
be retained, and watch the result upon respiration, 
digestion and circulation! Mark my word, in less 
than a month it will take more than pepsin to make 
the food of that animal digest, or magnetic insoles 
to keep its feet warm. 

At the close of one of my medical conversations a 
bright, intelligent young married woman took me 
aside and asked me very confidentially how far ad- 
vanced a woman should be in pregnancy before she 
laid aside the corset. I had for several days repeated 
and reiterated in strongest terms my convictions that 
it was always to be deprecated and never tolerated. 
Consequently I was greatly astonished at the ques- 
tion. I replied: *' Is it possible that with all these 
illustrations and with all this strong language I have 
not made myself plain.^ Have I talked in vain.-*" 
Then loud enough for the group standing about to 
hear, Isaid, '' The corset should not be worn for two 
hmtdred years before pregnancy takes place. Ladies, it 
will take that time at least to overcome the ill 
effects of this garment which you think so essential! 

Abandoning the corset entirely and adopting a 
physiological dress, aside from lessening suffering in 
pregnancy, goes very far toward alleviating, yes, 
even curing many of the diseases peculiar to women. 
Once a woman begins to think outside of Fashion's 
dictum, she fully thinks herself out of the bars of dress. 
Once free, her road to recovery is m^de clear. With 
other common sense rules of living, health becomes 
restored and precious life saved. 

In an Iowa college, the professor of natural history,a 
petite lady, became very enthusiastic upon examining 



io8 A teacher's story. 

some dress reform goods, and gave quite a lecture to 
the students upon their advantages. She said that in 
her school days and first years of teaching she could 
not walk over three blocks without fatigue and actual 
pain. When her day's work was done she was com- 
pelled to lie down, being unable to see friends or do 
extra work. Four years previously, however, she 
had adopted "common sense" shoes, the reform un- 
derwear, also a skirt supported by a waist, and the 
dress itself made loose and light, as well as short 
enough to clear the mud in walking. By this change 
in her habits she had become able to walk miles in 
her search for specimens, and knew nothing of wear- 
iness or the necessity of rest, save the regular hours 
of sleep. This is not an exaggerated case, and thou- 
sands of delicate, tired, useless girls can become 
strong and useful if they will '' go and do likewise." 

Prof. N. H. Flower closes his admirable work upon 
''Fashion in Deformity" with these valuable thoughts: 
" The true form of the human body is familiar to us 
from classic models. It is, however, quite possible 
that some of us may think the present fashionable 
shape the more beautiful of the two. In that case it 
would be well to consider whether we are sure our 
judgment is sound on this subject. Let us remem- 
ber that to the Australian, the nose-peg is an admired 
ornament; that to the Thlinkeet the Botocudos and 
Congo negro, the lip dragged down by a heavy plug, 
and the ears distended by huge disks of wood, are 
things of beauty; that the Malay prefers teeth that 
are black. Let us carefully ask ourselves whether we 
are sure that in leaving nature as a standard of the 
beautiful, and adopting a purely conventional one, we 



fowler's clarion note. 109 

are not falling into an error exactly similar to that of 
all these people whose tastes we are so ready to con- 
demn. The fact is, that in admiring such distorted 
forms as the constricted waist and pointed foot, we 
are opposing our judgment to the Maker of our 
bodies, we are neglecting the criterion offered by 
nature; we are simply putting ourselves on the level 
in point of taste with those Australians, Botocudos, 
and negroes. We are taking fashion, and nothing 
better, higher or truer for our guide, and may we not 
well ask with Shakespeare: **Seest thou not what a 
deformed thief this fashion is }" 

Prof. O. S. Fowler, ever a staunch and fearless ad- 
vocate for health and temperance, only emphasizes 
what all sensible persons must believe: 

''Tight lacing is the chief cause of infantile mortal- 
ity. That it inflicts the very worst forms of physi- 
cal ruin on woman and offspring is self-evident. No 
evil equals that of curtailing this maternal supply of 
breath; nor does anything do this as effectually as 
tight lacing. If it were merely a female folly, or if 
its ravages were confined to its perpetrators, it might 
be allowed to pass unrebuked; but it strikes a deadly 
blow at the very life of the race. By girting in the 
lungs, stomach, heart and diaphragm, it cripples 
every one of the life-manufacturing functions, impairs 
the circulation, prevents muscular action, and lays 
siege to the child-bearing citadel itself. By the 
want of abundant maternal vitality, air, exercise and 
digestion, is this practice murderous to both. It often 
destroys germinal life before or soon after birth, by 
most effectually cramping, inflaming and weakening 
the vital apparatus and stopping the flow of life at its 



no NATURAL WAISTS OR NO WIVES 

fountain-head. It slowly but surely takes the lives 
of tens of thousands, and so effectually weakens and 
diseases millions more, as ultimately to cause their 
untimely death. No tongue can tell, no finite mind 
conceive the misery it has produced, nor the number 
of deaths directly or indirectly of young women, 
bearing mothers, and weakly infants it has occa- 
sioned; besides the millions on millions it has caused 
to drag out a short but wretched existence. If this 
murderous practice continues another generation, it 
will bury all the middle and upper classes of women 
and children, and leave propagation to the coarse- 
grained but healthy lower classes. Most alarmingly 
has it already deteriorated our very race in physical 
strength, power and constitution, energy and talents. 
Let those who had rather bury than raise their chil- 
dren marry tight lacers. 

" Moralists, Christians, reformers, philosophers and 
philanthropists of all sects and grades, come, let us 
unite in presenting a frowning front to this race-ruin- 
ing practice, and bachelors insist on natural waists or 
no wives, and frown down a practice your patronage 
imposes! Woman will cease to lace just when you 
cease to require it." 

Would it not gladden the heart of Prof. Fowler to 
see the present wide-spread movement among women 
for correct dress, and also to know that the number is 
on the increase of those who understand and realize 
their obligations to posterity. The true mother is 
everywhere to be found. 



CHAPTER VIII 



HYGIENE IN PREGNANCY— BATHING. 

Frequent bathing in pregnancy is of the great- 
est importance. When the " water cure" fever first 
ran like wild-fire through the country, many were 
alarmed lest the child-bearing woman should do her- 
self great harm. Although the cold water washing 
was carried to great excess, few cases came to light 
where any one was injured by it, while hundreds 
bear testimony that they were greatly benefited. 
Relief was obtained for the suffering both during 
pregnancy and at confinement. One step at least 
was taken in advance which never can be retraced. 
Previous to that time women were actually afraid of 
water. It might be well for others, but tradition 
and prejudice taught that if a pregnant woman 
bathed in cold water, she ran great risk, and if her 
hands even were put in cold water after confinement 
she would siu^ely die. 

The ** water cure " people took the other extreme. 
The woman doused and swam the whole nine months, 
and fifteen minutes after her child was born, she 
would be lifted into a full or sitz-bath of cold water. 
The doctor and the good grandmother could not 
account for the fact that she survived, save by attrib- 
uting it to some special providence. Forty years 
only have worked wondrous changes, and now all 

(III) 



112 SPONGE OR TOWEL BATH. 

intelligent women know the luxury of the bath in 
this condition, and many recognize its therapeutic 
value. 

The processes of nutrition and waste are more 
active in the pregnant woman than in any other. 
Her condition is more like that of a child, con- 
sequently she can bathe more frequently with 
advantage. 

The SPONGE or towel bath, taken in the morn- 
ing two or three timxcs a week, is stimulating and 
invigorating. No more than two minutes is required 
for this bath. It should be taken immediately upon 
rising, while the temperature of the body is warm 
enough to insure thorough reaction. The colder one 
can use the water, the more sure the reaction. The 
first few mornings bathe the upper part of the body 
only. In a short time one can venture upon the 
whole surface. It should be followed by friction 
with a Turkish towel or coarse mitten, and if the 
person is not strong, with rubbing by an assistant. 
Then for five minutes take deep inspirations of fresh 
air, and the people are few 'whodonotfeelgoodd.ittr 
this ablution. It is par excellence the "ounce of 
preventive." It is a ''coat of mail" against colds, 
catarrhs and influenzas. To the pregnant woman it 
is life and vitality, and atones for a multitude of 
physical sins. 

A man once wrote that, " by wearing magnetic 
appliances, ozone was developed in the blood." 
Whether he knew what ozone was, or what condi- 
tion the blood was in when ozone was in it, is not 
proven. If, however, it is possible to get a condition 
in which you feel that there is "ozone in the blood," 



THE SITZ^BATH. II3 

it is after one of these quick, cold, tonic, invigorating 
baths. My experience in prescribing it has proven 
that it is not debilitating, even when taken twice 
daily. Too many warm baths may, in time, reduce 
the physical standard. But simply wetting the sur- 
face, with hand, sponge or towel in cold water, or, 
what some prefer, dashing cold water quickly over 
the body, is a decided tonic. A little courage and per- 
severance is required to form the habit — once formed, 
few relinquish it. If no reaction follows, and the per- 
son remains cold, it should not be persevered in. 

The SITZ-BATH is one of the most desirable baths 
for the pregnant woman. A tin tub made especially 
for this bath (procured of dealers in tinware), requir- 
ing but little water, ought to be in every household. 
If unable to procure one, a small-sized wash-tub can 
be used, raising one side on a block of wood. Tepid 
water is the most beneficial, unless for the relief of 
pain or acute inflammation, when hot water should 
be used. Commence taking it with the temperature 
at 90° Fahrenheit, and gradually reduce it, until, 
during the last months, it is as low as 60*^. Remain 
in it from three to eight minutes, then have towel 
and hand friction, followed by rest in the reclining 
position, and sleep if possible. If it causes a rush of 
blood to the head, remain in for a less time, and put 
a wet napkin around the neck. 

From ten to twelve o'clock in the morning is the 
best time to take this bath. If one has not time to 
rest at this hour, it can be taken just before retiring. 
Without the rest, half the value is lost. This bath 
is a tonic, sedative, alterative, laxative, diuretic, anti- 
spasmodic, anti-periodic, anti-phlogistic, etc.; indeed 



114 HOT FOMENTATIONS. 

it will do almost anvthino; desired to be done for the 
pregnant woman. It restores nervous equilibrium, 
it removes obstructions from the surface, is invalua- 
ble for portal congestion, and for inflammation of 
any of the abdominal or pelvic viscera. Nothing is 
better for insomnia, facial neuralgia, nausea, bilious- 
ness, constipation, hemorrhoids, cramps, varicose 
veins, weariness, headache, nervousness, etc., etc. 

A woman has omitted the most effectual remedial 
agent for pathological sj-mptoms, if she has not tried 
this bath; and not once only, but has taken it every 
day, or twice a day for at least a month. She may 
have taken any amount of remedies, may have used 
outside appliances, but if she has not had this tepid 
sitz-bath, she has omitted the very best and surest 
means of relief. It cannot do harm, and it can do 
great good. 

For severe pain from colic, neuralgia or acute 
inflammation, the bath should be taken warm, and in 
some instances, quite hot; this should be continued 
fifteen or twent}' minutes. protecting the patient care- 
fully with blankets, after which she should, without 
removing them, lie on the bed and rest. 

Hot fomentations are usually administered by 
applying to the affected part a flannel cloth wrung 
out of simple or medicated hot water. Some phy- 
sicians prescribe bags of hops, tanzy, smart-weed, etc., 
or Indian meal or flaxseed poultice, to be kept hot 
in a steamer. All these appliances are remonstrated 
against by patients and nurses. They are disagreea- 
ble and untidy. The bed gets wet and soiled, the 
patient likewise. Moist heat is wanted, but one is 
more likely to get moist cold, which has a dampen- 



HOT FOMENTATIONS. II5 

ing- effect upon both body and mind. The nurse 
scalds her hands, ruins clothing, and execrates the 
doctor who prescribed them. 

The very best method of making hot applications 
is by means of the rubber '' hot water bottle." These 
hold from one to four quarts, and can be readily pro- 
cured. Boiling water can be used in them, and the 
heat will be retained many hours. They are soft, 
pliable and agreeable to the touch, and adjust them- 
selves to every part of the body. When moisture is 
desired, place a wet cloth under them. No well 
regulated family should be without a hot water bottle. 

When, however, this is lacking, there are several 
convenient modes of making hot applications. Put 
part of a sheet or blanket around the patient, to pro- 
tect the bed and clothing. Then lay a newspaper 
upon a cook stove, or flat top of a heating stove. 
Wring a large flannel cloth dry as possible out of 
cold or tepid water. Lay it between the folds of the 
paper, and it will soon steam hotter than can be 
handled. Take it to the patient and place it under- 
neath the sheet, in contact with the body. Have 
another cloth heating, to take the place of this one 
when it ceases to be hot. The moist cloth can also 
be kept hot by putting it on a tin plate which is in 
the oven or on top of a stove. The virtue of a 
fomentation is in the heat, and it must be kept hot. 

Another still more simple method, desirable where 
the patient must wait upon herself, is to place over 
the part affected a cloth wrung from warm water; 
then lay over it a hot stove lid, wrapped securely in 
paper. This will retain heat for a long time, and 
gives the patient opportunity for rest. 

8 



Il6 THE COLD COMPRESS. 

The hot fomentation is a valuable remedial 
agent. It is rare to find acute suffering, where it is 
not indicated. It alleviates neuralgia and rheumatic 
pain. It is good for biliousness, constipation and tor- 
pid liver. It relieves colic and flatulence, and is of 
special value in menstrual pain or suppression. 
Thoroughly applied, acute diseases may be arrested 
without other aids. 

The precautions that must be taken in using hot 
fomentations, especially if moist, is to have them hot 
and keep them hot while they are continued. When 
removed, replace them with dry flannel or bathe the 
part in tepid water, rub dry and put on the ordinary 
clothing. The latter is desirable when used in chronic 
affections. In acute attacks, especially of inflamma- 
tion, it is well to follow or alternate with a compress 
from cold water. Don't use paregoric, Dover's pow- 
ders, morphine, or even a homeopathic preparation 
until you have tried thoroughly the hot fomentation. 
Remember that when you get relief from an applica- 
tion like this you will not suffer from the poisonous 
effects of drugs. You rally more quickly, and are 
not as liable to another attack, for nature has had a 
better opportunity to throw off diseased conditions. 

The cold compress is a convenient, safe, desir- 
able and effectual domestic remedy. Like the fo- 
mentation, it requires knowledge and skill in its ap- 
plication. Take a worn linen towel, wring dry from 
cold water, apply to the affected part, then cover 
well with several thicknesses of flannel, securely 
excluding the air. Reaction soon follows, warmth 
ensues, and the same or better result is obtained than 
from a poultice. It can remain on one or two hours 



A COMPRESS IN CROUP. 11/ 

or else all night. Should always be followed witn 
thorough bathing in cold water and friction. 

This compress must not be wet in ivarm water. In, 
that case it grows cold aud keeps cold. If wet in cold 
water, the colder the better, it sends the blood from 
the surface, and the reaction causes it to get warm and 
keep warm. To make it subserve its purpose these 
three rules must be observed. 

1. Wring from cold water. 

2. Wring dry. 

3. Cover thoroughly with flannel. 

The compress should never be continued where 
warmth and reaction can not be obtained. In per- 
sons with a cold surface and a sluggish circulation it 
is well to precede it for half an hour with a hot 
fomentation. 

The compress is oeneficial both for acute and 
chronic inflammations. In sore throats, croup, bron- 
chitis and inflammation of the lungs it is invaluable. 
Many persons use no other means for croup, wring- 
ing the cloth from ice-cold water. In inflammation 
of the abdominal and pelvic viscera it is equally 
good. In pregnancy, if there is irritation in the 
stomach, congestion of the liver, constipation or dis- 
tress of the bowels, accompanied by heat, the com- 
press in these regions will be beneficial 

The heat and dull aching pain in the back, that is 
so often complained of, is the result of some irritation 
in the uterus. The compress worn at night or when 
taking the daily rest, will give great relief. It can 
simply be put across the back, or may extend entirely 
around the abdomen. The frequency and length of 
time continued must depend upon the case. 



Il8 THE TURKISH BATH. 

The foot and leg baths are good derivative 
appliances. Taken warm they will relieve nervous- 
ness, sleeplessness and irritability. 

For habitual cold feet there is no better remedy 
than bathing the feet in cold water at bed-time. 
Have everything ready for retiring. In the foot-tub 
put three-fourths of an inch of cold water. Hold 
the feet in that half a minute. Then dry with coarse 
towel and spat them well with the hand. The reac- 
tion gives warm feet for the night, and if persisted 
in for three or four weeks, habitual cold feet are 
often cured. 

The TURKISH or thermal bath affords one of 
the best, surest and safest sanative and therapeutic 
agents known to medical science. In a well-ap- 
pointed establishment for this bath, the subject 
enters a room heated from 130^ to 160^ Fahrenheit; 
remains there until copious perspiration is induced. 
He is then taken to a room, temperature about 90^ 
deg., where he is laid upon a slab or table and thor- 
oughly shampooed with soap and water. This is 
followed by a spray, douche, shower or plunge bath; 
then he is dried and thoroughly manipulated by an 
attendant, after which he lies upon a couch from 
half to one hour to cool and rest. This bath is an 
expensive luxury, and not within the reach of rich or 
poor in any but our larger towns and cities. 

A TURKISH OR thermal BATH AT HOME, with a 
simple and inexpensive apparatus, has equal value as 
a hygienic or therapeutic agent. Any woman with 
ordinary common or nurse sense can give these baths 
satisfactorily by observing the following directions: 

Take a chair with a wooden seat, an armed office 



THERMAL BATH AT HOME, II9 

chair preferable, place in it a piece of flannel blanket 
so folded that it will fall down in front; under the chair 
put a coffee cup one-third filled with alcohol. If any- 
other vessel is used, be sure the opening is no larger 
than a cup, as this gives sufficient surface for the com- 
bustion of the amount of alcohol; have a foot tub 
in front of the chair, with warm water for the feet. 

The patient is seated in nature's raiments only, or 
as Mark Twain says, *'in her complexion," enveloped 
closely in woolen blankets. One of these is put over 
her in front and the other at the back, outside of the 
chair. After she is seated and covered, light the 
alcohol with a taper. Don't risk burning yourself by 
using a match. The subject will begin to perspire 
in from three to five minutes. If blood rushes to the 
head, giving a red face and feeling of fullness in the 
brain, put a napkin round the neck, wrung from tepid 
water. This is better than wetting the head, and it 
has the advantage of not taking the '' crimp " out of 
her hair. 

If she is faint or sick at the stomach, as one may 
be with the first bath, or very biliouSy let her drink 
copiously of hot water or very weak ginger tea. If 
the perspiration is slow in starting, or if the heat is 
excessive, the surface may be bathed with a sponge 
dipped in cold water. Let her remain fifteen to 
twent}^ minutes, or longer if necessary, to induce 
copious perspiration. She can then be bathed and 
rubbed sitting in the chair. If weak, or if longer 
perspiration is desired, let her lie upon bed or couch 
enveloped in the blankets, where she can be bathed 
under cover if necessary. Let the manipulation be 
thorough. Squeeze, press and pinch every muscle in 



I20 USES OF THE THERMAL BATH. 

the body and spat the surface with the ends of the 
fingers, having the wrist free. Using the entire arm 
and palm of the hand makes hard work, and does 
not give give good results. If the attendant is mag- 
netic, the fingers cause tingling, like hundreds of 
needles. Let the patient lie for an hour after this 
treatment to rest, cool and sleep. 

How readily and easily this luxury and remedial 
agent can be carried into every home! The appara- 
tus required is simply a wooden-seated chair, two and 
a fraction woolen blankets, an old cup, a foot tub and 
five cents' worth of alcohol. 

This bath should be taken at least two hours after 
eating. If taken sooner, it is nearly impossible to in- 
duce perspiration, besides interfering with digestion. 
For invalids, the preferable time is about ten or 
eleven in the forenoon. The business man or woman 
can take it upon rising in the morning, or just before 
retiring. If necessary, one can go out immediately 
after the bath. There is no danger of taking cold \i 
one is bathed in cold or tepid water, and has 
thorough massage. 

As a sa7iative measure the Thermal Bath can be 
taken at least once a week; for diseases, the fre- 
quency depends upon the case. 

It is not weakening. Invalids, unable to sit up, 
gain strength with the daily use of this bath. In the 
first renovating process that is induced, one may have 
a sense of weakness or faintness, similar to the effects 
of medicine that rouses up the vital functions, but 
the cases are rare that this does not pass off in a few 
hours, leaving a corresponding gain. The Therm£i,l 
Bath is valuable in health and disease. 



DISEASES CURED BY THE THERMAL BATH. 121 

1. It cleanses and promotes the healthy action of 
the skin as no other bath can do, thus relieving the 
other excretory organs. 

2. It equalizes the circulation of the blood, and 
removes all local congestions of any and every part, 
which is one of the most important things to be 
accomplished in the treatment of diseased conditions. 

3. It is the quickest, easiest and most effectual 
means known to man for purifying the blood. It 
literally washes the blood of its impurities. The 
patient drinks pure water, it is absorbed, passes into 
and mingles with the blood, by which it is carried to 
the capillary net-work of the skin and poured upon 
the surface in the form of perspiration; not pure as 
when it was taken into the stomach, but mingled 
with the impurities of the blood. If this were its 
only use, the Thermal Bath would be invaluable. 

4. It soothes and tranquilizes the nervous sys- 
tem, sweeps the cobwebs of care from the brain, 
leaving it clear and refreshed. 

The Thermal Bath is specially useful in the treat- 
ment of all diseases arising from impurity of the 
blood, inactivity of the skin, local inflammations, or 
unbalanced nervous action. It is invaluable for Drug 
Poisoning, Scrofula, Consumption, Diseases of the 
Skin, Dropsy, Remittent and Intermittent Fevers, 
Coughs, Colds, Catarrh, Croup, Gout, Rheumatism, 
Neuralgia, Diseases of the Liver and Kidneys, Bron- 
chitis, Chronic Diarrhea, etc. 

The thermal bath will break up a cold in its 
first stages, and at any time it will give certain alle- 
viation. For ague it should be taken about the time 
the chill is anticipated, and given thoroughly. The 



122 EMINENT TESTIMONIALS. 

cases are rare that will resist the third or fourth 
bath, using no other means. 

In chronic rheumatism it has no equal in thera- 
peutics. For this it can be taken every day. Some 
have taken twice a day with benefit. Cases long 
resisting all other methods of treatment have been 
entirely cured by this bath. 

Most eruptive diseases are helped by it. A lady 
had salt-rheum all over her body. A ten-cent piece 
could not be laid on a spot free from eruption. She 
took these baths daily for three months, without any 
other remedy, and cured herself. She gained in 
strength, flesh and appetite, and besides, found her- 
self freed from many minor ailments. 

The Thermal bath is valuable in pregnancy, when 
there is dryness of the skin, coldness of the surface, 
with sensitiveness to cold. If the pregnant woman 
has any of the diseases mentioned above, she will 
find this bath just as efficacious as if she was not 
enciente. She should have a good, skillful attendant, 
and take ample time to rest after it. Do not fear 
disastrous results. Ladies have taken them once or 
twice a week during the entire pregnancy with 
benefit. The following testimonials only emphasize 
what they have written. 

They purify and invigorate. — D, Warky M. D. 

Unsurpassed, as combining luxury and utility. — 
R. M. Lackey, M. D. 

The Turks have always considered the public 
baths of Constantinople as supplying the place of a 
certain number of hospitals, which would otherwise 
have to be built. — Dr. Haughton. 

Ladies, note this: The use of the Turkish bath 



EMINENT TESTIMONIALS. 1 23 

renders the complexion more delicate and brilliant — 
the eye becomes clearer and brighter — the whole 
person is rendered fragrant, and all personal charms 
are enhanced. — Dr, Barter. 

After a day of labor and care, which had quite 
exhausted me, I have just taken one of the Turkish 
baths, and come out feeling as completely rested as 
when I arose from my bed in the morning— in short, 
as good as new. — L. H, Thomas, M. D. 

The only sure cure for a cold is the Turkish bath. 
It opens the pores and starts the system afresh into 
working order. I cheerfully commend it, even to 
persons in good health, as the best means to keep 
the secretions healthy. — Dr, D. F. Clinton, 

Rely upon it, it is the ne plus ultra of baths. — Dr. 
J, E. Westervelt. 



CHAPTER IX. 



HYGIENE IN PREGNANCY — DIET. 

Proper food in pregnancy is not more necessary 
for health and strength of the mother, than for giv- 
ing normal development to the child. If the food 
does not afford suitable nourishment, or is not prop- 
erly assimilated, pathological conditions inevitably 
result. Besides, few have learned that the ki7td of 
nutriment taken has much to do with the ease or 
severity of labor. 

The food of the pregnant woman should consist of 
articles that are nutritious, but not stimulating or 
heating to the blood. It should be eaten at regular 
intervals and under favorable conditions. 

An important matter is to avoid fluids while eating. 
Liquid, taken into the stomach, must be removed by 
absorbents before the gastric fluid can be secreted to 
dissolve the food and convert it into chyle. A strong, 
healthy stomach may perform both processes easily. 
One weakened by dyspepsia or the reflex action in 
pregnancy may not be able to accomplish this double 
duty; consequently very much is gained by taking 
the food dry. Drink, if there is thirst, half an hour 
before a meal, and not within three hours after. Eat 
less salt and there will be less thirst. 

Avoid all condiments, and for the most part fats 
and sweets. The two latter are pure carbon, therefore 

(124) 



CHOICE OF FOODS. I25 

cause and increase febrile conditions. Sufficient car- 
bon can be obtained in the farinaceous food. Lean 
meats, the very best beef, mutton boiled, roasted or 
smothered, cooked quickly and rare, and wild game 
may be eaten by some without injury. But owing 
to their stimulating elements, and their effects upon 
the formation of character, parents desiring to give 
the world the best reproduction of themselves will 
avoid the use of animal food. 

A woman has for her diet a choice from all the 
grains, all the vegetables and all the fruits. When a 
working animal thrives and retains its strength upon 
two articles only, viz., corn and straw or oats and 
hay, can not the human make a bill of fare of suffi- 
cient variety to please the most fastidious out of all 
the grains, fruits and vegetables.? If foods were 
ordinarily chosen to supply the needs of wasted 
tissues rather than to pander to perverted and capri- 
cious appetites, there would be less necessity of a 
special diet for pregnancy. 

Physiologists have within a few years advanced 
the theory that if a pregnant woman avoids food 
rich in elements that nourish and develop bone, labor 
would be comparatively easy and painless. This 
theory was first made known in a small pamphlet 
published in England in 1841. It was written by 
Mr. Rowbotham, a practical chemist of London. 
His wife had been such a sufferer in two confine- 
ments that he had reason to fear she would not sur- 
vive the third. The work gives an account of an 
experiment which met with such favorable results 
that he felt it his duty to publish it for the benefit 
of others. His theory was that *' in proportion as a 



126 FRUIT DIET THEORY. 

woman subsists during pregnancy upon aliment that 
is free from earthy and bony matter, will she avoid 
pain and danger in delivery; hence the more ripe 
fruit, acid fruit in particular, and the less of other 
kinds of food, but particularly of bread or pastry of 
any kind is consumed, the less will be the danger 
and suffering in childbirth. 

"The subject of this experiment had, within three 
years, given birth to two children; and not only 
suffered extremely in the parturition, but for two or 
three months previous to delivery her general health 
was very indifferent, her lower extremities exceed- 
ingly swelled and painful; the veins so full and 
prominent as to be almost bursting; in fact to pre- 
vent such a catastrophe, bandages had to be applied; 
and for the last few weeks of gestation, her size and 
weight were such as to prevent her attending to her 
usual duties. She had on this occasion, two years 
and a half after her last delivery, d^dYdLnc^d full seven 
months in pregnancy before she commenced the ex- 
periment at her husband's earnest instance; her legs 
and feet were, as before, considerably swelled; the 
veins distended and knotty, and her health dimin- 
ishing. 

"She began the experiment in the first week of 
January, 1841. She commenced by eating an apple 
and an orange the first thing in the morning, and 
again at night. This was continued for about four 
days, when she took just before breakfast, in addition 
to the apple and orange, the juice of a lemon mixed 
with sugar, and at breakfast two or three roasted 
apples, taking a very small quantity of her usual food, 
viz,, whe^ten bread and butter. During the forenoon 



MRS. rowbotham's experience. 127 

she took an orange or two, and an apple. For dinner 
took fish or flesh in a small quantity, and potatoes, 
greens and apples, the apples sometimes peeled and 
cut into pieces; sometimes boiled whole with the 
potatoes; sometimes roasted before the fire and 
afterward mixed with sugar. In the afternoon she 
sucked an orange or ate an apple or some grapes, 
and always took some lemon-juice mixed with 
sugar or treacle. 

"At first the fruits acted strongly on the stomach 
and intestines, but this soon ceased, and she could 
take several lemons without inconvenience. For 
supper she again had roasted apples or a few oranges, 
and rice or sago boiled in milk; sometimes the apples 
peeled and cored, were boiled along with the rice or 
sago. On several occasions she took for supper 
apples and raisins, or figs with an orange cut among 
them, and sometimes all stewed together. Two or 
three times a week she took a tablespoonful of a 
mixture made of the juice of two oranges, one lemon, 
half a pound of grapes, and a quarter of a pound of 
sugar or treacle. The sugar or treacle served mainly 
to cover the taste of the acids, but all saccharine 
matter is very nutritious. The object in giving the 
acids was to dissolve as much as possible the earthy 
or bony matter which she had taken with her food 
in the first seven months of her pregnancy. 

'*She continued this course for si>t weeks, when to 
her surprise and satisfaction^ the swelled and prominent 
state of the veinSy^\i\z\i existed before she began this 
regimen, had entirely subsided; her legs and feet,which 
were also swelled considerably, had returned to their 
former state; and she became so light and active she 



128 DISTRESSING SYMPTOMS RELIEVED. 

could run up and down a flight of twenty stairs, with 
more ease than before she was pregnant. Her health 
became unwontedly excellent, and scarcely an ache 
or a pain affected her up to the night of her delivery. 
Even her breasts, which at the time she commenced 
the experiment, as well as during her former preg- 
nancies, were sore and tender, became entirely free 
from pain, and remained in the very best condition 
after delivery and during nursing." 

It is evident Mr. Rowbotham obtained more than 
he anticipated for his wife. He had only expected 
to arrest or decrease the development of bone, but by 
eating so largely of acid fruits, the inflammatory or 
''bilious " condition was overcome. The oxygen of 
the acids united with the excess of carbon previously 
taken, thus relieved the pathological symptoms under 
which she was suffering. It is doubtful whether the 
final favorable results would have been attained had 
this not been the case, as prolonged suffering often 
accompanies a premature labor, even when there is 
little osseous development. The fact that Mrs. R.'s 
general health was so much improved adds to the in- 
terest and importance of the experiment. 

He continues: "At nine o'clock A.M., after having 
cleaned her apartments, she was in the yard shaking 
a carpet, which she did with as much ease as anyone 
else could have done. At half-past ten she said she 
believed her ' time was come,' and the accoucheur 
was sent for. At one o'clock the child was born, 
and the surgeon had left the room. He knew nothing 
of the experiment being made, but on being asked 
on paper by the husband two days afterward if he 
could 'pronounce it as safe and as easy a delivery as 



RAPID CONVALESCENCE. 1 29 

he generally met with,' he replied on paper: ' I 
hereby testify that I attended Mrs. Rowbotham on 
the 3d inst., and that she had a safe labor and more 
easy than I generally meet with.' On his asking the 
midwife if she thought it as easy as usual, she re- 
plied: *Why, I should say that a more easy labor I 
never witnessed — I never saw such a thing, and I 
have been at a great many labors in my time! ' 

** The child, a boy, was finely proportioned and ex- 
ceedingly soft, his bones reseinbling gristle. He be- 
came of large size and very graceful, athletic and 
strong as he grew up. The diet of his mother was 
immediately changed, and she ate bread and milk 
and all articles of food in which phosphate of lime 
is to be found, and which had been left out before. 
She also got up from her confinement immediately 
and well. After her previous delivery, July, 1838, 
full ten days elapsed before she could leave her bed, 
and then she swooned at the first attempt; on this 
occasion, March, 1841, she left her bed the fourth 
day, and not only washed, but partly dressed herself. 
Had she not been influenced by custom and also 
been somewhat timid, she might have done so sooner. 
To be assisted appeared like a burlesque to her, not 
to say annoyance. She had no assistance from 
medicine. 

''During former pregnancieSjShe had subsisted very 
much on bread, puddings, pies, and all kinds of pas- 
try, having an idea that solid food of this kind was 
necessary to support the fetus. Nutritious food can 
be had without this hard and bony element, which is 
so large an ingredient of wheaten flour. Sago, tap- 
ioca, rice, etc., have little of it." 



I30 THEORY TESTED. 

This is a remarkable case, indeed, in some respects 
seems almost incredible. The theory expounded 
certainly deserves consideration. If there is any 
reasonable method by which the throes of parturi- 
tion can be mitigated, women want to and ought to 
know it. 

I have tested this theory thoroughly, and know 
many physicians who have instructed their patients 
accordingly. For a number of years I have been 
teaching it to women in conversations, and have many 
testimonials of good results. One commencing to 
practice this method at the beginning of pregnancy 
need not eat so plentifully of the fruit as did Mrs. R. 

A woman who, all her life, has violated natural 
laws, and consequently has been an invalid, is dis- 
eased by deleterious diet and deformed by unnatural 
modes of dress, can not expect to have a perfectly 
painless labor. Even such can, however, do much to 
mitigate her suffering by fidelity to these teachings. 
Like Mrs. R., comfort, health, strength and vivacity 
can be obtained during pregnancy, and the agony of 
parturition, that usually continues from twenty-four 
to forty-eight hours, can be reduced both in dura- 
tion and violence. The consequence will be a speedy 
restoration of the organs to a normal condition. 

•^or further proof of this theory, the reader's 
attention is called to the following notable expe- 
rience: A Mrs. W., the wife of a prominent judge, 
in the northern part of Michigan, is a woman of fine 
physique and apparently robust health. She is the 
mother of four children. With the first three, she 
suffered prolonged and agonizing labor, lasting in 
the expulsive stage from thirty to fifty hours. Be- 



GAIN TO THE CHILD 131 

coming pregnant again, her heart was filled with ter- 
ror lest she should not survive the ordeal. She was 
four months advanced in pregnancy when she be- 
came acquainted with the " fruit diet " theory, and 
lived accordingly, subsisting almost entirely upon 
fruits, rice and vegetables. 

Her health became unusually good. The pains, 
aches and discomforts she had experienced during 
the last months of previous pregnancies were en- 
tirely wanting. The time of delivery had arrived. 
At five o'clock in the morning she was suddenly 
awakened with a severe cramp in her limbs. She 
arose and walked the floor without relief. Return- 
ing to the bed, she obtained ease by applications of 
warmth and friction. 

She fell into a quiet sleep, which lasted, perhaps, 
half an hour. From this she was awakened by a 
labor pain. The doctor was hastily summoned, and 
although he lived across the street and came at once, 
the child was born before his arrival. This occurred 
before seven o'clock, less than two hours from the 
time she was awakened with the cramps. She avers 
that the effort that expelled the child could not be 
called a pain, only a sense of discomfort, or of con- 
tinued pressure. Her child is now three years old, 
is unusually healthy and robust. The bones were 
pliable at birth, but soon solidified. When it is 
known that many of the bones of the human body 
under any circumstances are not fully ossified until 
about the 20th year, it need be no source of uneasi- 
ness that the osseous structure is more than usually 
pliable at birth. In most cases the gain for the 
child is as great as for the mother. 

9 



132 INTERESTING TESTIMONY. 

Mrs. K. with her first child had the usual three 
months of "morning sickness," which, in her case, 
continued the entire day. She suffered fearfully 
from bloating and lameness, so much so that she was 
unable to leave the house during the last weeks of 
gestation. She bathed in warm water only frequently 
enough to answer the demands of cleanliness. Her 
labor was both severe and prolonged. She had con- 
vulsions, and after forty-eight hours of agony the 
child was removed with instruments. Her confine- 
ment was followed by broken breasts, metritis and 
cellulitis, and she was unable to sit up a moment 
until the child was five weeks old. 

With her second child she bathed freely in cold 
water and lived upon the "fruit and rice diet. She 
had no morning sickness, no heartburn, no neuralgia, 
and scarcely any bloating or lameness. It may be 
said that the child was born without any labor as she 
had no sensation of pain. She had slept unusually well, 
awakened about three o'clock with the "breaking of 
the waters," called her husband, who sprang from the 
bed, but could not get dressed to call her mother 
who was upstairs, before the lusty cry of the little 
stranger pressed him into the work of an amateur 
accoucheur. She used cold water freely after her 
confinement, and had no gathered breasts, no inflam- 
mation, or trouble of any kind. Felt able to get 
about the house the following day; seemed quite ab- 
surd to lie in bed. She speaks of it joyfully as one 
of the greatest triumphs of her life, and preaches the 
doctrine to all she meets. She could not be con- 
vinced that there is any need of childbirth being ac- 
companied by severe pain. 



EXTRAORDINARY EXPERIENCE. 133 

The following case came under my notice, and 
proves the efficacy of the "fruit diet." 

Mrs. L. T. Colburn, living in Eureka, Kansas, is a 
woman, short, fleshy, and what is called solid built. 
She has five children: with the first four, her labors 
were severe and prolonged. Some of them only ter- 
minated with instrumental interference. Relays of 
neighboring women were worn out in rendering her 
the customary aid, and some of her male relatives 
had to be pressed into service. During her last preg- 
nancy, accidentally, she lived upon fruit and rice, 
and her experience was as unlike the former deliver- 
ies as night is unlike day. Her husband kept a gro- 
cery and provision store, and the family lived over 
the store; Mrs. C. was in the grocery frequently. 
She had a craving for lemons and oranges, and ate 
of them very freely, often consuming half a dozen of 
either at one time. Her greediness for these fruits 
became the by-word of friends and neighbors. 

Previous to this time her eldest son, showing symp- 
toms of irritation of the brain, subsisted upon rice. 
From this the entire family came to living almost 
totally upon rice. As usual, she made very elabor- 
ate preparations for her confinement; her physician, 
nurse and friends were engaged. At the end of nine 
months she was awakened with the '^breaking of the 
waters." She aroused her husband. He thought he 
had better go for a doctor. "Why, there is no use," 
she said, " I have not a particle of pain." However, 
he feared there was something wrong, and after 
calling her sister, went with all possible haste for 
medical aid. 



134 MRS. COLBURN'S TESTIMONY. 

The sister, too, was alarmed, and went to the next 
door to call a neighbor. Before either returned, 
while Mrs. C. was entirely alone, the child was born, 
without the sensation of pain. 

Mrs. C. had talked her experience over many times 
with her husband and friends, and was never able to 
account for the very marked difference in her con- 
finements until at my conversations she heard me ex- 
pound the ''rice and fruit diet" theory. With tears 
streaming from her eyes she recounted her story; she 
said: "I am so glad to know that this is not the re- 
sult of chance — that it is the truth and philosophy 
by which all may profit." 

Mrs. C. is a true woman; she told me she was wil- 
ling her name and experience should be used for the 
benefit of others, and handed me this testimony: 

"This is to certify that I know what Dr. Stockham 
teaches in regard to * Fruit Diet ' is true. When 
pregnant with my last child, I accidentally lived upon 
rice and fruit, and my child was born with compara- 
tively no pain or sensible effort; could not get a 
physician in time, nor did I need one. In four pre- 
vious deliveries I had physicians with me over 
twenty-four hours, and had prolonged and severe 
labors. I can account for the difference only through 
the fruit and rice diet. 

L. T. COLBURN, 

May 2, 1882. Eureka^ Kansas. 

Food and drink should be chosen that lack in bone 
forming materials. The carbonaceous elements of 
the grains are not objectionable, while to prevent in- 
flammation the free use oi fats and sweets should be 



BILL OF FARE. I35 

avoided. Of the legumina and grains: beans, barley, 
rye and oats, in order, contain the largest amount of 
mineral product; wheat not quite so much; corn, al- 
most none. Lean meat, chicken, oysters, clams, 
lobster, crab, etc., abound in the mineral salts. All 
garden vegetables, save beans, are desirable. Eggs, 
wheat and milk can be used moderately. 

Feast on fruits freely should be the pregnant 
woman's motto. The oxygen of acid fruits unite 
with the carbon, hence besides dissolving the phos- 
phates tends to prevent inflammation. 

That the fruit diet prevents the diseases of preg- 
nancy and the sufferings of parturition, is a boon to 
every woman, and all knowing this ought to preach it. 

The bill of fare below suggests dishes desirable 
in pregnancy. Remember always to add fruit. Next 
to lemon and oranges, apples, peaches and plums 
should be chosen. For supper it is better to take 
simply rice or corn gruel, or, if in summer, a dish of 
ice cream. It must be understood that this bill of 
fare is merely suggestive, being intended to show 
that a variety of attractive dishes can be made en- 
tirely compatible with the theory. 

BREAKFAST FOR EACH DAY OF THE WEEK. 

Monday. — Rice balls, baked apples, baked pota- 
toes, corn muffins, corn tea. 

Tuesday. — Japanese rice, apple sauce, creamed 
potato, corn-meal griddle cakes, barley coffee. 

Wednesday. — Rice muffins, fresh fruit, rhubarb 
on toast, breakfast patties, wheat coffee. 

Thursday. — Hominy, stewed fruit, rice omelet, 
potato balls, corn muffins, hot milk. 



136 BILL OF FARE. 

Friday. — Rice griddle cakes, stewed potatoes, 
milk toast, sago and cream, barley coffee. 

Saturday. — Corn mush, tomato on toast, egg 
omelet, graham muffins, hot milk. 

Sunday. — Fresh fruit, codfish balls, baked pota- 
toes, rice muffins, chocolate, maple syrup. 

DINNER FOR EACH DAY OF THE ^YEEK. 

Monday. — Macaroni soup, asparagus on toast, 
mashed potatoes, sago-apple pudding or rice snow. 

Tuesday. — Noodle soup, raw oysters, potato 
puffs, succotash, baked macaroni, cold slaw, baked 
rice pudding or apple-tapioca pudding, fruit. 

Wednesday. — Tomato soup, fresh fish, mashed 
potatoes, beets, baked Indian pudding or rhubarb pie. 

Thursday. — Vegetable soup, tomatoes on toast, 
creamed potatoes, stewed macaroni, corn, cracked- 
wheat pudding or cornstarch blanc-mange, fruit. 

Friday. — Rice soup, creamed codfish, green peas, 
spinach, boiled potatoes, strawberry shortcake or 
fruit blanc-mange. 

Saturday. — Potato soup, macaroni and cheese, 
vegetable oysters, creamed cabbage, baked rice om- 
elet, fruit shortcake, fruit. 

Sunday. — Baked chicken, sweet potatoes, celery, 
unleavened bread, potato puffs, corn, farina blanc- 
mange with jelly, nuts and fruits. 

Copy this bill of fare and paste in the kitchen, 
where it will be handy to refer to. If one is not ac- 
customed to the use of grains it requires some pa- 
tience to learn to prepare the food so that it will 
prove both nourishing and satisfactory to a delicate 
appetite. See chapter on dietetics for recipes. 



FOOD TABLE. 



137 



The following table has been carefully prepared 
from Payen's food analysis. It will afford assistance 
in selecting appropriate diet, and should be studied 
with care. 

ANALYSIS OF FOOD. 



ARTICLES. 



Wheat*. . . . 

Rye* 

Barley''^. . . 

Oats* 

Maize* . . . 
Buckwheat. 

Rice 

Beans 

Lean Meat. 
Potatoes . . . 
White Fish 

Eggs 

Milk . 

Sugar 
Butter 



Nitrog- 


Carbon- 


Mineral 


Waste. 


enous 


naceous 


Salts. 




18 


77 


2 


3 


13 


81 


3 


3 


13 


79 


J) 


5 


14 


75 


3 


8 


12 


80 


I 


7 


13 


67 


2 


4 


5 


82 





4 


30 


57 


4 


I 


19 


4 


5 




2 


24 


I 




18 


3 


I 




16 


30 


2 




4 


9 
100 


I 





Water. 



14 

9 
8 

72 

73 
78 
52 
86 



*A dry state. 
cent, water. 



In any ordinary state grains contains 11 to 18 per 



CHAPTER X. 



HYGIENE IN PREGNANCY. — EXERCISE. 

Motion is a law of nature. All animal life is full of 
activity. Remaining quietly in closely heated rooms 
frequently causes disease in the pregnant woman. 
Without exercise, food cannot be assimilated, the 
processes of depurition are imperfect, the muscles 
lose tone and power, and the nervous system be- 
comes prostrated. On the other hand, excessive 
labor often proves injurious. Some muscles are 
overtaxed and local strains produced. It is difficult 
to give directions applicable to all cases. Exercise 
should not be carried to actual fatigue. A weariness 
that makes the bed feel good can do no harm. 

General housework is desirable, avoiding the more 
laborious portion, like washing, scrubbing and heavy 
lifting. In housework one brings into action nearly 
all the muscles of the body, with the exception of 
some of the trunk and those used in deep respiration. 
Even these would not lack development if clothing 
caused no restrictions. In the home work a woman 
reaches, stoops, turns, walks, lifts and climbs stairs.-' 

Housekeeping usually interests a woman during 
pregnancy if at no other time. She is nest btiildiitgy 
and the home work is a labor of love. She rests in 
the quiet of a cozy, retired home. How easy to per- 
form the duties that the heart sanctions and impels! 

(138) 



WOMEN WALK TOO LITTLE. 1 39 

If a woman has no functional derangement, walk- 
ing and carriage riding are invaluable. She cannot be 
too much in the out-door air. Properly clothed, brisk 
walking brings into action nearly every muscle, and 
is invigorating to every function. American women, 
as a rule, walk too little. Wearing common sense 
shoes, having the arms free, the dress short and 
loose, one can accustom herself to walking long dis- 
tances with positive benefit. 

Light gardening can not be too highly recom- 
mended. It has the advantage of being out doors. 
It gives postures that bring into action the unused 
muscles of the trunk and abdomen. 

Coming in contact with the earth carries off any 
excess of electricity. Besides, the result, either in 
a supply of fresh vegetables for the table, or in floral 
decorations, are always satisfactory. My own expe- 
rience proves that getting out and working in the 
ground is a cure-all for enmu^ indigestion, torpid 
liver, anxiety, despondency; indeed, any slight phy- 
sical derangement or mental disturbance. 

Possessing no garden to cultivate, lying flat upon 
the ground without blanket or pillow answers a good 
purpose. More rest can be obtained in five minutes 
than in five hours upon lounge or bed in the house. 
Although this is contrary to all tradition and teach- 
ing, many have proved its value. 

What is the object to be gained by exercise in 
pregnancy.-* Evidently absorption, nutrition and ex- 
cretion. All the functions must be kept to a normal 
standard, so that the processes of assimilation and 
waste can be perfectly performed. 

The involuntary muscles of respiration must be ed- 



I40 DEEP BREATHING. 

ucated. Those required in parturition must be de- 
veloped and strengthened. There are the muscles 
of the abdomen, pelvis, perineum and groin, also 
some of the muscles of the trunk. 

Full and deep breathing is not only necessary to 
perfectly oxygenate the blood and by the attendant 
motion to promote digestion, but it makes room for 
the fetus as well. It expands the wall of the abdo- 
men and chest, and strengthens the sustaining power 
of the uterus. Is it not possible, too, that it gives a 
needed exercise to the fetus, a constnnt gentle mo- 
tion promoting the 'unctionsnecessary to its develop- 
ment and growth.? 

Breathing for l.he most part is an involuntary 
action, and in children and animals is performed 
naturally from the abdomen or flank. " Look upon 
that quietly sleeping cat on the rug. Its sole indi- 
cation of vitality is the bellows-like motion of its 
body in breathing. You must also have observed 
that in all domestic animals, at each respiration, an 
uHdulating motion extends quite through the whole 
trunk, and that this motion terminates only at the 
hindermost limbs. This is natural respiration as it is 
performed throughout quadruped existence. 

" Have you a perfectly healthy lady friend.'^ Lay 
your hand upon her and you will find that her abdo- 
men rises and falls in exactly the same way at every 
respiratory act; not only so, but that this act is invol- 
untarily performed in a more profound manner every 
few moments, and that this increased motion operates 
particularly upon the lowest portion of the trunk. 

" Observe in the same way your own person. If 
you are an invalid, you will find this motion dimin- 



WOMEN WANT WAIST BREATHING. I4I 

ished, perhaps suppressed. When one half breathes 
he only half lives." 

The lungs or air receptacles are enclosed within 
the walls of the chest or thoratic cavity; beneath the 
lungs is the great breathing motor, the diaphragm, of 
a convex shape when in repose. In all correct inhal- 
ation the air filling the lungs flattens the diaphragm. 
This must result in the expansion of the body adja- 
cent to and surrounding the diaphragm. Natural 
breathing should be accomplished without any up- 
heaval of the chest or hoisting of the shoulders. 

That adults, and especially women, have not this 
deep waist breathing is on account of disuse of the 
muscles. The young man who is stoop-shouldered, 
walks the streets with his hands in his pockets or sits 
bent over his desk, soon diminishes the action of 
these muscles. The girl, deprived of pockets, may 
keep her head and shoulders erect, yet by faulty 
dress, compresses and fixes the lower muscles of res- 
piration and breathes only with the top of the lungs. 
When either man or woman has lost the ability to 
breathe deeply, a long road must be traveled to edu- 
cate the muscles back to natural use. 

A man in Colorado had broncorrhoea and occa- 
sional lung hemorrhage. Although he could walk 
six or seven miles he could not breathe below the 
eighth rib. I said: ''I did not know a man could 
live, and breathe no deeper. By all your hopes of 
life, you must learn to breathe. To be sure you can 
walk, but the muscles of your legs don't help your 
respiration. You must take exercises that develop 
the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Breathe 
down, down, and relieve the congestion of the upper 



142 THE VOCALIST AND GYMNAST. 

lungs." He said: *' I have consulted many physicians 
the last six years, and why have none told me this 
before?" Several months afterward he wrote me 
that by simply developing the lower muscles of res- 
piration, he had saved funeral expenses. 

The gymnast and vocalist take pains to teach deep 
breathing, which is simply restoring natural pro- 
cesses. The cow will low all day for her lost offspring 
without fatigue or hoarsness, because she does it 
with expiration, and breathes from her waist or 
flanks. The boy who roams the woods, gathers nuts 
and hunts squirrels and keeps his hands out of his 
pockets, can hallo hours without weariness. He 
breathes naturally and uses his voice naturally. He 
does only what the singer and orator are taught to 
do, because through disuse this has become a lost 
art to them. 

The blacksmith or stone-cutter desiring to strike a 
heavy blow, does it with expiration, and the breath is 
driven from the lungs with an ugh! that is almost a 
groan. No matter what knotted muscles he may 
have upon his arm, if the great converging muscle 
below the lungs is not equally strong and powerful, 
he can not strike an effective blow. It is said that 
out of three hundred recent candidates for the Navy 
school, two hundred and twenty-five were rejected 
simply because of contracted chests and inefificient 
breathing. Manhood, womanhood, endurance and 
longevity depend upon lung power, and this is within 
the reach of all. 

Educate the muscles of respiration. *To 
learn deep breathing be as passive as possible; that 
is, assume a position in which all the voluntary 



MASSAGE. 143 

motor muscles are inactive. Lie flat on the back, 
perfectly horizontal, without even an elevation of the 
head. Shut the mouth and draw the air in through 
the channel provided by nature — the nose. As a re- 
sult of bad habits, most persons will raise the upper 
ribs, yet this expansion will soon yield to a move- 
ment of the lower ribs, and this again will gradually 
cease by continued practice, as will also every dis- 
tension of the ribs. All these faulty movements 
will be superseded by a bulging out of the abdomen, 
which will be proportioned to the amount of air in- 
haled." Exhale also through the nose, letting the 
breath out slowly. Alternate costal and abdominal 
breathing. That is, with one inspiration swell out the 
sides; burst the belt; this retracts the abdomen; with 
the next bulge out the abdomen, which is done by 
pressing the diaphragm down. 

Massage is a most desirable mode of exercise, 
especially for invalids and delicate people. This is 
a thorough manipulation by an attendant of all the 
muscles. 

Massage is one of the most effective of all mani- 
pulations to promote nerve currents and blood cir- 
culation. It renders the skin soft and elastic. The 
action extends deeply in the body, thus promoting 
the activity of all the blood-vessels. It restores the 
circulation to the extremities, thus relieving the 
plethora of the viscera generally attendant upon 
chronic diseases. 

The muscle-beater is a convenient and inexpensive 
substitute for the hand, in Massage and Swedish 
movement cures, as it gives excellent muscular treat- 
ment without the aid of an assistant. This little in- 



144 MILITARY POSITION. 

strument consists of three rubber tubes, fastened 
together toward the handle. With this, one can 
treat the skin and muscles in any part of the body. 
Always in standing and walking, assume the 

MILITARY POSITION. 

1. Heels in line, and together. 

2. Feet turned equally outward, forming an angle 
of forty-five degrees. 

3. Knees straight. 

4. Body square to the front. 

5. Chest expanded and advanced, but without 
constraint. 

6. Arms hung easily to the side. (Swing them 
out and let them drop like a pendulum). 

7. Shoulders equal height. 

8. Shoulder blades flat. 

9. Head erect, raised at the crown (as if suspended 
by a cord), not tipped in any direction. 

10. Chin slightly drawn in. 

11. Form raised to full height. 

12. Body poised slightly forward, so that the 
weight bears mainly on the ball of the foot. 

13. Eyes straight to the front. 

14. Whole figure in such a position that a line will 
pass through ear, shoulder, hip, knee and ankle. 

Get this position before a glass and practice it, 
until it can always be maintained. It gives ease, 
grace and strength. Teach it to every child. 

The following exercises, as well as those in Chap. 
V will be found invaluable to equalize the circula- 
tion, to aid digestion, as well as to promote natural 
breathing and develop the muscles required in par- 



VALUABLE EXERCISES. I45 

turition. Begin cautiously with the first five, increas- 
ing the number and time devoted to them as strength 
is gained. 

EXERCISES ADAPTED TO GESTATION. 

1. Standing position. Carry the weight of the 
body as far forward and backward as possible, with- 
out lifting heels or bending knees. Count four to 
each movement. 

2. Same position. Bend body slowly from side to 
side. Keep knees straight and feet firm. 

3. Hands forward on hips, bend trunk at hips 
slowly forward; rise slowly and bend backward, 
always keeping the head in position with the body. 

4. Inflate the lungs. Touch the shoulders lightly 
with the tips of the fingers. Bring the elbows slowly 
in front of the body, touching them together. Lift 
them as high as possible. Throw elbows back and 
up, the fingers still touching shoulders. Bring them 
back to commencing position. Expel air. This ex- 
ercise elevates the ribs and expands lower part of 
chest. 

5. Erect position. Inhale. Finger tips to shoul- 
ders. Hold the breath to count twenty, then with 
clenched fist strike downward and forward. Stop 
suddenly as if striking an object. Expel breath 
forcibly with the motion. If the motion is de- 
cisive the breath will naturally be expelled by the 
diaphragm. 

6. Kneel on a cushion, knees far apart, stretch 
arms upward, parallel with each other by the side of 
head, bend trunk slowly backward as far as possible, 
remain to count four, return forward as far as possi- 



146 EXERCISES IN PREGNANCY. 

ole, keeping knees and feet firm. This is one of the 
best exercises for strengthening the muscles of the 
back and pelvis. 

7. Same position, hands clasped on top of head, 
move the body from side to side slowly, count four 
with each movement and then rest. In the same po- 
sition twist the body from right to left. 

8. Same position, arms extended horizontally for- 
ward, throw them backward in a direct line as far as 
possible. This may be practiced quickly or slowly 
as if carrying a weight. 

9. Reclining upon back, flex the knees and sway 
them from side to side. 

10. Same position, flex and thrust the limbs down- 
ward alternately. 

11. Reclining, face downward, flex knees and sway 
feet from right to left. 

12. Same position, with the help of an assistant 
flex and extend the limbs, using resistance. 

13. Same position, rest on elbows and sway shoul- 
ders from right to left. 

14. Same position, elevate the body slowly, rest- 
ing only on toes and elbows. 

15. Recline on back and make hand thrusts, with 
or without weights, upward, outward, forward and 
downward. 

In all these exercises it is persistent, patient effort 
that gives decided results. One will not see their 
effects in one day, nor one week, unless it is in greater 
freedom of breath. At first soreness may follow the 
use of muscles unaccustomed to exercise. A wet 
compress or a warm bath will relieve this. These 
exercises should always be taken in a loose wrapper 



CLIMBING STAIRS. 147 

and at stated hours. The best time is before the 
forenoon bath and before retiring at night. 

The following is a heresy but nevertheless is a 
truth. A pregnant woman having a comfortable 
degree of health, will derive as much benefit by going 
up and down stairs as by any other exercise^ providing 
she observe the following conditions: 

1. Wear a dress that is loose, light and short. 

2. Keep the mouth closed. 

3. Fill the lungs with air, hold the breath until 
the top is reached, and then expel slowly. 

4. Maintain the erect position. 

Notice what has been accomplished. The dia- 
phragm and abdominal muscles have been brought 
into action by the deep breath, while the muscles of 
the thigh, pelvis, perineum and groin are all engaged 
in elevating the body. Each time the thigh is raised, 
pressure is made upon the abdominal viscera, which, 
if there is no outside counteracting force, are pushed 
outward and upv/ard, and with the opposite move- 
ment resume their place. 

The reason climbing stairs may injure women is, 
that with each upward movement, as the bowels are 
pushed out, they come in contact with the outside 
constricting pressure of corset and bands. Where 
can they go} Not being able to go outward they 
must go upward, arresting the breath, or downward, 
pressing the pelvic viscera upon the perineum. Is 
it not unjust to attribute the mischief to the stairs, 
when all the time it is the clothing that does the 
harm.? Who would ever think of its hurting a boy 
to go up stairs, even if he takes three steps at a time, 

and goes up three flights without catching his breath? 

10 



14^ KEEP THE MOUTH CLOSED. 

Dress a girl as sensibly; neither will it hurt her, for 
really the little anatomical difference in their organi- 
zation is in the girl's favor. 

Going up stairs is the best way to get desired 
exercise in a short time. A successful, self educated 
man of this city said that, when studying, and his 
brain became weary and stupid, he left his books and 
ran up and down stairs three or four times, accom- 
plishing more for himself than by half an hour's 
walk, or by gymnastics. 

When I was in medical college, some of our lec- 
ture rooms were on the fourth floor, and my own 
room was also on the fourth floor; both of these 
buildings had high ceilings. I used to pride myself 
in starting at the first floor, and running to the top 
without stopping. I then wore the "American cos- 
tume," and was nearly as free in my dress as a man. 
Ever since, stairs have presented no more difficulties 
to me than a level floor. 

A lady told me that with her third child she prac- 
ticed going up and down stairs on purpose for the 
exercise. The result was the easiest labor and the 
best recovery she ever had experienced. 

In climbing hills, observe the same rules — keep the 
mouth closed^ expel slowly through the nose, and stand 
erect. Not long since I read a long letter, upon run- 
ning, written to boys (and why not to girls as well.'*) 
The writer claimed that the whole secret of being 
able to run and defy all competitors, was to keep the 
mouth closed. Why.-* Simply because it forces deep 
'breathing, and compels the use of the diaphragm. Any 
one can prove this. So with any exercise, but espe- 
cially in climbing hills or stairs, keep the mouth closed. 



DELSARTE. I49 

Let me urge and emphasize that the pregnant 
woman must walk, ride, take gymnastics, climb hills 
and stairs, beginning according to her strength, and 
increasing the amount from day to day. Upon 
strength, power and vigor of muscles, largely de- 
pends easy labor. 

The Delsarte system of esthetic gymnastics is a 
method of physical training leading to the cultiva- 
tion of grace and strength. Truthful or natural ex- 
pression of one's individuality is the key-note of 
Delsarte's thought. This is really a desirable means 
of obtaining rest, for it te-^cnes giving up all unnec- 
essary tension. In this it is quite the opposite of 
other methods of gymnastics. This letting go or 
giving up, can not be done all at once. The teachers 
of the system give a series of exercises to free the 
different parts of the body; first the head, then the 
hands and feet, then the muscles of the waist and 
chest. Deep breathing aids in freeing the vital 
organs. All forces of the body are thus allowed a 
natural and graceful expression. 

Annie Payson Call, in her tract on the Regenera- 
tion of the Body, says: ''The soul can be regener- 
ated and the body remain disorderly; the body can 
be trained to a fine physical life and action and the 
soul remain unregenerate; but certainly the fulness 
of life, both for this world and the next, must come 
from a more perfect harmony of the material body 
with the soul." 



CHAPTER XL 



CHASTITY IN THE MARRIAGE RELATION. 

*♦ So dear to heaven is saintly chastity, 
That when a soul is found sincerely so, 
A thousand liveried angek lackey her." 

— Milton. 

Many years ago during a visit to my cousin, a 
young married woman called with her four months 
old baby — a thin-necked, bloodless, blue looking 
child. After she left, cousin observed, '* Is it not a 
shame that young people have so little knowledge? 
That poor child is suffering because the parents too 
frequently practice the privileges accorded in the 
marriage relation. The milk is deprived of its vital- 
izing and nutritious elements." So little of such 
matters had come to my knowledge that all she 
meant was not comprehended. From what my in- 
stincts had taught me, and what had been seen in 
animal life, I had no thought that this relation ever 
was frequent, especially during child-bearing. 

To this day the picture of that wan, pale baby is 
impressed upon my memory, its very emaciation 
making an eloquent plea for the rights of children. 
Soon after this, I heard H. C. Wright's lecture upon 
"Marriage; its Duties and Responsibilities." He 
urged men and women to transmit the best of them- 
selves to their children, and to be certain that off- 

(150) 



children's rights. 151 

spring were not deprived of vitality and strength by 
lustful indulgence. For the sake of the improvement 
and progress of posterity, the life of married people 
must be temperate. After this I read his '^ Marriage 
and Parentage," and ''Unwelcome Child," with in- 
creased interest in this subject. 

At that time the need of such lectures and books 
was not understood. In long years since, the agoniz- 
ing cries of heart-broken, suffering women, the ter- 
rible death rate of little children have proven that 
in the marriage relation there is such a perversion 
of nature, such grievous wrongs committed that one 
needs a pen of fire to express the living, burning 
thoughts, and carry the conviction of truth into the 
very lives of men and women. Unless by some 
divine miracle, the eloquence of a thousand inspired 
pens cannot stay the floodtide of wrong and injustice 
now done to women and children under the cover 
of the marriage law. 

Among animals, except in rare instance under 
domestication, the female admits the male in sexual 
embrace, only for procreation. Among some savage 
tribes this same rule has few exceptions. Is it not 
true that civilized people, boasting of their moral and 
religious codes, hold, teach and practice that sexual 
union shall occur in season and out of season, aver- 
ring this to be the fulfillment of nature's law.^ 

Briefly consider different views upon this subject. 

First. Those who hold that sexual intercourse is 
a "physical necessity" to man but not to woman. 

Second. Those who believe the act is a love relation, 
mutually demanded and enjoyed by both sexes, and 
serving other purposes besides that of procreation. 



152 POPULAR THEORIES. 

Third. Those who claim the relation should never 
be entered into save for procreation. 

Physicians and physiologists teach, and most men 
and women believe: 

That sexual union is a necessity to man, while it is 
not to woman. 

That there is implanted in his being demands that 
cannot be restrained wichout injury to health. 

That restraint is followed by absorption of the 
elements of generation, producing effects not unlike 
the absorption of a virulent foreign element. 

That woman naturally has not so much passion as 
man, has not so much secretion, also has an outlet 
in menstruation, consequently has not the same 
demands nor the same injury if not gratified. 

Are these claims based upon truth? What are the 
facts from which to infer what men and wo^men 
naturally are.*^ 

When woman only is taught that virtue is the 
brightest jewel in her erown, when the popular v.er- 
dict is that womanliness and modesty are synonyms 
for repression, when she lives in fear of maternity, 
and believes restraint on her part prevents vitality of 
life germs, when, too, erroneous habits pervert every 
function, how can we tell what is natural for her.-* 

Then, on the other hand, when man is taught that 
virtue is not synonymous with manliness, when the 
passions are stimulated by unnatural habits of living, 
by impure conversation, thoughts, books and prac- 
tices, can we say this strength of passion is purely 
natural and healthy.^ 

A. E. Newton says: ''They who have never care- 
fully noted the effects of alcoholic stimulants, of 



SOCIAL EVIL. 153 

coffee, oysters, eggs, spices and animal food, as well 
as they who find pleasure in filthy conversations, 
can not surely, with any justness, charge nature with 
the exuberance of their amatory desires." 

We teach the girl repression, the hoy expression, not 
simply by word and book, but the lessons are graven 
into their very being by all the traditions, prejudices 
and customs of society. 

What are some of the results of this theory.^ 

Notably, in the first place, we have what is called 
the "social evil." Women, licensed by men, make a 
business of prostitution, selling their bodies that this 
demand— this necessity — of the male shall be supplied. 
In visiting these women, men simply yield to this 
supposed necessity of their nature; consequently 
commit no violation of law. 

Women not having the same demands, by entering 
this life, or even permitting the act once, violate the 
laws of their being; according to the social codes, 
perpetrate the greatest crime in the calendar! They 
become outcasts. If they fill their lives with noble 
and philanthropic deeds, this one sin is so foul and 
rank, is such an offense, they have little hope of 
remission, even from a just and all-loving God. 

Can the fact that men are upheld, their crime even 
condoned, while women, as partners in this terrible 
evil, are not only ostracised, but irretrievably lost, 
be explained in any other way.^ 

Witness the effect of this same theory in the mar- 
riage relation! The man who has been accustomed 
to gratify his passions promiscuously, seeks and 
marries a lovely, virtuous girl. She is not supposed 
to have needs in this direction. Neither has she 



154 UNWELCOME CHILD. 

learned that her body is her own and her soul is her 
Maker's. She gives up all ownersJiip of herself to 
her husband, and what is the difference between her 
life and the life of the public woman? She is sold to 
one man, and is not half so well paid. Is it too strong 
language to say she is the one prostitute taking the 
place, for the man, of many, and not like her, having 
choice of time or conditions? In consequence she 
not only suffers physically, but feels disgraced and 
outraged to the depths of her soul. 

She is liable to a chance maternity and the unwel- 
come child is deprived of physical vigor, and may be 
endowed with lustful passions and morbid appetites, 
if he does not indeed curse his own existence. 

At the close of one of my health conversations after 
speaking upon this subject, a lady tremblingly, but 
touchingly, gave her experience. She said: "Ladies, 
when I was married two years I was the mother of a 
puny,, sickly baby; it had required incessant care and 
watching to keep it alive. When it was only seven 
months old, to my surprise, astonishment and horror, 
I felt quickening^ and for the first time, I knew I was 
pregnant again. I was abased, humiliated. The sense of 
degradation that filled my soul, cannot be described. 
What had been done? The babe that was born and 
the babe that was unborn were robbed of their just 
inheritance. Remorsefully and tearfully I told my 
mother. She says: 'Why child, you should not 
grieve; don't you know your children are legitimate .!*' 
My whole being arose in protest; I stamped my foot 
and almost screamed; 'Although my husband is the 
father of my children, they are not legitimate. No 
man-made laws, nor priestly rites can ever make an 



LESSON FOR HUSBANDS. 155 

act legitimate that deprives innocent children of tneir 
right to life and health.' With sobs and moans, reac- 
tion came and I fainted in her arms. What was the 
sequel.^ Two years later both of these children after 
a brief existence lay in the * city of the dead,' and 
until my husband and I learned the law we could not 
have children to live." 

Parties holding the second theory claim: 

That coition is a love act. -' 

That it should never occur except when there is 
mutual participation on the part of both man and 
woman, and should be governed and guarded so as 
to control the creative power. 

Thus this act is the emblem of love; by it there is 
a mutual exchange of subtle elements which gives 
health and vigor, and more firmly cements the union. 

That if the lives of married people accorded to 
this theory, the demand of the man would be no 
more frequent than that of the woman. 

That the husband cannot sustain this relation sat- 
isfactorily and without injury to himself unless there 
is reciprocation on the part of the wife. 

That under this mutual relation there is no loss to 
either party, but a mutual compensation. 

This theory has its arguments and certainly is 
more humane than the first. 

A woman once consulted me who was the mother 
of five children, all born within ten years. These 
were puny, scrofulous, nervous, and irritable. She 
herself was a fit subject for doctors and drugs. 
Every organ in her body seemed diseased, and every 
function perverted. She was dragging out a miser- 
able existence. Like other physicians, I had pre- 



156 TOUCHING EXPERIENCE. 

scribed in vain for her many maladies. One day she 
chanced to inquire how she could safely prevent 
conception. This led me to ask how great was the 
danger. She said: ''Unless my husband is absent 
from home, few nights have been exempt since we 
were married, except it may be three or four imme- 
diately after confinement." 

''And yet your husband loves you.?" 

"O, yes, he is kind and provides for his family. 
Perhaps I might love him but for this. While now 
— (will God forgive me?) — I detest, I loathe him, and 
if I knew how to support myself and children, 
would leave him." 

"Can you talk with him upon this subject.?" 

"I think I can." 

"Then there is hope, for many women cannot do 
that. Tell him I will give you treatment to improve 
your health, and if he will wait until you can respond, 
take time for the act, have it entirely mutual from first 
to last, the demand will not come so frequently." 

"Do you think so.?" 

"The experience of many proves the truth of this 
statement." 

Hopefully she went home, and in six months I 
had the satisfaction of knowing my patient was 
restored to health, and a single coition in a month 
gave the husband more satisfaction tlian the many 
had done previously, that the creative power was 
under control, and that my lady could proudly say 
"I love," where previously she said "I hate." 

If husbands will listen, a few simple instructions 
will appeal to their common sense, and none can 
imagine the gain to themselves, to their wives, and 



THEORY OF CONTINENCE. 15/ 

children and their children's children. Then it may 
not be said of the babes that their ''Death borders 
on their birth, and their cradle stands in the grave." 

The third theory^ that the sexual relation should 
never be sustained, save for procreation, has many 
adherents. They teach that there are other uses for 
the procreative element than the generation of off- 
spring — far better uses than its waste in momentary 
pleasure. This element, when retained in the sys- 
tem, the mental powers being properly directed, is 
in some way absorbed and diffused throughout the 
whole organism, replacing waste, and imparting a 
peculiar vivifying influence. It is taken up by the 
brain and may be coined into new thoughts — per- 
haps new inventions — grand conceptions of the true, 
the beautiful, the useful, or into fresh emotions of 
joy and impulses of kindness, and blessings to all 
around. It is a procreation on the mental and spir- 
itual planes instead of the physical. It is just as 
really a part of the generative function as is the beget- 
ting of physical offspring. 

They claim that men eminent for grand achieve- 
ments in fields of science, philosophy, invention, 
religion and philanthropy, have been men whose 
lives accorded to this theory, referring us as illus- 
trious examples to Plato, Newton, Lamb, our own 
Irving and Whittier, and always remembering the 
humble Nazarene 

They also claim that to woman belongs the "crea- 
tive power," that she must choose when a new life 
shall be evolved, and only by adhering to this law 
can she be protected in the highest function of her 
being — the function of maternity. Mrs. Chandler in 



158 A SCRIPTURE LESSON. 

* Motherhood," says: "Every mother from the hour 
when the new life commences, is overshadowed by 
the Most High. Could she understand her needs 
and powers, and secure to herself respect due to her 
sacred office, and, free from all polluting intrusion 
upon herself, bathe her spirit in the influxes which 
the life within attracts, very rapidly would disappear 
the loathesome deformities, the discordant spirits 
now blotting the fair proportions of humanity." 

She claims that in the Scripture statement in 
reference to the parents of the child Jesus, that 
Joseph ''knew not" Mary from the hour when the 
announcement of the new life was made untif. the 
birth of the child, is involved a deeper and more 
important meaning than the Christian world or the 
medical profession have discovered. Thus this "undis- 
turbed maternity, which was essential to the ushering 
in of the Prince of Peace, is equally in all cases a vital 
and indisputable necessity for the improvement of 
humanity. Motherhood should be a shrine unpol- 
luted by selfishness. O woman! This would be thy 
recompense for all the sufferings and agonies which 
pertain to physical womanhood and motherhood." 

It is encouraging for those who believe this 
thought to know that not only woman but men 
standing high in learning and literature espouse and 
teach it. "The Science of a New Life," by Dr. 
Cowan, gives what he terms the law of continence 
as a central thought. It is full of practical lessons 
for married people, and has had a large sale. 

"The Better Way," a pamphlet, by A. E. Newton, 
teaches that only through continent lives can we 
hope for progress. 



CONTINENCE TAUGHT BY MEN. 1 59 

**Plain Facts!' by Dr. Kellogg, has had an immense 
sale. He, too, teaches the same thought. 

Note, all these books are written by men — not by 
women, with some fancied wrongs to redress; but by 
men strongly in sympathy with the needs of the race. 
They claim that a better and higher generation can 
only be attained through continent lives. This is a 
subject demanding the serious consideration, at least, 
of scientists, philosophers and philanthropists. 

If the law of continence is riot the law to govern 
one's entire life, it is natural and reasonable that the 
mother should be exempt from the sexual relation 
during gestation. The husband should ever be ready 
to comfort and cheer with his sympathy. He should 
bear in mind that at this time his wife and child 
need the conservation of all forces, and consequent^ 
he, should ''observe all laws that will let reason reign 
and passion serve'' 

The observance of the law of continence will do 
much to palliate the many nervous symptoms of 
pregnancy. I have known women so sensitive during 
gestation that even a touch or a kiss from the hus- 
band caused nausea and other distressing symptoms. 

"The sexual relation at this time exhausts the 
mother and impairs the vitality of the child, induc- 
ing in its constitution precocious sexual development. 
The mind should be free from the subject, and every 
circumstance that has a tendency to promote desire 
should be studiously avoided. For this reason sep- 
arate beds and even sleeping rooms for husband 
and wife are to be recommended." 

It is worth investigating, whether the cause of suf- 
fering "in pregnancy and much of the pain at partu- 



l6o PRACTICAL HINTS. 

rition may not also be removed by the practice of 
continence during gestation. 

Cannot those in charge of hospitals and charitable 
institutions make a study of the subject.** A collec- 
tion of statistics would help to establish or refute 
this theory. The influence of continence on off- 
spring invites the serious thought of all who desire 
the progress of purity. Thoughtful parents will 
question whether by living during the mother's 
gestation on the low plane of physical love, they are 
not implanting in their child the seeds of sensuality. 
Keeping their lives in the higher spiritual love they 
may have offspring to whom a life of purity and 
self-control will be natural. 

"In brief, the law seems to be that, such is the in- 
timate connection between the mother and the 
embryo, the exercise of any faculty of her mind or 
soul, or of any organ of her brain or body, stimulates 
and develops in proportionate degree the corre- 
sponding faculty or organ in the incipient child." 

Of what use is it to teach the young lessons of 
purity and morality, when by prenatal culture, they 
have graven in their very lives lessons of prostitu- 
tion.? Many men violate this law of reproduction 
through ignorance. Were they taught the results, 
and how to live lives of self-control, many would 
gladly accept the lesson. 

To live continent lives, avoid food containing 
aphrodisiac stimulants, such as coffee, eggs, oysters, 
and animal food. Omi^ tJie evening meal; for the pur- 
pose desired this stands paramount to all other means. 
Let the life be temperate in every respect, and with a 
strong will the victory can be won. Remember that 



ENCOURAGING TESTIMONY. 1^1 

it is the action of the mind chiefly, that stimulates 
excessive seminal secretion. The husband being the 
devoted lover, with similar untiring, delicate atten- 
tions, can attain the same self-control he practiced 
during courtship. The wife will more surely retain 
her health and youthful charms in bearing welcome 
children. Women will rejoice in a glad maternity, 
and a higher, nobler and more God-like posterity will 
people the earth. 

A few years since I read a paper entitled, *' The 
Hygiene of Pregnancy," before a Medical Associa- 
tion. In it were sentiments similar to the above. It 
was read hesitatingly, anticipating only adverse crit- 
icism from the men composing that body. Previous 
to the reading of my paper, the members had taken 
but little interest in the convention except to pro- 
mulgate pet theories. The weather was warm, and 
groups were sitting on the piazza, smoking cigars, 
indifferent to subjects under discussion. The reading 
had not proceeded far, however, when cigars were 
thrown away, and the entire convention were listen- 
ers. Judge of my surprise when the thoughts ex- 
pressed received a long and hearty applause. Most 
of those men used tobacco, some drank beer, and all 
ate animal food. They were not the class of men 
from whom recognition of such radical sentiments 
would be expected. 

Let the justness of this subject be properly pre- 
sented to them, and most men will be convinced of 
its truth. Men naturally reverence the maternal in 
woman, and if taught that continence serves the best 
interests of motherhood and posterity, will cherfully 
accord their lives with it. 



l62 REVERENCE FOR MATERNITY. 

A principal of a high school in Iowa was a married 
man many years before he knew that the sexual re- 
lation was ever sustained during pregnancy. When 
he learned it, he asserted that his whole soul was 
filled with shame and disgust that his sex had no bet- 
ter knowledge of their protective duties relating to 
maternity. 

Those desiring the best reproduction of themselves 
should learn: 

That motherhood is the central fact of human life. 

That the first right of a child is to be well born. 

That every mother should be set apart during 
pregnancy for the ante-natal culture of her child. 

That control of appetite is the first step in human 
culture. 

That no man should become a father who can not 
and will not observe the demands of temperance in 
all things for the benefit of his child. 



CHAPTER XII. 



VENTILATION.— REST. 

The pregnant woman breathes for two. While pure 
air is desirable for all persons under every condition, 
it is doubly so for her. Nothing is more essential 
to the healthful nourishment of the fetus than that 
the blood be thoroughly oxygenated. Otherwise the 
child may be weak and feeble, and liable to disease. 

Everywhere^ in railroad cars, streets, shops, public 
halls and dwelling houses, there is foitl air — air that 
is loaded with exhalations from the lungs, emanations 
from the body, and is often vitiated by tobacco and 
alcohol. Architects, builders and occupants pay but 
little attention to ventilation. The most important 
purpose of a building is evidently to keep the heat 
in during the winter, and keep it out in the summer. 

With every breath a person exhales quite a large 
proportion of carbonic gas, which is a deadly poison, 
and at the same time inhales the life-giving oxygen, 
constantly exhausting the supply. Yet the great fear 
of drafts, as well as need of economizing heat, causes 
most persons to breathe the same air over and over 
again. Gases that are inimical to health and life are 
constantly inhaled. If one breathed deeply and only 
pure air it would atone for violation of many other 
physiological laws. The proof of this is seen in the 
effects of a hunter's or a pioneer's life. 
ii (163) 



l64 VENTILATION OF BEDROOMS. 

The following from the Lancet gives some practi^ 
cal ideas upon the ventilation of bedrooms : 

'' If a man were deliberately to shut himself for 
some six or eight hours daily in a stuffy room, with 
closed doors and windows (the doors not being 
open even to change the air during the period of 
incarceration) and were then to complain of headache 
and debility, he would justly be told that his own 
want of intelligent foresight was the cause of his suf- 
fering. Nevertheless, the great mass of people do 
this every night of their lives, with no thought of 
their imprudence. 

" There are few bedrooms in which it is perfectly 
safe to pass the night without something more than 
ordinary precautions to secure an inflow of fresh air. 
Every sleeping apartment should, of course, have a 
fireplace with an open chimney, and in cold weather 
it is well if the grate contains a small fire, at least 
enough to create an upward current to carry off the 
vitiated air of the room. In all such cases, however, 
when a fire is used, it is necessary to see that the air 
drawn into the room comes from the outside of the 
house. 

*' Summer and winter, with or without the use of 
fires, it is well to have a free ingress for pure air. 
This should be the ventilator's first concern. Foul 
air will find an exit if pure air is admitted in suffi- 
cient quantity, but it is not certain that pure air will 
not also be drawn away. So far as sleeping rooms 
are concerned it is wise to let in the air from without 
The aim must be to accomplish the object without 
causing a great fall of temperature. The windows 
may be drawn down an inch or two at the top with 



OPEN FIREPLACES. 16$ 

advantage, and a fold of muslin will form a 'ventila- 
tor' to take off the feeling of draft. This with an 
open fireplace will generally suffice, and produce no 
unpleasant consequences, even when the weather is 
cold." 

While the open fireplace, 'tis true, gives splendid 
ventilation, at the present price of fuel it is a luxury 
within the reach of few. Yet, taking into considera- 
tion how effectually it "slams the door on the doc- 
tor's nose," it is an economical investment. 

Recently there have been open stoveii constructed 
on a new principle, that are very desirable. They 
are cheerful and decorative in appearance, equal to 
other stoves for cleanliness, economical of heat, and 
what is so needful in every dwelling, furnish a con- 
stant change of air — are in themselves ventilators. 

One building a new house can easily have ventila- 
tion by making a dry well of good dimensions in the 
yard and filling it with coarse charcoal. There 
should be an air-shaft leading to it and one from it 
into the house. The air from it must go directly to 
the furnace. It should be so constructed that water 
i/ill drip slowly through the charcoal. In this way 
the moisture and charcoal purify the outside air, 
freeing it from dust and smoke, while the pit cools 
it in the summer, and modifies the temperature in 
the winter. Better air is obtained than if let in by 
windows and doors. 

The house should have flues for the escape of im- 
pure gases. Common grates will answer the purpose. 
An abundance of pure air constantly supplied. 

In regard to fresh air in sleeping rooms, Dr. James 
H. Jackson says: "There appears to be a want of a 



l66 WARM AIR IN BEDROOMS. 

clear understanding of the difference between the 
terms cold air and pure air, and many persons do not 
seem to comprehend that the air of a room may be 
both pure and warm. They seem not to know that 
the temperature does not affect the purity of the air 
so long as there is opportunity for proper circula- 
tion. Pure air is not necessarily cold, nor is cold air 
always pure. 

In order to have good ventilation, provision should 
always be made for a circulation of air. It is not 
sufficient to provide an entrance for outside air; exit 
through an opposite door or window or flue should 
also be secured. A good way to do this is to let 
down a window two or three inches at the top, and 
the air thus let in becomes somewhat warmed by the 
heat which rises. Here then you have warm fresh 
air. Now bad air, being loaded with carbonic acid 
gas, sinks to the bottom of the room. Some way 
must therefore be provided for its escape. A tran- 
som near the bottom of the door would answer the 
purpose; an open fireplace furnishes an outlet for 
impure air, or if both these are wanting, the door may 
be left slightly ajar, or a simple or inexpensive ven- 
tilator may be made, by fitting into the stove-pipe, 
above its damper, another piece of pipe that shall be 
cut off within two inches of the floor; this pipe also 
to be provided with a damper which can be opened 
at will. A very effective draft is thus created near the 
floor, which takes all foul air up into the chimney. 

*'I do not approve, on the contrary I condemn the 
habit of sleeping, even in the coldest weather, in a 
small room, windows closed, weather strips on the 
doors and sashes, and every possible device used to 



COLD AIR NOT FRESH AIR. 167 

Vn^p out the outside air. In such a room one must 
necessarily respire the same air many times, and the 
fact that it is cold does not make it the less injurious. 
Nature throws off by the breathing process certain 
poisonous elements which to re-breathe and re-absorb 
is most pernicious. No one who is not robust should 
sleep in a room so cold that the windows and doors 
must all be closed to keep warm. A much more 
healthful way is to have the temperature of the sleep- 
ing room the same as that of the living room; under 
no circumstances do I deem it advisable for an invalid 
to sleep in a room that can not have pure, warm air. 

" Remember that the important point is circulation, 
and that this may be had without letting in a great 
volume of cold air." 

A small amount of outside air can be let into a 
room by raising the window four or five inches and 
fitting a board at the bottom. There is a space left 
between the sashes that allows some air to enter. 
This, however, is not sufficient in a small bedroom, 
unless for the coldest weather. " The only objection 
to a draft is, that the draft is generally not strong 
enough. An influx of fresh air into a room is a ray 
of light into darkness, a messenger of Vishnu visiting 
an abode of the lost." Even the weak and enfeebled 
can accustom themselves to plenty of pure air, and 
also to drafts. 

To test the condition of a sleeping room, leave it 
closed in the morning, go into the fresh air for ten or 
fifteen minutes, return to the room, and if the air 
seems less pure than the outside air the ventilation is 
imperfect. The nose is a sentinel to warn us of danger. 
It should be educated to tell the condition of the 



l68 LIME AND CHARCOAL. 

air we breathe. What a benefit to mankind if some 
one would invent a gauge to determine the amount 
of impurities in the air, as heat is tested by a ther- 
mometer. Would it not on many occasions give us 
startling revelations? 

To aid in improving the air of a house, and especi- 
ally of a sleeping room, we have a safe, efficient and 
economical means in the use of unslaked lime and 
charcoal. A small basket of these should be placed 
in every invalid's room, or where children sleep, 
for the purpose of absorbing the carbonic acid gas of 
the lungs, and the effluvium of the human body. 

The discovery of this simple method is attributed 
to Dr. Bonizzardi, of Italy. He claims, "That peo- 
ple die much more rapidly through the deleterious 
effects of miasma and carbonic acid gas than by the 
want of oxygen in the air. To prove his theory, he 
put three fowls on a perfectly even floor, under three 
glass cases, and placed in the case containing the 
first bird nothing but the fowl, in the second one a 
piece of unslaked lime, while the third contained 
some pieces of charcoal. In half an hour after the 
birds were confined he examined them, and found 
that the bird having neither lime nor charcoal was 
dead, that the one in the second case containing the 
unslaked lime was barely alive, while the bird in the 
case containing charcoal was quite active, and 
showed no sign of suffering. 

"The first fowl, having neither lime to absorb the 
carbonic acid gas of the lungs, nor charcoal to col- 
lect on its surface the effluvium of the surrounding 
air, died of blood poisoning, produced solely by the 
action of the carbonic acid expelled from the lungs. 



A DAILY SIESTA. 169 

"The fowl that was supplied with the lime was 
only quite ill, because the lime had removed one of 
the causes of death by absorbing the carbonic acid 
gas; while the bird confined in the case containing 
the charcoal was only slightly indisposed or ill, 
because the charcoal absorbed all the exhalations of 
the lungs and body. 

"These experiments prove that people die far 
more quickly from the deleterious action of bodily 
exhalations than from any deficiency of oxgen in the 
air. The moral of these experiments is: That a small 
basket of charcoal should be placed in the room of 
every invalid, in order that it may absorb the car- 
bonic acid gas floating in the air, and thus render 
the atmosphere purer and more wholesome." 

REST. 

A daily siesta ought to be taken by the pregnant 
woman. Even if she feels well and is not accus- 
tomed to rest during the day, it would be far better 
for her to take it regularly. She should plan for it 
as for any other duty, and will gain by the ability to 
accomplish more. 

Near noon is the best time for resting; let it follow 
the bath. She is then refreshed for her dinner and 
afternoon occupations. This habit cannot be too 
religiously observed. If she rests better alone, she 
should go by herself, and never be disturbed. Some 
people can sleep better to lie down where others are 
talking or reading. The hum of voices quiets them 
by diverting their own thoughts. I knew one mother 
that could only get a nap in the daytime, even if she 
had been deprived of much sleep, by lying down in 



170 RECAPITULATION. 

the room where her children were playing. Nothing 
they could do, except to quarrel, would disturb her. 
They could laugh, sing, scream and jump — she would 
sleep soundly, but if one wrangling word passed 
between them she was instantly aroused. 

Do not acquire the habit of sleeping in a chair, 
more speedy restoration is given by lying flat upon 
the back, without a pillow. 

RECAPITULATION. 

To give a woman the greatest immunity from suf- 
fering during pregnancy, prepare her for a safe and 
comparatively easy delivery, and insure a speedy 
recovery, all hygienic conditions must be observed. 

The dress must give: 

1. Freedom of movements; 

2. No pressure upon any part of the body; 

3. No more weight than is essential for warmth, 
and both weight and warmth evenly distributed. 

These requirements necessitate looseness, light- 
ness and warmth, which can be obtained from the 
union under-clothes, a princess skirt and dress, with 
a shoe that allows full development and use of the 
foot. While decoration and elegance are desirable, 
they should not sacrifice comfort and , convenience. 

Let the diet be light, plain and nutritious. 
Avoid fats and sweets, relying mainly upon fruits 
and grains that contain little of the mineral salts. 
By this diet bilious and inflammatory conditions are 
overcome, the development of bone in the fetus 
lessened, and muscles necessary in labor nourished 
and strengthened. 

Exercise should be sufficient and of such a char- 



A REVIEW LESSON. Ifl 

acter as will bring into action gently every muscle 
of the body; but must particularly develop the mus- 
cles of the trunk, abdomen and groin, that are spe- 
cially called into action in labor. Exercise, taken 
faithfully and systematically, more than any other 
means assists assimilative processes and stimulates 
the organs of excretion to healthy action. 

Bathing must be frequej .t and regular. Unless in 
special conditions the best results are obtained from 
tepid or cold bathing which invigorates the system, 
and overcomes nervousness. The sitz-bath is the 
best therapeutic and hygienic measure within the 
reach of the pregnant woman. 

Therefore, to establish conditions which will over- 
come many previous infractions of law, dress natur- 
ally and physiologically; live much of the time out of 
doors; have abundance of fresh air in the house; let 
exercise \iQ stcfficientdind systematic; pursue a diet of 
frtdty rice and vegetables; regidar rest must be faith- 
fully taken; abstain from the sexual relation. To 
those who will commit themselves to this course of 
life, patiently and persistently carrying it out through 
the period of gestation, the possibilities of attaining 
a healthy, natural, painless parturition will be re- 
markably increased. 

If the first experiment should not result in a pain- 
less labor, it, without doubt, will prove the begin- 
ning of sound health. Persiited in through years of 
married life, the ultimate result will be more and 
more closely approximated, while there will be less 
danger of post partum diseases; and better and more 
vigorous children will be produced. 

Then pregnancy by every true woman will be 



172 MRS. STANTON'S TESTIMONY. 

desired, and instead of being a period of disease, 
suffering and direful forebodings, will become a 
period of health, exalted pleasure and holiest antic- 
ipations. Motherhood will be deemed the choicest 
of earth's blessings; women will rejoice in a glad 
maternity, and for any self-denial will be compen- 
sated by healthy, happy, buoyant, grateful children. 

Elizabeth Cady Stanton, in a lecture to ladies, 
thus strongly states her views regarding maternity 
and painless parturition: *'We must educate our 
daughters to think that motherhood is grand, and 
that God never cursed it. That the curse, if it be 
one, may be rolled off, as man has rolled away that 
of labor; as it has been rolled from the descendants 
of Ham. My mission among women is to preach 
this new gospel. If you suffer, it is not because you 
are cursed of God, but because you violate his laws. 
What an incubus it would take from woman could 
she be educated to know that the pains of maternity 
are no curse upon her kind. We know that among 
the Indians the squaws do not suffer in childbirth. 
They will step aside from the ranks, even on the 
march, and return in a short time bearing with them 
the new-born child. What an absurdity, then, to 
suppose that only enlightened Christian women are 
cursed. 

" But one word of fact is worth a volume of philos- 
ophy; let me give you some of my own experience. 
I am the mother of seven children. My girlhood 
was spent mostly in the open air. I early imbibed 
the idea that a girl is just as good as a boy^ and I car- 
ried it out. I would walk five miles before breakfast, 
or ride ten on horseback. After I was married, I 



FACTS VERSUS PHILOSOPHY. 173 

wore my clothes sensibly, Their weight hung en- 
tirely on my shoulders, i never compressed my 
body out of its natural shape. When my first four 
children were born, I suffered very little. I then 
made up my mind that it was totally unnecessary for 
me to suffer at all; so I dressed lightly, walked every 
day, lived as much as possible in the open air, ate no 
condiments, and took proper care of myself. The 
night before the birth of the child I walked three 
miles. The child was born zvithout a particle of pain. 
I bathed it and dressed it myself, and it weighed ten 
and one-half pounds. The same day I dined with 
the family. Everybody said I would surely die, but 
I never had a moment's inconvenience from it. I 
know this is not being delicate and refined, but if 
you would be vigorous and healthy, in spite of the 
diseases of your ancestors, and your own previous 
disregard of nature's laws, try it." 

Every woman can not attain to as perfect health 
as Mrs. Stanton, for all have not as good conditions 
of heredity, nor did all learn early that ''A girl is as 
good as a boy." Mothers in earnest for the best 
good of their children, will by constant purpose and 
deliberate effort, approximate the high standard she 
established, and emulate her example in using the 
means to enhance desired results. 

" For life is not to live, but to be well.'* 



CHAPTER XIIL 



PARTURITION. 

The hour arrives, the moment wished and feared; 
The child is born by many a pang endured! 
And now the mother's ear has caught his cry; 
Oh! grant the cherub to her asking eye! 

Labor is effected by dilatation of the cervix uteri 
and contraction of the uterine and abdominal muscles. 
This dilatation is the first stage. In the second, 
expulsive efforts occur, causing the advance and birth 
of the child. The action of the uterus in expelling 
the fetus is analagous to that of the rectum in expel- 
ling its contents. In each case the abdominal muscles 
powerfully co-operate with the peristaltic action of 
the organ. Uterine contractions, once established, 
continue intermittently until the contents are ex- 
pelled. These contractions are usually attended and 
recognized by pain. They are called labor pains. 

It is well established by physiologists that the suf- 
fering attendant upon labor is abnormal, and only a 
result of the violation of nature's laws; that by a 
more or less thorough compliance with those laws, 
most women can approximate to a condition in which 
there shall be no suffering in childbirth. 

A few days preceding labor, there is usually a 
muco-sanguineous discharge from the vagina. This 
is called the show. It indicates dilatation of the cer- 

(174) 



RATIONALE OF LABOR. 1/5 

vix and relaxation of the vagina. It is often accom- 
panied by malaise and restlessness, and in some by 
headache and loss of appetite, 

In 96 per cent, of all cases, the head of the child is 
the presenting part. At first the long diameter of 
the head is in the oblique diameter of the pelvis; as 
it passes the pelvic brim, it turns so as to lie across 
from back to front, the chin pressing upon the 
breast, and the crown of the head advancing. The 
first pains are grinding^ scattered and irregular, felt 
mostly in the anterior portion of the pelvis and groin. 
With these, dilatation of the os progresses, which is 
often accompanied by severe sufferings, especially 
when diseased conditions exist. Afterward the 
pains are in the abdomen. As the head advances 
there is great suffering in back, hips and groin, with 
a disposition to bear down. 

This disposition need never be urged by attendant, 
n^r forced by the patient. Old ladies often say, 
"Bear down! make an effort!" supposing that this 
will facilitate labor. The fact is that these attempts 
to assist nature are retarding instead of helpful, and 
are often the cause of accidents. Nature indicates 
all effort essential to progress. 

The bag of waters consists of the membranes which 
enclose the fetus and liquor-amnii. 

Protruding through the os, when dilatation is 
effected, it precedes the head, prepares the way for 
it, and lessens the liability of contusion of the soft 
parts. These membranes usually rupture with an 
expulsive effort, before the close of the labor. The 
uterus then contracts firmly on the body of the 
child, and labor advances rapidly to completion. In 



176 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS. 

rapid labor, however, the bag is sometimes expelled 
entire with the child. 

The physician requires the assistance of but one 
attendant besides the husband. This should be an 
educated nurse or a friend, who can command her- 
self in emergencies. The old time custom of having 
a neighborhood party on the occasion of an increase 
of the family, has happily gone out of date. 

When this custom was in vogue both patient and 
physician were often seriously annoyed by the crowd 
of neighbors who thronged the house. Many times 
the grand "set out" for the table was so expensive 
as to take the whole month's salary of the working 
man, while perhaps the "doctor's bill" remained long 
unpaid. 

Conversation should be cheery and foreign to the 
occasion. Obscene anecdotes and direful childbirth 
experiences should be avoided. During the entire 
process of parturition, the patient should have the 
advantage of pleasant, comfortable and sanitive sur- 
roundings. Her mind should be free from care and 
anxiety. The best in the house should be appropri- 
ated to her use. Her room should be light and airy. 

Every necessity and convenience should be in 
readiness for the occasion. Provide two yards of 
rubber cloth for protecting the bed, a fountain syr- 
inge, a hot water bottle, safety pins, antiseptic 
absorbent cotton, glycerine, arnica, ammonia, carbolic 
and castile soap, calenduline, olive oil, and cosmoline. 
Also have an abundant supply of soft rags. They 
should be large and clean. Remove the seams and 
buttons. Old sheets torn in quarters oi pillow slips 
are the most desirable. 



GENERAL PREPARATIONS. I// 

Make the bed as if one were going to sleep in it. 
Place the rubber cloth over the under sheet. Cover 
it with an old quilt or comfort that will w^ash easily. 
Have the bed set out from the wall so that both sides 
can be used. Prepare the side for the patient that 
will enable the physician to use the right hand. 

Let the patient wear the garments she desires to 
have on after confinement, having care to protect 
them by folding back smoothly, and fastening a sheet 
loosely about the waist. After labor begins, she 
should take only liquid food. The bladder should 
be relieved frequently. If the bowels have not been 
moved within twenty-four hours, a copious enema 
of warm water should be taken. 

Until the last stage, the patient can assume any 
position affording the most comfort. Usually, she is 
inclined to change frequently, sitting, lying, walking 
and even kneeling. When expulsive efforts occur, 
she ordinarily prefers to recline upon her back, with 
knees flexed and hips elevated. At this time, she 
naturally pushes with her feet, and pulls with her 
hands. A padded box should be firmly fixed at the 
foot of the bed for the feet. She can grasp the hand 
of an assistant, or have some reliable mechanical 
contrivance for her hands. The simplest is a strip 
of new muslin, ten inches wide, put around the foot 
of the bed, and tied, leaving it the desired length for 
a good purchase. In a prolonged labor, the obstetric 
harness is the most valuable assistance. This is a 
padded belt for the back, with straps extending to 
the knees and feet. From the knees are counter 
straps, with handles for the hands. With this simple 
contrivance, a physician requires less assistance. 



178^ PLAIN DIRECTIONS. 

Supporting the perineum is not only absolutely unnec- 
essary, but also apt to be exceedingly injurious. Med- 
dlesome midwifery is always to be deprecated. A 
natural labor needs no manual local interference. 
Although many authors and teachers recommend 
support to the perineum in the last stages, yet more 
ruptures may be attributed to this practice than to 
leaving it entirely untouched. A Canadian physician 
asserts that he has attended 1,700 women in confine- 
ment without giving support to the perineum, and 
yet in no case did rupture occur. 

When the head is born receive it in the hand and 
support it until the shoulders are expelled. If the 
next contraction does not bring them, put a finger in 
the axilla of the child, and make slight traction. The 
whole body will soon be born. Pass both hands 
under the child and lay it as far from the mother as 
possible without stretching the cord. Place it upon 
the right side, shoulders and head slightly elevated. 
Wipe any mucus there may be from mouth and nos- 
trils. Cover baby with a warm, soft flannel. Make 
the mother comfortable. Change her position, 
straighten the bed, put dry cloths to her, give her a 
drink, etc., leaving the infant until the pitlsation has 
entirely ceased in the cord. This will require from ten 
minutes to half an hour. 

Usually, as the child is ushered into the world, it 
sets up a lusty cry, indicating that respiration is 
established. Crying is not essential, as some authors 
claim, and the prompt covering usually causes it to 
desist. If it does not breathe at once, a little brisk 
spatting on the breast and thigh may establish res- 
piration. If this is not effectual, dash cold water in 



TYING OF CORD USELESS. 1/9 

the face and on the chest. Still failing, artificial res- 
piration must be established. To do this, close the 
nostrils with two fingers, blow into the mouth, and 
then expel the air from the lungs by gentle pressure 
upon the chest. Continue this as long as any hope 
of life remains. 

Sever the cord when pulsation has entirely ceased in it. 
Use a dull pair of scissors, cutting about two inches 
from the child's navel. Following these directions, 
no tying is essential. This method has its advantages. 
By tying, a small amount of blood is retained in 
vessels peculiar to fetal life. This blood by pressure 
or irritation may prevent perfect closure of the fora- 
men ovale, and be a cause of hemorrhage. Besides, 
it must be absorbed in the system, causing jaundice 
and aphtha, so common in young babes. Prejudices 
exist against adopting this treatment, as it is con- 
trary to that usually adopted. 

I first heard of this manner of treating the cord in 
1870. It was so clearly explained that I was con- 
vinced that leaving the cord untied would result in 
great gain to the child. Still, my education and habit 
had been to the contrary, and my prejudices pre- 
vented my venturing upon the new method. A few 
years after this I met a German physician who had 
not tied a cord in eighteen years. He said: "Don't 
be afraid; your babies will do better, and there is 
less danger of losing them." I tested it and proved 
to my own satisfaction that it is the best method. 
One has only to recollect to wait until the pulsation 
i?i the cord ceases entirely, and sever as before stated. 

By no means wash and dress the baby as soon as it is 
born. Consider the marvelous change that has taken 

12 



l8o BIRTH OF PLACENTA. 

place in all its functions. Respiration is established, 
and the blood, instead of going to the placenta for 
oxygenation, goes to the lungs; the stomach and all 
the organs of digestion and elimination are brought 
into action; the skin, also, with its innumerable per- 
spiratory ducts, begins its work. Give nature time 
to establish these processes before the system is 
taxed by being washed and dressed. An Indian 
pappoose might be plunged into water at once with- 
out detriment, but no white baby of this country has 
sufficient vitality to safely undergo this shock. Rub 
the baby all over with olive oil, cover warmly, and 
leave it to rest and sleep. 

While the baby is resting the mother demands 
especial attention. Contractions of the uterus will 
soon be renewed to expel the placenta. Usually 
these do not recur for half an hour, and it may be 
two hours before the after-birth is expelled. Should 
there be no hemorrhage and the walls of the uterus 
contract, there is no cause for uneasiness. 

For expelling the placenta contractions can be in- 
duced by laying upon the bowels cloths wrung from 
cold water, or by manipulating the abdomen after 
dipping the hands in cold water. Also, the patient 
may blow into her closed hand, or give a slight 
cough. If there is hemorrhage, the vein of the um- 
bilical cord should be injected with cold water. This, 
in many cases, removes a retained placenta. This 
valuable suggestion is a fact unknown to many prac- 
titioners. The placenta does not adhere as often as 
some suppose. If attached there is seldom danger 
from delay in removal, unless there is hemorrhage. 
After it is expelled it should be burned or buried. 



BANDAGE UNNECESSARY. l8t 

The mother must be bathed in tepid water, spong- 
ing carefully her back, abdomen, thighs and peri- 
neum. Lay a cloth to the vulva wrung from a lotion 
of arnica, one tablespoonful to a quart of water. If 
there is soreness in the pelvic region a compress wet 
in the same lotion can be worn. 

TJie parturient zvonian requires no bandage. If a 
compress is needed a towel can be pinned around to 
keep it in place. Also, if there is discomfort from 
undue enlargement and relaxation of the abdomen, 
a banage applied loosely will give relief. Otherwise 
no bandage is essential. The commxon belief that it 
restores a woman's form is a mistake. She returns 
to her former size better without than with it. If 
worn at all snug it is likely to cause inflammation 
that will produce bloating. It also presses the uterus 
down in the pelvis and in the relaxed condition of 
all the parts may cause prolapsus uteri. The fre- 
quency with which prolapsus occurs may justly be 
attributed to the uunatural pressure thus exerted. 
A parturient woman makes a more speedy and ex- 
cellent recovery without the bandage. 

After the bath, change the soiled quilts and cloths 
for fresh ones. Apply a large cloth over the arnica 
cloth at the vulva, make the bed look tidy, and leave 
the patient to rest. The house should be made quiet 
and every means used to encourage complete repose. 
If it is night, let the attendants retire and darken 
the room, the nurse remaining within call. 

In case of thirst let her have cold or hot water, 
weak tea or thin gruel, as she feels inclined. Ordi- 
narily she needs no remedies. Nature simply de- 
mands rest. Only a few years since a woman was 



1 82 NATURE DEMANDS REST. 

not allowed to go to sleep until she had taken a bowl 
of panada and the inevitable dose of castor oil. One 
woman told me she dreaded the castor oil more than 
having the baby. It is unnecessary and likely to 
produce harm. For a few days torpidity of the 
bowels is natural, and if forced to action, inflamma- 
tion and piles are likely to result. Surgeons have 
long been familiar with this same state of the bowels 
in other cases. Constipation is the natural sequence 
of amputation or fractures. The system rallies to 
meet one great demand and temporary torpidity of 
the bowels may be expected. Do not be influenced 
to take any drug. Simply rest. Surely at no time 
in one's life is rest so sweet. 

The long months of anticipation, doubt and endur- 
ance are over, the hour long feared has culminated 
in the bestowment of a gift which an angel might 
receive with rapture. A babe, the object of woman's 
profoundest and most sacred passion has been given 
her for her very own, to nourish, guide, develop and 
instruct, of which even death cannot rob her. A 
solemn joy beyond words fills her soul, which none 
should needlessly disturb. 

He comes — she clasps him; to her bosom pressed, 
He drinks the balm of life, and drops to rest. 



CHAPTER XIV. 



DYSTOCIA. 

In difficult labor a physician's skill and knowl- 
edge is imperatively demanded. Yet a few practical 
hints for emergencies may be advantageous. 

Presence of mind, with the knowledge given in 
the preceding chapter, will enable even an inexperi- 
enced person, in the chance absence of the doctor, 
to conduct a case of natural labor satisfactorily. 

Prolo7iged and difficidt labor may occur when one 
has not had the benefit of the "fruit diet" and other 
hygienic measures herein recommended, or who on 
account of disease and deformity, has not been able 
to accomplish desired results. In malformations of 
the pelvis, in face or shoulder presentations, placenta 
previa, etc., surgical interference will be required. 

Muscular contractions may be inefficient or the os 
slow to dilate from rigidity. Caustic treatment, so 
prevalent for ulceration, destroys the natural elastic- 
ity of the cervix. Severe and prolonged suffering 
without dilatation is often the consequence. (See 
Chap. XXL) Few women realize the injury done 
by thfe prevalent use of caustic treatment. One lady 
told me that she had been treated by eleven physi- 
cians, every one using similar measures. At last in 
despair she ''gave up doctoring," and by hygienic 
methods had attained to a comfortable degree of 

(183) 



1 84 HOT SITZ BATH 

health. The time must come when people will pro- 
test against the burning of mucous surfaces as they 
now protest against blistering and bleeding, which 
only a few years since were universal. 

The head advancing may meet with resistance from 
dryness, heat, and rigidity of external parts. 

The hot sitz-bath is the best temporary means to 
overcome rigidity of both os and vulva, and to relieve 
pains that are neuralgic in character. Seat the patient 
in a sitz-bath tub, containing very hot water, her feet 
also in a hot foot bath. Envelop her with blankets 
and increase the temperature of the water by pour- 
ing in hot water as she can bear it. Let her remain 
until profuse perspiration is induced. Dry her under 
the blankets and let her lie down without removing 
them. Sometimes she can remain in the bath an 
hour with advantage, though a shorter time is usually 
suf^cient. The pains entirely or partially subside, 
and she seldom fails to fall into a refreshing sleep. 
Local relaxation will be accomplished, the pains 
assume an effective character, and a speedy termina- 
tion of the case can be expected. To accomplish 
the desired result, the bath must be Jiot, not warm, 
and continued until perspiration is induced. When 
prolonged labor is caused by rigidity of the soft 
parts, good and speedy results are sure to follow. 
The following cases prove the value of the hot bath: 

Mrs. N engaged my services for her seventh 

confinement, stating that I might expect a tedious 
case, as in all previous labors the skill of physicians 
had been baffled. She had lingered in labor from 48 
to 96 hours, attended with convulsions and other dis- 
tressing symptoms; several times had been delivered 



REMARKABLE CASE. 185 

with instruments. Summons came for me on a bright 
June morning at 5 o'clock. She had had irregular 
pains all night, was ver) nervous and had great 
dread of her sufferings, h- /ing no hope of relief for 
at least two days. I ^ound no dilatation, and no 
real contractions were taking place. 

I gave her remedies, hoping to arrest the suffer- 
ing until relaxation could be produced, and left her. 
At ioo*clock I returned, armed with one of Dickens' 
^lovels, for a two days' pastime. Found the pains 
increased in severity, attended with rigidity of os, 
still no dilatatioOj but pressure of the uterus upward. 
Although a woman of great self-control, she could 
not repress the most piercing screams with each 
pain. A hot sitz-bath was administered, increasing 
the temperature until m.ost copious perspiration was 
induced, after which, enveloping her in blankets, I 
bade her sleep, while I sat down to Dickens. 

She obeyed orders, slept soundly, having contrac- 
tions every fifteen minutes, when she would rouse 
and exclaim, ''What relief!" "Heaven surely can 
be no sweeter than this rest!" *' What a blissful 
change!" I would say, ''Don't talk, don't bear 
down, sleep all you can," and still read Dickens. 
About one o'clock expulsive pains came on. Exam- 
ination revealed full dilatation of cervix, and head 
advancing. At 3:30 P. M. the child was born, no 
spasms, no instruments, and no medicine had been 
required. This is only one of many that I have seen 
relieved in the same way, and always find the bath 
effectual where there is no deformity of the pelvis. 
I am confident that this hot bath, if generally used, 
would save thousands of instrume^ital deliveries. 



l86 EFFECTS OF THE HOT BATH. 

Mrs. N. was a very grateful patient, and believes 
that the same means would have given relief in 
former labors, as the first symptoms were the same. 
The only unpleasant sequel in the case was, the 
novel remained unfinished. 

Mrs. L , primapara, aged thirty-three, a severe, 

tedious labor, with slow dilatation. Gave the hot 
bath with the happiest effect; patient, nurse, and all 
but the husband went to sleep. Contractions con- 
tinued, accompanied by profuse perspiration, but for 
two hours did not awaken the patient. Expulsive 
efforts finally setting in, labor was completed in one 
hour. It was, however, almost immediately followed 
by violent hemorrhage inducing fainting. Examina- 
tion revealed the placenta attached, the fibers so 
closely adhering to the uterus that the least attempt 
at removal caused the greatest suffering. The pla- 
centa was grasped and partially brought down into 
the cervix. By this interference the hemorrhage was 
arrested, and the placenta allowed to remain for about 
twelve hours, when it was expelled without any 
assistance. The patient made a rapid recovery. 

At first I feared that the excessive relaxation from 
the bath caused the flowing, but became convinced 
that it was only exposure of the bloodvessels from 
the partial adhesion of the placenta. Its removal 
from the body of the womb allowed the organ to 
contract upon the exposed bloodvessels, and conse- 
quently the hemorrhage ceased. 

The hot bath is also effectual for flagging pains that 
are annoying and worrying, and "seem to do no 
good." In such cases the patient takes a long rest 
after the bath, and real contractions and expulsive 



EMMENAGOGUES DEPRECATED. 18/ 

efforts may not occur for hours or even days. This 
gives nature time to overcome all obstacles, and the 
final termination is more satisfactory. 

Ergot and cohosh are administered by physi- 
cians of all schools for insufficient contractions. These 
cause violent uterine contractions and great expulsive 
efforts. If the soft parts are relaxed, labor v/ill be 
facilitated. If not, great injury may be done. Rup- 
ture of the uterus and laceration of the perineum are 
frequently the consequence. The effects after con- 
finement are liable to be even more disastrous. 
Among these are violent hemorrhage, puerperal peri- 
tonitis which runs a rapid course, cellulitis, milk leg, 
nervous chills, gathered breasts, etc. These drugs 
are well understood to be poisonous to any one in a 
normal state. Surely no reason can be given why a 
parturient woman may hope to escape their dire 
effects. Without doubt they lay the foundation for 
many chronic uterine ailments. Please mark the fol- 
lowing, which are only a few of the toxicological 
symptoms of these drugs taken by a person in health. 

Ergot induces rigors, pinched, pale countenance, 
extreme anxiety, great fear of death, violent head- 
ache, stupor, loss of voluntary motion, spasmodic 
jerking, sudden paralysis, debility and fainting, cold, 
dry, shriveled skin, knotted veins, tongue cold, livid 
and pale, vomiting violenty enlargement and pain in 
the liver, watery diarrhea, swelling of the limbs with 
cold surface, violenty cramp-likey intermittent pains in 
the pelvis and groin, hemorrhage, congestion of the 
womb, local gangrene. 

MacrotiSy or black cohosh^ causes weak but rapid 
pulse, pains in the back with debility, rheumatic 



l88 , ERGOT AND COHOSH. 

pains in the muscles, limbs seem powerless, drawing 
pains with trembling, great restlesness, headache 
with soreness of the eyes and of the base of the 
brain, heat and pain in the top of the head, dimness 
of vision with objects floating before the eyes, prick- 
ling of the skin, cold extremities, bruised feeling all 
over, dizziness, loss of memory, great nervousness 
resulting in hysteria, vomiting, leucorrhea, hemor« 
rhage, etc. Both of these drugs are violent in thej> 
action and poisonous in the doses usually adminis- 
tered in labor. 

It is rare that one recovers entirely from theij 
effects. They cause uterine inflammation, ulceration 
displacement, etc., that are accompanied by amauro- 
sis, loss of memory, headache and many nervous 
symptoms which are ignorantly attributed to the 
**last confinement." Rupture of the cervix, for 
which ladies so often must be treated in these days, is 
frequently the result of rapid forced labor by the use 
of these drugs. As you value good health, never take 
these remedies in poisonous doses. If uterine con- 
tractions can not be increased by the hot bath or cold 
compresses placed on the abdomen, an attenuated 
dose of the drug will be followed with as speedy re- 
sults as a cup full of the infusion or a drachm of fluid 
extract, and the toxicological effect will be avoided. 

Protest positively and persistently against 
taking a poisonous dose of ergot or black cohosh. 
Better wait for nature than suffer the effects that 
are sure to follow. 

Instruments will rarely be called in use if women 
learn the laws of life and obey them. Malformed 
and diseased as women are, instruments are resorted 



INSTRUMENTS. I89 

to far more freqently than necessary.- There is a 
feeling in the profession that dextrous instrumental 
delivery often saves women suffering, and consequent 
nervous prostrations. Most women, on the contrary, 
have a horror of forceps, and this, with the tempo- 
rarily increased suffering aggravates rather than les- 
sens the prostration. Remember, the physician has 
selfish temptations for instrumental interference. It 
entitles him to an extra fee, it saves him time, and 
possibly gives him eclat as an accoucheur. 

In most cases where instruments are now used, 
speedy results could be obtained from the hot sitz- 
bath, without danger of subsequent difficulties. Oc- 
casionally a case may require instruments, but the 
experience of many successful physicians, especially 
the v/omen in the profession, proves that if there is 
careful preparatory treatment, artificial delivery need 
seldom be called in requisition. In several hundred 
obstetric cases in my own practice, instruments were 
never required where the previous preparation of 
the patient had been under my own direction. 

Women have it in their power to produce such 
healthful conditions that obstetrical instruments shall 
be known only in tradition. 



CHAPTER XV. 



POST PARTUM DISEASES. 

«* Mysterious to all thought, 
A mother's prime of bliss, 
When to her eager lips is brought 
Her infant's thrilling kiss." 

Proper bathing and diet are as essential after 
as before confinement. At least once a day the 
patient requires a bath. Ordinarily use tepid water. 
Sponge and dry a portion of the body at a time, 
keeping the balance protected. If there is heat in 
the back, bathe it several times a day. Should the 
patient be nervous and uneasy, try dry hand friction. 
A compress, too, is often serviceable, worn across the 
back for two or three hours, followed by bathing and 
rubbing. The breasts should be bathed frequently, 
and the colder the water the better. This prevents 
sensitiveness to cold, and may consequently prevent 
gathered breasts. Three to five days after confine- 
ment the patient can be put into a sitz-bath with 
benefit. Let the temperature of the water be from 
85° to 95°. This bath is restful, cleansing and resto- 
rative, and is really as beneficial after as beiore 
parturition. A woman can often sit in a bath for a 
few moments when the same time spent in a chair 
would prove injurious. 

Change the linen of bed and person daily, and the 
(190) 



BATHING — FOOD. I9I 

napkins every three or four hours. Keep the room 
light and well ventilated. The temperature of the 
room should never exceed 70°. A few years since 
not a ray of light or a breath of fresh air was allowed 
in the parturient room, and if the woman was to 
touch cold water, it was deemed sure death. In 
some parts of this country, within twenty years, the 
bed even was not changed for nine days after con- 
finement. With frequent bathing and a constant 
supply of fresh air the patient will not be sensitive 
to cold, and inflammation and other post partum dis- 
eases will in consequence be rare. 

The vagina must be syringed at least twice a day 
with water in which there are a few drops of carbolic 
acid. Use a fountain syringe, and have the patient 
recline over a bed pan. Thus the parts will be kept 
cleansed, and carbolic acid prevents septic poisoning. 
If the bowels do not move naturally by the third or 
fourth day, give an enema, one quart of tepid water. 
The regimen advised in this book having been fol- 
lowed, one will rarely be troubled with constipation. 
Beware of cathartics. Most of them have a specific 
action upon the uterus as well as upon the bowels, 
and will do harm. This is notably the case with 
aloes and podophyllum. 

T\\Q food must be simple in character and easy of 
digestion, especially until after the milk is estab- 
lished. Bran or graham gruel is the very best food 
the first day or two. Having been withheld from 
the diet during pregnancy, on account of containing 
the phosphates which have a tendency to harden the 
bones, it should now be taken for that very purpose. 

Many are prejudiced against graham gruel, yet it 



192 GRAHAM GRUEL. 

has been proven that most women relish it better 
than anything else after labor. In the Home of the 
Friendless, Leavenworth, Kan., are many cases of 
confinement every year. Almost universally the in- 
mates are prejudiced against graham in any form, 
and rarely taste it before confinement. A former 
matron had been a nurse in a Water Cure. Inva- 
riably she brought a bowl of graham gruel to the 
mother a few hours after delivery. She never had 
one express any repugnance to it. On the contrary, 
they would say, "That tastes good;" "That goes 
right to the spot;" "Can any one eat too much of 
anything that is so good?" and similar expressions, 
showing that there was an actual relish for the dish. 
The gruel should be made thin at first, and without 
cream or milk. After a few days it can be made 
thick like mush, and eaten with fruit or cream and 
sugar. New milk, wheatlet, cracked wheat, barley, 
oatmeal, graham gems, fruit, etc., can be added to 
the diet as desired. 

T/iere is no need of milk fever. Women have been 
led to expect more or less constitutional disturbance 
accompanying the advent of the milk. With the 
bathing and diet recommended above, even if she has 
not had the best conditions during pregnancy, one 
hardly realizes any change in the system at that time. 
When patients were fed on brandy panada, wine 
whey, strong tea, and beef broth, were kept in unven- 
tilated rooms, deprived of water externally and inter- 
nally, and besides were poisoned with drugs, it is no 
wonder they had milk fever, and were liable to other 
post partum diseases. 

The child should be placed to the breast several 



MAMMARY ABSCESS. 1 93 

times a day, even if there seems to be no milk. The 
act of nursing stimulates secretion, prevents engorge- 
ment, and from sympathetic relation causes uterine 
contractions. When the breasts become filled and 
are knotty and tender, bathe them in hot water and 
have them drawn. If the child does not empty them 
sufficiently, the nurse or some member of the family 
should do it. This is better than a breast pump, 
and can be easily done by remembering to lap the 
tongue around the nipple until it meets the upper lip. 

The old tradition used to be that a woman, on no 
account, must leave her bed before the ninth day. No 
matter how well she felt, the nine days must be 
spent in bed. There is no positive rule. One must 
be guided by her strength. Probably few women 
can expect to be about before four or five days. 
The cases where they can leave their beds earlier 
than that are exceptional. 

Mammary abscess, or inflammation of the breast, 
often called "gathered" or "bealed" breast, is usually 
ushered in with a chill, succeeded by feverish symp- 
toms. Darting pains are felt in the breast, which, as 
the disease progresses, extend to the arm-pits. The 
breasts swell, become hard and tender to the touch — 
even nursing is painful. If pus forms, the skin be- 
comes dark red, the enlarged breast softens, accom- 
panied by a throbbing pain. The patient is feverish, 
nervous, irritable, has irregular chills, night sweats, 
debility, etc. 

Hot fomentations should be used promptly and 
thoroughly at the first threatening symptoms. Wring 
a cloth out of an infusion of phytolacca,,and keep hot 
by applying the water bottle containing a small 



194 INSUFFICIENT MILK. 

quantity of very hot water. If too much water is 
put into the bottle it is made uncomfortably heavy. 
If the fresh root cannot be obtained, use the fluid 
extract, ten drops to a pint of water. Keep the breast 
\yell drawn and persevere in the hot applications; 
suppuration can usually be prevented. Farmers know 
the value of phytolacca, and use it witn their new 
milch cows in case of caked bag. 

Aconite should be taken internally if there is alter- 
nate chill and fever, with thirst and throbbing pulse, 
one drop of tincture in ten tablespoons of water, a 
spoonful every half hour. 

Bryonia, 2d. — Constant aching in the bones and 
soreness of the flesh. Dose, six pellets every hour. 

Use only liquid food until the disease is surely 
arrested. Keep quiet and have plenty of fresh air. 
Unless the suppuration is very deep the breast 
should never be lanced. 

For excoriated nipples, bathe in a warm borax 
lotion, two grains to one cup of soft water; after 
which apply carbolated cosmoline or calenduline. If 
the base of the nipple is deeply cracked, before using 
the cosmoline, wash with a solution of nitrate of sil- 
ver, one grain to two ounces of water. Protect with 
a shield while the child is nursing. None of the 
above preparations are harmful to the child, except 
the nitrate of silver, and the cases where this is 
needed are rare. 

For insufficient milk, drink freely of new warm 
milk. Have it brought to the bed, and drink at least 
a pint. Take it one or two hours before breakfast. 
If milk cannot be obtained possessing animal warmth, 
take new milk, add one-tenth Avater, and heat over a 



MILK DIET BEST. 195 

water bath tc a temperature of 120 degrees. Cheese 
makers testify that the addition of water prevents 
rennet from coagulating the casein. In the stomach 
also, warm water prevents the pepsin from curdling 
the milk. If it is as warm as the stomach, and does 
not coagulate, it will be taken up by the absorbents 
and conveyed directly to the blood, without going 
through the process of digestion. Mothers who have 
a great aversion to milk, learn to cultivate a decided 
relish for it for the sake of the child. 

Dr. R. P. Harris, in speaking of milk as a diet for 
delicate mothers, says: "Those whj with ordinary 
food invariably fail to nurse longer than a few weeks, 
are capable by this diet of becoming not only good 
nurses, but also of gaining flesh while secreting the 
milk in abundance. When a delicate mother of 
eighty-six pounds' weight, who had failed after a 
month with each of three infants, is enabled by it to 
nurse a child eighteen months, and gain at the same 
time nineteen pounds, the diet must be an effective 
one." The article next best for promoting the secre- 
tion of milk is cocoa or chocolate, prepared with 
plenty of milk. 

Every form of malt and spirituous liquors should by 
all means be avoided. They derange the nervous and 
digestive systems of both mother and babe. Cus- 
tom, happily, has to a large extent done away with 
the idea thaf'nursing women must have ale or beer." 
To those who still maintain this view, I would rec- 
ommend the study of the question, whether the 
help expected is at all commensurate with the danger 
incurred of a pernicious appetite being cultivated in 
both mother and child. 
13 



tgb EXCESSIVE FLOW OF MILK. 

Good digestion is usually all that is essential for 
an abundant flow of milk. The food should be simple 
but nutritious. Depend upon grains and fruits 
mainly, and by no means exclude the bran from the 
wheat flour. The saline elements in the bran not 
only stimulate digestion, but excite the secretion of 
milk as well. Try the experiment of feeding an 
Alderney cow upon fine flour, excluding the bran. 
By the lack of milk you will prove that the bran 
contains elements pre-eminently stimulating to lac- 
teal secretions. 

Oysters eaten raw or slightly cooked are said to 
increase the flow of milk. Honey, too, often proves 
invaluable. With bread and gems, instead of the 
carbonaceous butter, eat honey. It stimulates all 
the secretions. It is evident that foods rich in phos- 
phates are the best to increase lactiferous flow. 
Therefore, study well the food table in Chapter IX, and 
partake of foods which were avoided in pregnancy. 

In the first days after confinement, if the milk is 
slow to secrete, apply bruised castor bean leaves. 

For excessive flow of milk, once or twice a day 
use hot fomentations upon the breast, and apply 
cosmoline, in which there is a trace of camphor. 
Avoid salt and liquid food. Wear folds of cotton 
batting over the breast. In either insuflicient or 
excessive flow of milk, guard against pressure of 
clothing. It is absolutely essential that the blood 
should circulate freely to and from the breasts. 

(No one thing more frequently causes atrophied 
breasts in any woman than the pressure of corsets 
and padding ordinarily worn. It is not unusual for 
a fine development of the breast to result from the 



AFTER PAINS — LOCHIA. 197 

removal of all pressure, accompanied by bathing 
daily with cold water, and following the bath by 
friction. Should this fail, an apparatus on the prin- 
ciple of dry-cupping is used. This seldom fails of 
giving the desired results.) 

After pains often accompany the contraction of 
the uterus. It is not true that women never have 
them with the first child and always have them sub- 
sequently. Like most of the sufferings of maternity, 
they are the effect of abnormal conditions. Women, 
who, in two or three confinements have suffered days 
with after pains, threatened with spasms and not 
relieved except by chloroform, have by previous 
preparation recovered without a twinge of pain. 

After pains usually occur periodically every ten or 
fifteen minutes. They are cramp-like pains accom- 
panied by a feeling as if pricked by many needles. 
They make one very impatient and nervous, depriv- 
ing her of needed rest. They are often the result of 
poisonous doses of ergot taken during labor. The 
hot water bag or hot fomentations will usually give 
relief. Must be very hot and kept hot, consequently 
dry heat is to be preferred. Administering a hot 
sitz-bath is also excellent treatment. If relief is not 
obtained, and the physician is not within call, inhale 
ether moderately. Do not take it internally. 

The lochia is the flow from the vagina which oc- 
curs after confinement. At first it has the appearance 
of fresh blood, then becomes lighter in color, and 
finally is only a glairy mucus. This varies greatly 
in amount and duration. As a rule the healthier the 
woman, and more natural the labor, the less the flow. 
Cases have come to my knowledge where there was 



198 . HEAT FOR HEMORRHAGE. 

no sanguineous flow, and the patient made a rapid 
recovery. It is said that healthy squaws have no 
flow of blood with menstruation, or after delivery. 
If there is no constitutional disturbance, there need 
be no anxiety about a scanty flow. If caused by a 
chill, fever or inflammation, etc., prompt attention 
will be required, according to accompanying symp- 
toms. 

Metrorrhagia, or profuse flow, often requires 
treatment before medical aid can be secured. Hot 
fomentations, hot sitz-bath and hot vaginal injections 
are the very best applications. Recently the medical 
profession recognize that heat is better than cold, 
to arrest hemorrhage. In surgery, hot water is 
applied to exposed bleeding vessels. Cases are 
known where hot vaginal injections have instantly 
arrested bleeding that had resisted applications of 
ice, styptics and the tampon. 

A lady in Michigan, during the menopause, was 
taken suddenly with violent hemorrhage. For seven 
days and nights everything was tried in vain to 
arrest the bleeding. She became cold and clammy, 
had frequent fainting spells, and death seemed im- 
minent. An old nurse came to take care of her over 
night. She set aside the physician's potions and ap- 
plications. She filled the big wood stove with bricks, 
and as fast as they were heated wrapped them in wet 
cloths and put them about the patient, who thus ob- 
tained her first sleep for days. The hot bricks were 
kept to her four days and nights. There was no 
return of hemorrhage. She made a rapid recovery. 

If there are clots, retained placenta or membranes, 
or any foreign growth present in the uterus, they 



CHILD-BED FEVER. I99 

must be removed by surgical interference, before 
uterine contractions can be effected and maintained. 

Pelvic peritonitis, puerperal or child-bed 
FEVER. ''There is a word of fear that I shall pro- 
nounce when I utter the name of Puerperal Fever; 
for there is almost no acute disease that is more ter- 
rible than this. The small pox itself, which reduces 
the fairest form of humanity to a mass of breathing 
corruption, can not be looked upon with greater 
dread. Child-bed fever, like an inexorable Atropos, 
cuts the thread of life for those to whom Clotho and 
Lachesis would give the longest span. 

'* There is something so touching in the death of a 
woman who has recently given birth to a child; 
something so mournful in the disappointment of 
cherished hopes; something so pitiful in the deserted 
condition of the new-born, helpless creature, forever 
deprived of those tender cares and caresses necessary 
to it, that the hardest heart is not found insensible 
to the catastrophe. It is a sort of desecration for an 
accouchee to die." 

Thus feelingly writes Prof. Meigs, of Philadelphia, 
of this disease, the very thoughts of which strike 
terror to the stoutest heart. This disease is an in- 
flammation of the uterus and its peritoneal covering, 
and often extends to the entire membrane lining the 
abdominal cavity, and possibly involves all the pelvic 
viscera. 

The attack ordinarily commences from the third 
to the ninth day after delivery. Previous to this, 
the patient has seemed all right, when suddenly, 
often apparently without cause, she is taken with a 
chill. Rigors more or less severe extend up and 



200 SYMPTOMS OF PERITONITIS. 

down the spinal column. Clothing does not seem to 
impart any warmth. Almost simultaneously with 
the chill, periodical pains will be felt in the womb, 
and if there is not much constitutional disturbance, 
may be taken for after pains. Usually, however, they 
are accompanied by great soreness and tenderness 
in the pelvis; the abdomen soon bloats and becomes 
tympanitic; the legs are flexed to relieve the tension; 
the weight of the clothes, even, cannot be borne. 
The milk dries up, the lochia cease, there is head- 
ache, great thirst, increase of temperature, a quick, 
wiry or bounding pulse. 

All of these appalling symptoms are accompanied 
by great anxiety of mind and distressed expression 
of countenance. A dark circle forms about the eyes, 
which are sunken, the nose pinched, and the lips 
drawn, and the face is flushed or very pale. The 
course of this dread disease is extremely rapid. *'It 
will not unfrequently happen that she shall die within 
thirty-six or forty-eight hours from the onset of the 
malady, and some cases terminate fatally even in 
eight hours. They are to be cured promptly or not 
at a!l. Such a malady as this hurries with hot and 
furious haste to a turn, beyond which there is not 
and cannot be any useful therapia." 

Perhaps I shall be condemned for picturing to the 
sensitive imagination of the pregnant woman the 
possible dangers of this dread disease. Her attend- 
ants will look out for it, and she should not be led to 
anticipate it. For two reasons, however, she should 
be forewarned: 

Firsts that she may at once summon her medical 
attendant. 



PREVENTIVE TREATMENT. 201 

Second^ that the causes of this disease being known, 
she may avoid them. • 

Do not delay one moment in calling your physician. 
Having the symptoms indicated, procrastination is 
suicidal. The doctor would better come ten times 
for a nervous chill or after-pains, if by chance the 
mistake should be made, than that you should fail 
once to notify him of an attack of puerperal fever. 

Under improved methods of treatment this disease 
does not terminate fatally as frequently as formerly. 

The causes of this disease are: 

First. The inflammatory condition of the system 
before delivery. If the fruit diet has obviated this, 
there is nothing to fear. 

Second. The use of ergot in confinement. Puer- 
peral fever following poisoning by ergot is very 
rapid in its course, and soon terminates in gangrene. 
If this drug were banished from practice, child-bed 
fever would be rare. 

Third. Contusions and bruises from instruments 
not handled dextrously cause inflammation. 

Fourth. The use of cathartics, tonics, stimulants 
and other drugs after delivery. 

It is within the power of every woman that she shall 
not be subject to these causes of puerperal fever. 

Some late teachers claim that all child-bed fever 
is pyaemia, blood-poisoning, and can not be avoided. 
Why is it, then, that it is notably absent in those 
who have led a hygienic life.? Why is it that those 
physicians who insist on preparatory treatment sel- 
dom meet with it in their practice.? Others claim 
that the disease is contagious, and that the poison 
can be conveyed by physician and nurse. 



202 TREATMENT OF PERITONITIS. 

Dr. W. S. Playfair, of London, who gives to this 
disease the name of Puerperal Septicaemia, says: 
" The whole tendency of recent investigations is daily 
rendering it more and more certain that obstetricians 
have been led into error by the special violence and 
intensity of the disease, and that they have errone- 
ously considered it to be something special to the 
puerperal state, instead of recognizing in it a form 
of septic disease, practically identical with that 
which is familiar to surgeons under the name of 
pyaemia or septicaemia. 

**If this view be correct, the term 'puerperal fever,' 
conveying the idea of a fever such as typhus or 
typhoid, must be acknowledged to be misleading, 
and one that should be discarded as only tending to 
confusion. 

"According to this theory, the so-called puerperal 
fever is produced by the absorption of septic matter 
into the system. It is not essential that the poison 
should be peculiar or specific; for, just as in surgical 
pyaemia, any decomposing organic mattei either 
originating within the generative organs of the 
patient herself, or coming from without, may set up 
this morbid action." 

The treatment of peritonitis should be prompt 
and thorough. Sweat the patient as soon as possible. 
Place several steaming bricks or ears of boiled corn 
about her. Frequent hot enemas by rectum and 
vagina are beneficial. If gangrene threatens, it is 
often arrested by the application of a yeast and 
charcoal poultice. Take any good lively yeast, make 
a sponge of corn meal and graham flour, equal parts. 
When light, add two tablespoons of charcoal to one 



VALUE OF HYGIENE. 203 

pint, put on to a large cloth covered with thin gauze 
and lay over the entire abdomen. Must be changed 
frequently, not allowing it to get dry. An injection 
should be given per rectum every three hours, of 
weak carbolic soapsuds. 

The nutriment should be diluted hot milk, or oat- 
meal gruel. Small pieces of ice will be grateful. 

When these directions are followed faithfully, 
accompanied by appropriate remedies, most cases 
can be saved. 

Even if it should be proven that this disease is sep- 
tic poisoning, a healthy tone of the organs resists the 
absorption of the foreign agent, which proves a poison. 
In twenty years of general practice I never had a 
fatal case outside of the hospital. My experience 
emphasizes what I have stated, that the hygienic 
life and habits, and the avoidance of drugs and instru- 
ments go far toward preventing child-bed fever. 



CHAPTER XVI. 



INFANTS. — THEIR CARE AT BIRTH AND DURING 
EARLY INFANCY. 

"What am I ? 

An infant crying in the night; 
An infant crying for the light; 
And with no language but a cry." 

— Tennyson. 

What more helpless and dependent than the new- 
born infant ! A human soul, with all the possibilities 
of life, yet of itself it cannot supply its slightest need. 

No wonder that so great a wealth of maternal love 
is called forth in administering to such helplessness! 
No wonder that the mother's heart is humbled at the 
greatness of her mission as special guardian of the 
little one! May divine love and wisdom aid and 
guide her! 

The newborn babe has had a sleep, at least a rest. 
It has entered upon its new life, and all the functions 
of the body are well established. 

The first thing in lending a helping hand to the lit- 
tle stranger is to give him a bath. This is done ordi- 
narily by using soap and warm water. The vernix 
caseosa, a thick, white, unctuous material that usually 
covers the child, and is abundant in the axilla and 
groin, is much more easily and thoroughly removed 
by cleansing it entirely with some oily substance. 

(204) 



AN OIL BATH BEST. 20$ 

For this purpose olive oil or lard can be used. It 
should be applied with a soft, worn piece of flannel, 
keeping the child well covered. When it is entirely 
clean, rub all over with a fresh piece of flannel, and 
the skin is left in a soft, smooth condition. 

R. P. Harris, M. D., says: **As the vernix caseosa 
is readily miscible with pure lard, and can be easily 
removed by its means, the practice prevails with 
many obstetricians in the United States of ordering 
the infant well anointed, and then wiped from head 
to foot with soft rags, until all the vernix disappears, 
and the skin retains an oily trace, not enough to 
soil the clothing. By this means water is avoided, 
and with it much risk of taking cold; the skin is 
left much less sensitive, after the sudden change 
which it is made to endure at birth than when sub- 
ject to soap and water." 

Dress the navel with absorbent antiseptic cot- 
ton. Put a piece three or four inches square on the 
left side of the abdomen, just above the navel, the 
remnant of the cord laid upon it, with its cut end 
pointing to the left, and upward — the cotton arranged 
to embrace the base of the cord, and another piece 
of cotton the same size placed over the cord, the 
whole kept in place by a soft flannel band. This is 
preferable to linen. It absorbs the secretion more 
readily, making less liability of an unpleasant odor. 
It is kept in place better, and the cord comes off 
much sooner. Can often be entirely removed the 
fourth day. There needs to be no grease or oil upon 
the cotton. After the separation of the cord, the 
navel should be dressed with a little simple cerate or 
cosmoline, and still use the absorbent cotton. 



206 INFANT'S CLOTHING. 

Any pouching of the navel can be relieved by using 
a thin slice of cork or a piece of thick pasteboard two 
inches in diameter. Wrap it with several thicknesses 
of linen and place it outside of the cotton, applying 
the bandage sufficiently snug to keep it in place. 

The Clothing of the child should be soft, warm, 
light, loose, and easily adjusted. Superfluous garments 
should be avoided, and waistbands dispensed with. 

Activity is so natural to child-life that it seems 
almost life itself. Months before it is born a babe is 
in ceaseless motion, and after birth it is never still 
during its waking hours. This activity is synchron- 
ous with its development and should be encouraged 
rather than hindered. A child's dress, while it 
serves the purposes of warmth, protection and adorn- 
ment, should in no way prevent this activity. 

Only a few years since, the dress for all infants 
was cut low in the neck and with short sleeves. A 
sensible reform made it fashionable to protect the 
necks and arms of the little ones. It is equally as 
essential and is just as desirable a reform, that the 
dress should be so constructed that the natural act- 
ivity of any part of the body is not hindered. To 
accomplish this the skirts must be shortened and all 
bands abolished. Is there any reason why a child's 
clothes should be so long that they are a burden to 
him and an inconvenience to all who handle him.? 

Many mothers, noting their babies' constant strug- 
gle for exercise, frequently uncover their feet in 
order to give them an opportunity to kick and 
stretch. It is not unusual, also, for them to get them 
out of long clothes by the time they are three months 
old 



INFANT'S CLOTHING. 207 

One lady writes that she tried making her baby's 
first clothes very short. They were only twenty- 
seven inches in the entire length, from the shoulder 
to the hem at the bottom. This experiment proved 
so satisfactory that she says she will never put long 
dresses on a child again. Not only was her baby so 
much more comfortable, but he was so much more 
easily handled that she felt repaid in the comfort it 
was to herself. Aside from this, there was no neces- 
sity of making short clothes for him until he walked, 
which was a saving in time and money. 

A new-born child requires the following garments: 

A Shirt and Band Combined: This should be 
made of soft flannel or knitted wool. If of flannel, 
turn hems but once, and cross-stitch down smoothly. 
Finish the neck and arm's eye with a button-hole 
stitch, using silk or worsted. Lay a fold in back of 
shirt, to make it fit the child, and stitch down 
smoothly and lap in front and fasten as if it were a 
band. The shirt has this advantage over the ordi- 
nary band, that it cannot wrinkle up if the napkin is 
pinned to it as it should be. One-half yard of thir- 
ty-six inch flannel will make four shirts. This gar- 
ment is worn mainly to keep the dressing upon the 
navel in place, and can be discarded when that ne- 
cessity no longer exists. 

Foot blanket: Made of flannel, twenty-seven 
inches square, and hemmed on three sides. Lay a 
double box-plait in the center of fourth (or upper) 
side, stitch down one inch, and face the same width, 
with a strip of cotton, cut bias. Fasten over the 
diaper with a small safety-pin. This garment pro- 
tects other clothing and wraps the feet up nicely 



2o8 infant's clothing. 

until the child is large enough to wear socks. If the 
weather is cold woolen socks are advisable from the 
first. However, it is not absolutely necessary, and 
some mothers dispense with it altogether 

A Flannel Skirt: Is made with long sleeves, and 
is cut' from the same pattern as a night-dress or day- 
slip. Fine, all-wool flannel is generally used for this 
skirt, but I would recommend the use of the eider- 
down flannel, which is also so desirable for baby 
cloaks. The outside dress can be made as a Mother 
Hubbard, or slip, and where taste inclines, it may be 
of finest material and exquisite embroidery. Besides 
the diaper, the flannel skirt and slip are all the 
clothes a young baby actually requires. The skirt 
should be put inside of the dress and the two put on 
the child at the same time. 

Thus an infant may be dressed in less than five 
minutes, instead of the long, tedious process of the 
customary dress. 

Once clothing a baby in this simple fashion, one 
would never be inclined to again adopt the long full 
skirts, the bands and pins, that are a torture to in- 
fants and trying to the patience of the mother. 

The same general principle may be followed for a 
child's wardrobe until he is put into drawers; then 
these require to be attached to a light waist without 
sleeves. 

The first few months the child's feet are most com- 
fortable in crocheted socks. The first shoes may be 
made like moccasins, of broadcloth or chamois skin. 
A lady in Cincinnati makes many of the latter for 
the trade, supporting her children and an invalid 
husband by their sale. 



HABITS OF CLEANLINESS. 209 

These directions for infants' clothing are so simple 
that many may think they are not worth following, 
but when we see the little ones bandaged and bur- 
dened as we do, is it not time to make a protest that 
will reach every mother? A child's dress should 
always serve the purposes of protection and warmth 
without any hindrance to its activity and develop- 
ment. 

Habits of cleanliness can be taught every child. 
The clumsy diaper can be dispensed with by the time 
it is three or four months old. Let the mother prac- 
tice holding out her baby immediately after nursing 
it, and it will easily be taught to urinate at this time, 
and also to have a passage from the bowels at a 
stated time in the morning and evening. The actual 
comfort secured to mother and child through this 
habit, more than repays for the labor and patience in 
securing it. Teach your children to be cleanly. A 
dirty child is a mother s disgrace. When a child be- 
gins to creep and walk, the diaper (necessarily large 
and bulky) has to be pinned too tightly for comfort 
and health, in order to keep it in place. 

A BATH may be given to the child every day or 
every other day. By the time it is two months old, 
it can be put into a bath daily. Should remain in 
the water not more than five minutes. The tempera- 
ture should not exceed 90°, and it is quite as well to 
accustom the child to a lower temperature gradually. 
Don't trust the hand to determine the heat. Always 
have a thermometer. Do not bathe a child immedi- 
ately after nursing. Avoid the use of soap. A 
child's skin is naturally oily, and should be pre- 
served so. 



210 NO ARTIFICIAL FOOD REQUIRED. 



NURSING. 



*The starting beverage meets the thirsty lip; 
'Tis joy to yield it, and 'tis joy to sip." 



The newborn infant needs no artificial food. It 
should be put to the breast whenever it shows an 
inclination. The true mother will delight in the priv- 
ilege of nursing her child, and will allow nothing but 
the most entire inability to prevent the exercise of 
this maternal office. 

The mother's milk is the natural fooa, and nothing 
can fully take its place. Every means should be 
used to secure and maintain this natural nutriment 
before resorting to artificial food. The nursing pro- 
cess, by sympathetic action, assists in restoring the 
uterus to normal conditions. A few years since 
everybody supposed the baby must be fed artificially 
the first two days of its life, that there was a break 
in nature's provision for its sustenance. The conse- 
quence was the poor little victim was dosed with 
all sorts of slops, catnip tea, panada, gruel, cracker 
water, cream tea, etc., etc. Remember, it needs 
nothinghnt the secretion that is in the breast, which 
is laxative at first, and removes the meconium from 
the bowels. If for any reason the mother has not 
milk for her child, or is separated from it, the best 
substitute is a wet nurse, whose babe should be near 
the same age. The nurse should be well and strong, 
having abundant and nourishing milk. 

The best artificial food is cream reduced and 
sweetened with sugar of milk. Analysis show that 



HAND FED CHILDREN. 211 

the human milk contains more cream and sugar and 
le?§ casein than the milk of animals. The reduced 
cream, sweetened, closely approximates human milk. 
The difference in the quality of cream presents a 
great difficulty. No rule can be given for its reduc- 
tion. Most nurses leave it too rich, and the child's 
system is soon deranged. 

To obviate this difficulty, let new milk stand from 
four to six hours, take the top off, reduce one-half 
with hot water; to one pint add one teaspoonful of 
sugar of milk and one grain of phosphate of lime. 
When the child is from three to five months old, oat- 
meal, barley or bran gruel can be added. 

Children have not sufficient secretion of saliva to coU' 
vert starch into sugar. Therefore never use arrow- 
root or corn starch; these do not digest in the stom- 
ach, and intestinal derangement is likely to follow. 
Bran or barley gruel furnishes phosphates, which are 
essential to stimulate digestion. 

Microscopical examination of the artificial foods 
prepared and sold for infants, proves many of them 
deficient in gluten and too abundant \^ starch to 
make them desirable nutriment. The following ex- 
tract from "Playfair's Midwifery" explains the 

''Causes of mortality in hand-fed children. 
— Much of the mortality following hand-feeding may 
be traced to unsuitable food. Among the poorer 
classes especially there is a prevalent notion that 
milk alone is insufficient, and hence the almost uni- 
versal custom of administering various farinaceous 
foods, such as corn-flour or arrowroot, even from the 
earliest period. Many of these consist of starch 
alone, and are therefore absolutely unsuited for form- 
u 



212 BEST ARTIFICIAL MILK. 

ing the staple of diet, on account of the total absence 
of nitrogenous elements. Independently of this, it has 
been shown that the saliva of infants has not at first 
the digestive action on starch that it subsequently 
acquires, and this affords a further explanation of its 
so constantly producing intestinal derangement. 
Reason, as well as experience, abundantly proves that 
the object to be aimed at in hand-feeding is to imitate 
as nearly as possible the food which nature supplies 
for the newborn child, and therefore the obvious 
course is to use milk from some animal, so treated as 
to make it resemble human milk as nearly as may be, 
''Artificial human milk.— An admirable plan of 
treating cow's milk, so as to reduce it to almost ab- 
solute chemical identity with human milk has been 
devised by Professor Frankland, to whom I am in- 
debted for permission to insert the receipt. I have 
followed this method in many cases, and find it far 
superior to the usual one, as it produces an exact and 
uniform compound. With a little practice nurses can 
employ it with no more trouble than the ordinary mix- 
ing of cow's milk with water and sugar. The follow- 
ing extracts from Dr. Frankland's work will explain 
the principles on which the preparation of the artifi- 
cial human milk is founded: 'The rearing of infants, 
who can not be supplied with their natural food, is 
notoriously difficult and uncertain, owing chiefly to 
the great difference in the chemical composition of 
human milk and cow's milk. The latter is much 
richer in casein, and poorer in milk-sugar than the 
former, whilst asses' milk, which is sometimes used 
for feeding infants, is too poor in casein and butter, 
although the proportion of sugar is nearly the same 



ANALYSTS OF MILK. 213 

as in human milk. The relation of the three kinds 
of milk to each other are clearly seen from the fol- 
lowing analytical numbers, which express the per- 
centage amounts of the different constituents: 

Woman. Ass Cow. 

Casein 2.7 1.7 4.2 

Butter 3.5 1.3 3.8 

Milk-sugar 5.0 4.5 3.8 

Salts 2 .5 .7 

These numbers show that by the removal of one- 
third of the casein from cow's milk, and the addition 
of about one-third more milk-sugar, a liquid is ob- 
tained which closely approaches human milk in com- 
position, the percentage amounts of the four chief 
constituents being as follows: 

Casein 2.8 

Butter 3.8 

Milk-sugar 5.0 

Salts 7 

The following is the mode of preparing the milk: 
Allow one-third of a pint of new milk to stand for 
about twelve hours, remove the cream and add to it 
two-thirds of a pint of new milk, as fresh from the 
cow as possible. Into the one-third of a pint of blue 
milk left after the abstraction of the cream, put a 
piece of rennet about one inch square. Set the ves- 
sel in warm water, until the milk is fully curdled, an 
operation requiring from five to fifteen minutes, ac- 
cording to the activity of the rennet, which should 
be removed as soon as the curdling commences, and 
put into an egg cup for use on subsequent occasions, 



T14 AVOID RUBBER NIPPLES. 

is it may be employed daily for a month or two. 
Break up the curd repeatedly, and carefully separate 
the whole of the whey, which should then be rapidly 
heated to boiling in a small tin pan placed over a 
spirit or gas lamp. During the heating a further 
quantity of casein, technically called ' fleetings,' 
separates, and must be removed by straining through 
muslin. Now dissolve i lo grains of powdered sugar 
of milk in the hot whey, and mix it with the two- 
thirds of a pint of new milk, to which the cream from 
the other third of a pint was added, as already de- 
scribed. The artificial milk should be used within 
twelve hours of its preparation, and it is almost need- 
less to add that all the vessels employed in its manu- 
facture and administration should be kept scrupu- 
lously clean. 

Any babe can be fed from the first with a spoon, 
and in a few weeks it will drink from a cup or glass. 
When it seems necessary to use the nursing bottle 
the utmost care should be taken to keep it clean and 
sweet. Two bottles should be used alternately. The 
one not in use should be thoroughly rinsed, and then 
laid (without the nipple) in an earthern or granite 
dish, containing a solution of common soda. Let it 
remain there until needed, then rinse it well, and 
you may feel that it is in good condition. Cleanse 
the nipple by hand. Do not use the rubber tube. 

A young babe should not be fed more frequently 
than once in two hours, and by the time it is three 
months old once in three hours is preferable. 
Most children, when four or five months old, can be 
taught to sleep all night without nursing. Nothing 
deranges a child's digestion more than irregular and 



TIME FOR WEANING. 21 5 

constant nursing. I have seen a mother give her 
child the breast five times during a half-hour's con- 
versation. It is unreasonable to suppose that a child 
is hungry every time it nestles and frets. Consider 
the time since it has nursed, and look for other causes 
of uneasiness before giving it the breast. 

A babe should be weaned when it is from twelve 
to eighteen months old. The exact time depends 
largely upon its development, and also upon the 
mother's condition. Begin weaning by omitting 
nursing once a day for several days, then twice a day, 
and so on. In this way the little one is weaned al- 
most, or quite unconsciously, is never for a minute 
unhappy, and the mother is saved great anxiety 
and worry. Before weaning and some time after, 
it should be fed upon oatmeal, barley meal, wheat 
meal, graham bread and milk, wheatlet, etc. The 
digestive organs are not in a condition for a 
mixed diet until the teeth are developed, and, as has 
been indicated above, the saliva is not yet an efficient 
aid for digesting starchy food. Many a case of sum- 
mer complaint, convulsions, etc., is due to the meat, 
pie and cake upon which the child has been fed. 

Meat-fed children are cross, irritable and quarrel- 
some. Some three years since a kind, conscientious 
mother said: "The greatest trial of my life is that 
my children quarrel so with each other. I cannot 
understand the reason. Nothing they do annoys me 
so much, and by teaching, persuasion or punishment 
I have been unable to change their habit." 

Hoping to give her aid, I asked many questions — 
among other things in regard to diet. She told me 
they were great meat eaters; her husband and brother 



2l6 MEAT FED CHILDREN. 

must have it three times a day, and the children often 
ate scarcely anything else. I told her the story of 
the bear that was kept at the museum in Giessen; 
when fed on bread only it was quiet and tractable- 
even children could play with it with impunity — but 
a few days' feeding upon meat vvould make it fero- 
cious, quarrelsome and dangerous. 

She agreed to try the experiment upon her child- 
ren. I counseled her, as her husband did not dine at 
home, to make a special dinner for the children. In- 
stead of giving them scraps of cold meat, pies and 
cake, etc., make them milk toast, tiny graham or corn 
meal gems, cracked wheat or wheatlet moulded in 
small cups with fruit sauce, fruit puddings, etc. Spare 
no pains in making it attractive and palatable. Dec- 
orate the table with fruit and flowers, and make the 
occasions frequent when their own holiday presents 
of china should be used. Follow this with a light 
lunch at night, of simple, farinaceous food before the 
ordinary family dinner. In this way they would be 
tempted with the meat only at breakfast, and even 
then, fresh fish, fish balls, omelets, etc., might often 
be made to supplant the platter of steak or ham. 

This lady entered into the plan heartily, and was 
more than amply paid. In less than a month she 
could see a difference in the habits of her children, 
and a year later she testified that it would hardly be 
recognized as the same family. The children were 
cheerful, playful, gleeful, and full of spirit — but in 
place of fretfulness and quarrels, were kind, benevo- 
lent and considerate to each other. They were also 
more than ordinarily exempt from acute attacks of 
fevers and inflammation. 



CHAPTER XVII. 



DISEASES OF INFANTS. 

The diseases herein treated are mainly those for 
which a physician is seMom called. A few sugges- 
tions are al? o added upon those in which the severity 
of the attack necessitates attention before medical 
aid can be obtained. 

Aphtha is sometimes theresui^of scrofula, other- 
wise it is caused by improper quality or quantity ol 
food, eicher natural or artificial. In bottle-fed babes 
it oiten results from the milk not being sufficiently 
diluted, or from the use of starchy food. Neglect of 
genera! cleanliness in many cases give rise to this 
ailment. The child is feverish, fretful, and often re- 
fuses the breast on account of pain experienced in 
nursing. Sometimes there is vomiting and thin 
watery diarrhea. The tongue, gums, palate and in- 
side of cheeks and lips are thickly specked with white 
flecks; sometimes there is a dirty diphtheritic-like 
membrane. Aphtha usually runs its course in a few 
days. Those cases are exceptional which are fol- 
lowed by unpleasant results. 

Treatment. — Sometimes the case requires merely 
the washing of the mouth two or three times a day 
with a weak solution of borax, ten grains to one 
ounce of water. The mouth should be cleansed after 
gach meal, as should zho the mother's nipple. 

1217) 



2l8 EXCORIATION OF GROIN. 

I^ Hydrastis lO gr. 
Sugar, 100 gr. 

Pulverize thoroughly and put a small quantity in- 
to the mouth two or three times a day. 

Arsenicum, jd. — Patches of a dark color; severe, 
watery, painless diarrhea, thirst and great prostra- 
tion. Dose, six pellets every three hours. 

Merc, Sol., jd. — Dribbling saliva, offensive breath, 
greenish diarrhea with pain. Dose, six pellets every 
four hours. 

Excoriation of groin and axilla frequently 
trouble very fat, scrofulous or bottle-fed babies. The 
surface becomes raw, inflamed, and often painful. 

Bathe frequently in tepid soft water, or what often 
proves better, milk and water. Dry with a soft linen 
cloth. Or hold the sufferer over a tub or basin, and 
from a large sponge squeeze tepid soft water on the 
affected part. Repeat every two or three hours. 
This is grateful and healing. The occasional use of 
cosmoline or of sweet cream in which clover blos- 
soms have been steeped is beneficial. Avoid nursery 
powders. If the methods advised fail, scorch flour 
and apply several times a day. Should there be 
eruptions or ulcers use a powder of the following: 

Kj Scorched Flour §j 

Powdered Hydrastics 5j 

Mix. Apply through a powder bag after washing. 

Borax, half a drachm to a pint of soft water, gives 
relief where great inflammation attends the excoria- 
tion. Lay upon the affected part for an hour or two 
at a time .^oft cloths wet in the cold lotion. Frequent 



COLIC — STARCHY FOOD. 2ig 

washing and perfect cleanliness are really the best 
preventives and cures. 

Colic is the torture of babyhood, as well as a con- 
stant source of parental solicitude. It is not consid- 
ered a dangerous disease, but the sufferings of the 
little one are a great tax upon sympathetic nerves. 
There is no special age when the infant is subject to 
colic. It occurs more frequently when it is from two 
to five months old. However, children may suffer 
from it before they are two weeks old. 

Severe colics are usually the result of derange- 
ments of the liver, and when mothers are badly 
nourished, the child is freqaently born with the 
trouble. The condition is largely due to a deficiency 
of nitrogenous elements and phosphates in the food. 
The system is over supplied with carbonates in the 
shape of starch, fats and sugar, and deficient in ele- 
ments that build up the tissues, such as gluten, fibrin, 
albumen, etc. The mother partakes of food that 
produces an inflammatory condition, and lacks in that 
which makes muscle, bone and nerve. She should 
be cautious about eating o_' mixed dishes and also of 
greasy and highly seasoned food. 

Let her diet be chiefly of barley, wheatlet, rolled 
wheat, and bread from graham flour, or Lockport 
entire wheat flour, with the addition of fish, milk and 
eggs. Fruits can be partaken of freely, avoiding 
those that are exceedingly acid. It is only when fruit 
is not eaten all the time, that colic in the child is 
caused by the mother's partaking of it. If it has been 
eaten freely during pregnancy, it will do no harm 
during lactation. Until the causes of colic can be re- 
moved, palliative treatment must be resorted to 



220 AVOID OPIATES. 

A colicky baby must be kept warm, avoiding all 
changes in temperature.* A rubber bag or bottle 
filled with hot water and put in the crib will keep the 
child, once quited, asleep for hours. During the 
paroxysms put the child's feet in a basin of hot water, 
or place cloths wrung from hot water over its bowels, 
and if the attack is very severe, a full hot bath will 
often give relief.t 

Avoid giving opiates. They constipate the bowels 
and derange digestion. In acute attacks following 
their use, the brain and spine are likely to be seri- 
ously involved. Nearly all cordials sold for colic 
contain opium. Analysis reveals morphine, one grain 
to the ounce, in Winslow's soothing syrup. 

The following from a daily paper only shows that 
many medicines are the mother's enemy, instead of 
the "Mother's Friend." "The Tewksbury almshouse 
horror once more calls attention to the frightful 
abuse of narcotics for which the medical profession is 
to a great extent responsible. In the Tewksbury 
child's hospital the nurses were provided with mor- 
phine in half-pint bottles! No wonder the babies 
were kept so still that they died at a rate never before 

*An interesting account has lately appeared in medical journals, 
entitled, "Incubating Babies." Some physician had charge of found- 
lings, and tried the experiment of keeping them devoid of clothing in 
ventilated boxes, at an even temperature of 80°. They were fed at 
regular intervals. They slept most of the time. During the waking 
periods, kicked, laughed and crowed, but seldom cried. He lessened 
the mortality very greatly, and possibly proved to the world that the 
hardening ox toughening process is begun too soon for the best vigor 
of childhood. 

f A warm bath, indeed, let the cause of "griping" be what it may, 
usually affords instant relief . — C^-?^'*^^^*?. 



MOTHERS FRIEND. 221 

heard of. An idea of the extent to which nar- 
cotics are given to infants in English manufacturing 
towns is gleanable from the deposition of a Hanley 
chemist before a coroner's jury. He testified that he 
made up and sold six gallons a day of an article called 
'Mother's Friend.' This stuff contains seven and 
one-half drops of laudanum to the ounce. With this 
it is customary to dose their babies so that they shall 
sleep during the time the young mothers are engaged 
at the factories. Of course the infant mortality of 
the place is frightful. 

"In contradistinction to this practice of barbar- 
ously working young mothers, Mr. Schneider, the 
owner of the great Creuzot iron works in France, 
compels a mother to stay from work for a few months 
before and after a child is born. For the carrying 
out of this humane purpose he has created a fund 
out of which the wages of the mother during the 
period of her incapacity are paid." 

Convulsions, brain fever, summer complaint, etc., 
are often the result of the early use of opiates. I 
can recall many cases where spasms in summer com- 
plaint were caused evidently and directly by the use 
of opiates employed to check a slight ailment, in itself 
harmless. 

For Colic. — Some diffusible stimulant is prefer- 
able to narcotics. In mild cases, a few tea-spoonfuls 
of hot water suffice, and there is but little objection 
to the old-fashioned catnip tea. 

Peppermint essence. — One drop in six tea-spoons of 
hot water often affords relief. Feed slowly. 

Camphor, tincture. — Pain is severe and cramp-like, 
knees flexed, hands and feet cold, face livid, especially 



222 BEST REMEDIES. 

if there is dian lea; put one drop on a tea-spoonful of 
sugar, mix thoroughly, then add six tea-spoons of hot 
water. Dose — A tea-spoonful every ten minutes. 

Chamomilla, 2d. — Stools are green and every diaper 
is stained. The child is very restless, nurses often, 
constantly desires change of position and attend- 
ants, wants to be carried from room to room. If the 
homeopathic preparation does not give relief, make 
an infusion of the blossoms. To six graius of the 
bloom, pour one gill boiling water. Feed slowly. 
Four or five tea-spoonfuls are usually sufficient. Any 
of these preparations, except camphor, should not be 
sweetened. 

Nux Vomicayjd. — Constipation or undigested curds 
of milk in the feces. Child starts in its sleep, has 
short naps and throws its head back when it cries. 
To one grain add six tea-spoons of warm water, and 
give every ten minutes in half tea-spoonful doses. 
For colic of children and grown people, I have found 
more frequent relief from this remedy than all others. 
It promotes digestion, equalizes the circulation and 
feeds the nervous system. The nursing mother 
should also take it once or twice a day when the 
child has these symptoms, and an occasional dose 
taken by both, prevents subsequent attacks. She 
must remember, too, to take sufficient rest and sleep, 
using every means to promote her own best health. 

Constipation is not a very frequent ailment of in- 
fants, but is occasionally met with, and sometimes be- 
comes very obstinate. When a nursing child is thus 
affected, the mother will usually be found to be 
suffering from the same conditions. In such a case, 
she should follow the directions in Chap. V, and 



CONSTIPATION OF INFANTS. 223 

through correct habits in her own system, she will 
doubtless find the child relieved. 

Want of regularity in its habits often produces cos- 
tiveness in an infant. If he is fed or nursed regularly, 
and held out at the same time of each day, and as he 
gets older is put upon a chair, he will seldom be 
troubled with this complaint. It is wonderful how 
soon the bowels in most cases, by this simple plan, 
may be brought into a regular habit. 

A soap suppository should be used after a day or 
two, if this method fails. This is a safe, speedy and 
certain method of moving the bowels. Make it by 
paring a piece of white castile soap round. Should 
be about the size of a lead-pencil, pointed at the end, 
and two inches in length. Moisten in warm water 
and introduce nearly the whole length. After re- 
maining from one to five minutes it will be expelled 
and the bowels will be comfortably and effectually 
relieved. 

If the feces are very hard, like little balls, it is bet- 
ter to give an enema of castile soapsuds, to one cup- 
ful of which, one tea-spoonful of sweet oil has been 
added. Squeezing cold or tepid water over the 
child's bowels, followed by hand friction, aids to 
stimulate them to action. 

Some advise rubbing the bowels with castor oil. 
getting thereby the aperient effect, without the irri- 
tation of an internal dose. 

Do not begin by giving a little baby aperient drugs. 
Chevasse says: "If you once begin, and continue it 
for a while, opening medicine becomes a dire neces- 
sity, and then woe betide the poor unfortunate child." 

Purgative medicines irritate beyond measure the 



224 ^INFANTILE DIARRHEA. 

tender organs of an infant and ordinarily result in 
constipation. 

Diarrhea of infants is nature's first method of 
removing obstructions and overcoming derangements 
of the system, and in nine cases out of ten should 
not be interfered with. 

The natural movements are usually thin, and of 
a bright orange color. One author describes them as 
being of the ''consistence and color of mustard mixed 
for the table." They are nearly devoid of smell, or 
at least have only a faint, disagreeable odor. Many 
children at first have from three to six movements 
in a day. If they should increase to from six to 
twelve and still not change materially in consistence 
color or odor, there is no cause for uneasiness. 

Many an attack of sickness is the result of check- 
ing a diarrhea with opiates and astringents. If the 
discharges become watery, green, attended with 
griping, or streaked with mucus or blood, are of an 
ashen or chalk color, or if they have undigested curds 
of milk, then they demand attention. Above all, 
keep the child quiet and apply heat. The hot water 
bottle is most excellent. An enema of hot water 
often gives entire relief without the use of other 
remedies. I have known large families of children, 
in which for years no other means was used for the 
successful control of this disease. 

Dysentery is indicated by mucus and blood with 
straining. It is an inflammation of the rectum and 
large intestines. Warm flaxseed tea injections after 
the discharge give great relief. Compresses should 
be put on the bowels for an hour or two at a time, 
three or four times a day. 



SHEET PACK— SUMMER COMPLAINT. 22$ 

A general pack is exceedingly helpful where fever 
attends this or other affections. 

To pack a child, remove all its clothing, put on its 
nightdress, lay in the crib on a woolen blanket: wet 
the nightdress in tepid water, using a sponge, put 
a hot bottle to the feet. 

Wrap the child closely in the blanket and be sure 
reaction takes place. Let it lie in this one hour, when 
it should be sponged carefully and wiped dry. This 
pack is indicated in any disease of children where 
there is sufficient fever and heat to produce reaction. 
Remember, the simplest measures are often the most 
effectual. (The above suggestions are equally valu- 
able in giving packs to adults.) 

Summer complaint is an inflammation or irrita- 
tion of the mucus membrane of the intestines. 
Owing to dentition and change of food, children are 
more liable to this affection in their second summer. 
They are then constantly the subject of anxious so- 
licitude by their parents and friends. 

If the discharges are only frequent and yellow, un- 
accompanied by pain and fever, there is no cause for 
anxiety. It is simply an effort of nature to restore 
normal conditions, and should not be interfered with. 
Too hastily checking this diarrhea is frequently the 
cause of spasms and other serious affections. 

The symptoms of summer complaint proper, are 
frequent, watery movements; at first may be green 
but soon become gray, brown and frothy, sometimes 
having a mixture of phlegm and mucus; frequently 
are fetid, and, at times, contain undigested food. It 
may or may not be accompanied by pain. Nausea 
and vomiting are frequent symptoms, and if severe, 



226 SYMPTOMS— CAUSES. 

constitute cholera infantum. The surface of the body 
is cold, often in a cold perspiration, while the soles 
of the feet and palms of the hands are dry and hot. 
It is usually attended with great thirst, a quick pulse 
and increased temperature. 

Some children are prostrated at once by the at- 
tack, losing flesh and strength rapidly, while others 
keep about many days. Appetite fails, or else 
there are morbid cravings, often for the very 
things that increase the irritation. If the disease is 
not abated, the fever and thirst increase, the tongue 
becomes dry and brown, pulse is more rapid, the 
strength fails, great restlessness ensues, the brain 
becomes affected, coma ensues, and death closes the 
scene. 

Impure air and improper diet are the principal 
causes of this disease. Sleeping and living rooms 
not being sufficiently ventilated, the blood becomes 
poisoned. Children are fed a mixed diet too soon. 
Rich and highly seasoned food that is even unsuita- 
ble for adults, except in a vigorous outdoor life, is 
given them, and at irregular hours. The delicate 
organs are overtaxed, and inflammatory conditions 
produced. When a child is weaned it should be fed 
upon oat, wheat and corn meal mush, bread and 
milk, rice, cracked wheat, wheatlet, barley, and ripe 
fruits. Meats, condiments, tea and coffee, and food 
containing fats should be avoided. Even most of 
the vegetables are not adapted to children. 

Give them simple but nutritious diet, turn them, 
like colts, outrloors to run and play, and you will 
save yourselves anxiety, save doctor's bills, and best 
of all, save your children. Blood that is too carbo- 



OUT-DOOR LIFE. 22^ 

naceous can be oxygenized by plenty of outdoor ex- 
ercise, both by adults and children. The less cloth- 
ing a child wears in hot weather the better, only I 
would advise that flannel be worn next the skin. 
This will prevent sudden checking of perspiration. 
By all means let the little children go barefoot. A 
child that has a sand pile to play in, and is allowed 
to run barefoot, must be of a very delicate organiza- 
tion if he can have summer complaint. By direct 
contact with the earth, superabundance of electric- 
ity is carried off, and thus is lessened the possibility 
of inflammation. The child that spends most of its 
waking hours outdoors^ barefooted^ seldom gets summer 
complaint. He has: 

*' Sleep that wakes in laughing day; 
Health that mocks the doctor's rules; 
Outward sunshine; inward joy; 
Blessing on thee, barefoot boy! " 

In summer complaint give but little food, and that 
only in a liquid form. Barley water, rice water, oat- 
meal gruel, bran jelly, lemon jelly and orange whey, 
are all good. Milk can be used, if relished and di- 
gested. It is ordinarily better to be reduced by 
adding one-third boiling water. All of these must 
be given in small quantities and at regular intervals. 
The best drink is soft water. If there is vomiting, a 
drink make by steeping whole parched corn, is ex- 
cellent. Also oatmeal coffee is good. The juice of 
acid fruits is beneficial, and can be used freely. But 
on no account allow the pulp, seed or skin to be 
eaten. Remember, very little nourishment can be 
appropriated. The child, especially if nursing, often 
takes food on account of thirst. 

A COMPRESS wrung from cold water should be ap- 
15 



228 SUGGESTIVE TREATMENT. 

plied if there is local heat, and allowed to remain for 
two or three hours, then removed, and the parts 
bathed in tepid water. If there is pain, hot fomenta- 
tions or hot enemas, will be advantageous. 

Under all circumstances avoid opiates and astrin- 
gents. These stop the discharges without removing 
the cause, and if the disease does not recur in the 
same form, some other organ is liable to become 
affected. If the child seems to need nourishment and 
is not able to take it, an enema of a thin bran tea 
will prove nourishing without being irritating. 

Keep the child quiet^ in a well ventilated room, or 
in the open air. A bed made of the inside corn 
husks stripped fine, is the best. A new material for 
bedding made of Florida moss is excellent. A child, 
sick or well, should not sleep on bed or pillows of 
feathers. By observing these simple directions 
most cases of this dread disease can be saved. 

Remedies for dysentery and summer complaint. 

Arsenicwn, jd. — The discharges are thin, watery, 
yellow, accompanied by thirst, hands and feet hot. 
Six pellets every two hours. 

CMpruiUy jd. — Discharges green, frequent and 
small, with much pain. Six pellets every two hours. 

Camphor tincture. — Discharges watery, frequent 
vomiting, coldness of extremities. Prepared and 
given as on page 221. 

Mercury sol., jd. — Discharges watery, gush out, 
followed by sinking, have a bad odor. Six pellets 
every three hours. 

Mercury cor., jd. — Green discharges streaked with 
mucus or blood, accompanied by straining effort. 
Six pellets every four hours. 



INFLAMMATION OF THE BOWELS. 229 

Veratrum Viride^ jd^ — Coldness of extremities, 
head hot, thirst, nausea, vomiting. Six pellets every 
two hours. 

Phosphorus, jd. — Odorless, clay colored discharges. 
Four pellets every hour. 

Inflammation of the bowels is inflammation 
of the intestines, involving either all their coats or 
only their mucus lining. The symptoms are rigors, 
followed by dry, hot skin; quick, wiry, strong pulse; 
thirst, nausea or vomiting, diarrhea or constipation; 
severe pain in the abdomen, especially around the 
navel, aggravated by pressure. Lies on his back 
with his knees drawn up. 

Causes. — Errors in diet, cold, use or drugs, especi- 
ally of purgatives and strong medicines used tc 
check diarrhea. Remember what is said of diarrhea 
on page 224, and do not be in haste to check the 
first symptoms. Use liquid food only. It is seldom 
necessary to give remedies. 

Hot fomentations alternated with cold compresses 
carefully adjusted, will prove very efficacious. Hot 
enemas should also be given. 

Dentition under natural and proper conditions 
should not be accompanied by constitutional distur- 
bances. Some law must have been violated to have 
caused derangements with teething. 

The symptoms of the disorders of dentition are 
hot, swollen gums, accompanied by feverishness and 
restlessness, starting, as if in fright, or interrupted 
sleep, increased flow of saliva, various eruptions on 
the head or body, derangements of the digestive or- 
gans. Summer complaint is the most frequent of the 
ailments peculiar to teething, which see page 225. 



230 DENTITION. 

The most prevalent and serious cause for these ail- 
ments is to be found in the adoption of a mixed diet 
at too early an age. A teething infant cannot with 
impunity be thus fed. This is sufficiently proved by 
the lack of a full complement of teeth needful for 
mastication. Disturbed conditions of the mother, as 
worry, anger, over-heating, and fatigue often result 
in serious effects on the nursing child. 

Let the gums be bathed frequently in cold water. 
Lancing is seldom necessary. 

Starchy foods and sweets should be avoided. It 
has been proven that the love for sweets often mani- 
fested by children is an unnatural appetite. It is 
doing injury to the teething infant to cultivate this 
taste by universally sweetening its food. Supple- 
ment the milk diet with graham mush, wheatlet, 
granula, or bread of the fine flour of the entire 
wheat. 

Keep the child much in the open air. See that the 
head is cool and the feet warm. Bathe daily in cold 
water, and keep a flannel band or shirt about the 
abdomen. 

Chamomilla^ 2d. — An excellent medicine for most 
cases of disordered dentition, especially in the ab- 
sence of fever. Also when there is bilious purging, 
intestinal irritation, cough, nervousness and fretful- 
ness. Six pellets every hour. 

Aconitum, 2d. — Feverishness, restlessness, inflamed 
gums. Ten drops in half a glass of water, teaspoon- 
ful every half hour. A cloth wet in this preparation 
given to a child to hold in its mouth will alleviate 
heat and pain in the gums, and will be highly appre- 
ciated by the little one. 



REMEDIES IN PENTITION, 231 

Calcarea Carh.y ^d. — Slimy diarrhea in scrofulous 
patients. Six pellets every three hours. 

ArsenicuMy jd. — Thirst, hot hands and feet, great 
emaciation. Six pellets every hour. 

Bell.yjd. — Flushed face, nervous irritability, un- 
easiness in sleep. Six pellets every hour. 

Pod. 2dy — Diarrhea with pain of an intermitting 
character, prolapsus ani. Six pellets every three 
hours. 

Silicea^ 6th. — Perspiration about the head upon fall- 
ing asleep. Six pellets three times a day. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



DISEASES OF INFANTS. — CONTINUED. 

Worms. — Thread or pin worms and roundworms are 
most common. Thread-worins are about half an inch 
in length, white in color, and move rapidly. They 
are found in the anus or lower part of the rectum. 

Thread-worms give rise to restlessness and itching 
about the anus, especially in the evening after first 
falling asleep. Give with a child's syringe a small 
injection of a tablespoonful of raw linseed oil. In 
some instances annointing externally with the oil or 
with cosmoline will give relief. Keep the parts well 
cleansed, using suds of carbolic soap. The round- 
worm is from six to fifteen inches long, resembling 
the common earth-worm, but of a paler color. It 
is supposed to feed on the chyle, and lives generally 
in the small intestines, but it sometimes passes up- 
ward into the stomach, and is expelled by vomiting, 
or downward, and is ejected with the evacuations. 

The presence of the round-worm maybe indicated 
by indigestion, swelling of the abdomen, restlessness, 
grinding of the teeth in sleep, convulsion, etc. It is 
the result of a mixed diet, and is rarely found when 
the child has been fed on the product of the grains. 

Santonine^ isi. — Grain doses, three times a day for 
three days. Follow this on the fourth day by a copi- 
ous enema, one pint of water, to which one tea-spoon 

(.--32) 



CROUP, THE MOTHER'S TERROR. 233 

of salt has been added. After three days, if the 
symptoms still continue, repeat treatment. 

Incontinence of Urine,— ^This annoying ailment 
is common among children. Mothers and nurses 
often deal impatiently with the unfortunate child, 
believing it to be a habit, which may be easily over- 
come. It is more often a malady than a habit. In 
neither case is it ever cured by scolding. If a habit, 
a promised reward is more effective than harsh treat- 
ment. Give the child a light supper devoid of liquids. 
Take him up once or twice in the night to urinate. 
Bathe the spine at bedtime with equal parts of alco- 
hol and ammonia, followed by hand friction. 

Retention of Urine. — The child is restless, un- 
easy and unable to pass water, beyond perhaps a small 
quantity, though there is frequent urging. It may be 
caused by cold, injuries or acute disease. A full hot 
bath, or hot fomentatioiis nearly always produce relief. 

Aconitunty jd. — Retention from cold, fever, or in- 
flammation, hot, dry skin, thirst, etc. 

Cantharis. jd. — Frequent urging, with total sup- 
pression; or the discharge, with pain, of a few drops 
of bloody urine. 

Croup is liable to attack a child any time from the 
age of one month, until nine or ten years old. The 
attacks occur most frequently when about two or 
three years of age. Nothing will more quickly make 
a mother's heart stand still with alarm and terror 
than to hear the hoarse,whistling, sonorous breathing 
of croup. A few directions will be of service until 
medical attendance can be obtained. 

Authors recognize two varieties, the spasmodic 
and membranous, and recently some speak of diph- 



234 TRUE AND FALSE CROUP. 

theritic croup. In the first, the inflammation does 
not run so high, and the hoarseness may be simply 
nervous. It runs its course rapidly. Usually the 
child goes to bed all right and awakens about 1 1 or 
12 o'clock with a loud ringing or rasping cough, and 
some difficulty of breathing. The attack relieved, 
will seem all right through the following day, unless 
an occasional cough. Usually recurs three or four 
successive nights, is seldom fatal. 

In membranous croups there may be a slight hoarse- 
ness and difficulty of breathing several days before 
the attack becomes severe. The mucus membrane 
of the throat becomes red and inflamed, with a thick 
ropy exudation that forms in a membrane, covering 
the entire fauces. Fever may or may not be present. 
Symptoms remain much the same, day and night. 
Duration of the disease from two to fourteen days. 

The following are a few of the symptoms to aid in 
distinguishing between the different forms of croup: 

TRUE OR MEMBRANOUS CROU FALSE OR SPASMODIC CROUP. 

Begins any time. Begins from ten to twelve o'clock 

First symptoms catarrhal. at night. 

Symptoms slight at first. Severe at first. 

Cough harsh and rough. Cough loud and linging. 

Voice weak, whispers. Voice hoarse. 

Membrane always visible. No membrane. 

No fetor. diphtheria. 

Membrane lies upon mucus Fetid breath, 

membrane, is loose, and can be Membrane dips down in the 

removed easily. mucus membrane. 

Membrane invades the larynx Is tenacious, firm, adherent, 

from below and progresses up- Membrane invades the larynx 

ward. Membrane always con- from above and progresses down- 

tinuous and glairy. ward, and often is seen in patches. 



TREATMENT FOR CROUP. 235 

Many cases of spasmodic croup are relieved en- 
tirely by using promptly a compress of ice cold 
water; should be worn day and night, and kept well 
covered with a woolen cloth. Apply to the throat 
only. Renew in one or two hours, if the first appli- 
cation does not give relief. Many families never 
resort to any other means for croup, being confident 
that this will give certain relief. 

The following remedy I have used for years with 
the happiest result. Families that have croupy 
children keep it in the house, and I seldom have to 
be called out at night for croup by regular patrons. 
It can be put up at any homeopathic pharmacy. Do 
not try to get it at the drug store, as the ordinary 
drug clerk has no inkling of homeopathic trituration. 

^ Tartar Emetic, 2d trit. 3 ij 
Aconite Tincture, gtts. ij 

Mix. Dry out, triturate half an hour. Put six 
grains in twelve tea-spoons of water, and give in tea- 
spoonful doses every ten or fifteen minutes. It is not 
necessary that the emetic effect of the drug should 
be secured. It has a specific action upon the air 
passages, and is an invaluable remedy in many of the 
acute affections of throat and lungs. Aconite alone 
gives relief frequently, and many physicians use no 
other remedy. The two together in the above prep- 
aration have seldom failed me, and as an old friend I 
recommend it. During the day following the attack 
give a tea-spoonful of the remedy once in two hours. 
Keep the child on a light diet and free from exposure. 

In membranous or diphtheritic croup, the services 
of a physician will always be secured if possible. 



236 DIPHTHERIA. 

ProtO'iodide of mercury is my ''sheet anchor" for 
both these affections. Of this I give the second trit- 
uration in grain doses every two hours. Often give 
the prescription recommended for spasmodic croup 
at the same time, a tea-spoonful every twenty or 
thirty minutes. Other remedies, such as iodine^ bro- 
mine ^ nitrate of mnyl^ bic/iromate of potassa, phosphorus ^ 
etc., are used as the symptoms indicate; but the 
proto-iodide or bin-iodide of mercury will meet the 
exigencies of more cases than any other one known 
remedy. Of course hot baths, hot fomentations and 
cold compresses must be brought into requisition. I 
have seen great relief, even where the disease seemed 
in the last stages, from a poultice of fresh phytolacca 
(pokeroot), applied to the throat. This is made by 
pounding the root and mixing it with hot flaxseed or 
meal poultice. Not being able to procure the root, 
fluid extract can be used. 

Diphtheria is now considered an infectious dis- 
ease, produced by bacteria or infusoria that inoculate 
the patient. Many claim to be able to cure the dis- 
ease by local means only, while the invasion is only 
local, before the entire system is poisoned. A child 
in robust health will usually resist the infection. The 
following methods of treatment are highly vaunted 
for their efficacy. Both of the drugs recommended 
are invaluable in destroying infusoria, and are used 
in the hands of eminent practitioners with success: 

Sulphur. — Put a teaspoonful into a wine glass of 
w^ater and stir it with the finger instead of a spoon, 
as it does not readily amalgamate with water. When 
well mixed, it is to be given to the patient to gar- 
gle. When the fungus is too nearly closing to allow 



TREATMENT FOR DIPHTHERIA. 237 

the gargling, the sulphur should be thrown through 
a quill into the throat, and after the fungus has 
shrunk to allow it, then the gargling. If the patient 
cannot gargle, take a live coal, put it on a shovel, 
and sprinkle a spoonful of flour of brimstone upon it; 
let the sufferer inhale it by holding the head over it, 
and the fungus will die. Sulphur kills every species 
of fungus in man, beast and plant, in a few minutes. 
At one time at Princess Mary's Cottage Home, Lon- 
don, an outbreak of diphtheria attacked fifty of the 
inmates. One of the lady nurses cured them all by 
causing the patients to gargle with sulphur, and to 
take it internally. 

Permanganate of potassium. — Take ten grains and 
mix with one ounce of cold water. As soon as dis- 
solved it must be applied with a rag or sponge, mop 
or swab, to the whitish places in the tonsils and other 
parts, on which is seen the diphtheritic membrane. 
Do this very gently, but thoroughly, every three 
hours until better; then every six hours until well. 
It does not give pain but is rather nauseous to the 
taste. In the stinking form of diphtheria this solution 
soon destroys all odor, and in most cases it destroys 
the membrane without leaving any bad effect behind. 

The following is given if the tongue is coated white. 

]^ Hyposulphite of soda, . Si- 
Oil of sassafras, . gtts. v. 
Glycerine and water, aa gij. 
Mix. Give a teaspoonful every one to three hours. 
If the tongue is not coated, 

R Phytolacca tincture, gtts. xx. 
Glycerine and water, aa S ij. 



238 CONTAGIOUS DISEASES 

Tea-spoonful doses every one to three hours. 

The Phytolacca is the common poke-root, and, as 
it loses its strength by drying and age, the tincture 
should be from the fresh root, or it is worthless. 

Contagious diseases common to infants usually 
need cause no apprehension. Under favorable con- 
ditions they run their course in a few days. Ordi- 
narily, the danger, and ailments following these dis- 
eases are the result of the prevailing drug treatment. 
Give the patient light, fresh air and all the water he 
wants, with frequent bathing, and in most cases the 
physician will not be required. This is especially 
true of measles. The prevailing custom of confining 
the patient in heated and darkened rooms, smother- 
ing him with blankets, and dosing him with hot teas 
will bring about the very conditions to be avoided. 

Give him no food unless he craves it, then for a few 
days liquids only. Remember that all eruptive dis- 
eases are only the expression of existing conditions, 
and if not interfered with will leave the child in a 
better state of health. If the intelligent mother has 
given birth to a healthy child, she need not fear to 
encounter these affections in their simple form. In- 
deed, children most in harmony with nature escape 
them altogether. 

Scarlet fever, or scarletina is more liable to 
assume a malignant form than any other eruptive 
fever. When this threatens, the case should be placed 
in the hands of a competent physician. It spreads by 
infection rapidly and insiduously. The rash first 
appears on the breast, then on neck, face, body and 
limbs. This is preceded by a sore throat, with the 
usual symptoms of fever. Thorough and abundant 



MEASLES AND SCARLET FEVER. 



239 



ventilation is a most vital point in the treatment. 
Use carbolic acid freely. Keep a sheet wet in a solu- 
tion of it hanging in the room. The patient should 
be frequently sponged. If the throat is troublesome 
apply a wet compress, and occasionally inhale steam. 
The wet pack, as prescribed on page 225, is most 
valuable, if administered by an experienced person. 
An eminent physician testifies that he never lost a 
case of scarlet fever in which he used the wet pack. 

In suppression of the eruption a hot bath or pack is 
efficacious in bringing it out. 

Diet. — New milk and hot milk (reduced one-third). 
Milk is a good antidote for poison, and lessens the 
virulence of the fever. Grapes, oranges and fruit 
juice are excellent. 



MEASLES. 

1. Rash appears on fourth day. 

2. Catarrhal symptoms are 
prominent, watery discharge from 
the eyes and nose, sneezing, 
harsh cough, etc. 



3. The rash begins near 
roots of the hair. 



the 



4. The rash is of a pinkish red 
or raspberry color. 

5. The eruption is somewhat 
rough, so as to be felt by passing 
the hand over the skin. 

6. Has a peculiar fetid odor. 

7. Liquid, tender, watery eye. 

8. The cuticle is thrown off in 
minute portions, like fine scales 
of bran. 



SCARLET FEVER, 

1 . Rash appears the second day. 

2. Catarrhal symptoms are usu- 
ally absent, but there is gre-at 
heat of the skin, sore throat, and 
sometimes delirium. 

3. The rash begins on the neck 
and face. 

4. The rash is of a bright scar 
let color, and by pressing with 
the finger a white spot is pro- 
duced, lasting a few seconds. 

5. Eruption usually presents no 
inequalities to sight or touch, and 
is so minute and closely crowded 
as to give the skin a uniformly 
red appearance. 

6. A peculiar brilliant glisten- 
ing stare of the eyes. 

7. The cuticle is thrown off in 
large patches, especially from the 
hands and feet. 



240 CONVULSIONS. 

Whooping cough is both epidemic and conta- 
gious. It is usually mild in a healthy child, but severe 
and sometimes fatal in others. The younger the child 
the more dangerous the disease. The cough is gene- 
rally worse at night. Even after apparent recovery 
it may be brought back by exposure to cold, by im- 
proper food, or by want of careful nursing. A rea- 
sonable amount of outdoor exercise is conducive to 
the favorable progress of the malady. Dampness 
should be avoided, as the skin is generally sensitive 
to cold, especially after a fit of coughing. Infants 
should be carefully watched, day and night, that they 
may be placed in a favorable position during the 
paroxysms. 

Light, digestible food in moderate quantities should 
be given frequently. Hot milk is especially soothing 
and nutritious, particularly during the first days of 
the attack, and may well take the place of all other 
food. 

Convulsions rarely attack very young infants, 
unless from malformation of the heart. Convulsions 
usually accompany teething, indigestion, whooping 
cough, fevers, worms, indeed any disease that causes 
a reflex action upon the brain. Occasionally a child 
has a convulsion without any premonitory symptom, 
but usually there will be a restlessness in sleep, a rol- 
ing of the head, twitching of the limbs, with clenched 
fists, stertorious breathing,and heavy, lethargic sleep. 
From this condition there is suddenly involuntary 
muscular contractions, rolling of the eyes, frothing 
at the mouth, and the head drawn backward. What- 
ever is to be done must be done quickly, and gene- 
rally before medical aid can be summoned. First, 



USE HOT WATER. 24 1 

the mother and attendants must command them- 
selves. Nothing is more frightful than to see a little 
one in convulsions, but upon no occasion is self-pos- 
session more needed. Remember children rarely 
die in the first paroxysm 

Get the child into hot water as soon as possible. 
Don't wait to remove its clothing; put into a foot- 
tub or child's bath having the water as hot as can be 
borne, supporting it on two hands. And from time 
to time as much hot water as the hands will bear. It 
should remain in the bath until relaxation is produced, 
and then be wrapped in thoroughly heated blankets. 

If there is not sufficient warm water in the house 
for a bath, it is often quite as effectual to take a 
pitcher of hot water, turn the child upon its face, 
hold it over a pail, and pour the water on the back of 
the neck. This is more easily managed than a bath, 
and often is all that is requisite to bring about relaxa- 
tion. A bag of hot salt laid to the back of the neck 
will prevent a return. If there is constipation or 
irritation in the bowels, give a copious enema of 
warm soft water. If worms are suspected, add salt, a 
tea-spoonful to one pint of water. 

For further treatment, as there are so many differ- 
ent things that will cause spasms, one should better 
depend upon medical advice. 

In closing these brief hints upon diseases of chil- 
dren, I wish to impress upon the parent's mind the 
fact that in nine cases out of ten children need no 
treatment for their ailments. Their natural recuper- 
ative power gives them ability to throw of disease in 
a marvelous manner. 

Too much care and nursing is quite as harmful as 



242 CONTAGIOUS HEALTH. 

too little. It is ordinarily better to make light of 
their ailments, and teach them the power of self- 
resistance to the enroachments of disease. A cheer- 
ful, hopeful manner, accompanied by the encouraging 
word, is quite as helpful in sickness of children as in 
that of adults. 

Do not discuss their ailments before them. Avoid 
hinting that sickness is possible, or anticipating it for 
them as results of certain conduct. Keep it from 
your own mind also. Never allow yourself to say: "If 
you go out in the cold you will get sick." ''Don't sit 
by the window you will take cold." ''Now do get 
out of that draft." "You must not eat so much. 
Now, there, not one mouthful more, you will be sick." 
"Do put on your overcoat and rubbers." 

Now, dear mothers, this may be a new thought to 
you, but this very caution, born of love and solici- 
tude, creates a fear that may make it possible for 
your children to be sick. Let a child lead an active, 
rollicking life in harmony with nature, and in himself 
will certainly be developed power to resist disease. 

It is possible to make health contagious. 

"Cheerily, then, my little man, 
Live and laugh as boyhood can." 



CHAPTER XIX. 



ABORTION, 

Abortion or miscarriage is the term applied to the 
death and expulsion of the fetus previous to six 
months; after that and before full term it is called 
premature delivery. 

The liability to abortion is more frequent at the 
beginning and during the third month. It is usually 
preceded by occasional loss of blood, which rarely is 
excessive at first, but in from three days to three 
weeks increases in frequency and quantity until it 
may absolutely amount to hemorrhage. The first 
symptom in some instances is a violent chill. In such 
cases soreness, heat and pain are soon located in the 
pelvis and the flowing may be deferred for a few days. 
One may have continuous pain, more or less severe, 
until the embryo is expelled; or it may come up at 
irregular intervals from day to day for some two or 
three weeks, there being such complete intermissions 
that the patient hopes each time that all danger is 
over, and that gestation may be completed. 

The danger to the mother is from hemorrhage 
before the expulsion of the embryo, and from reten- 
tion of membranes after the fetus is born. These 
decaying in the uterus, the poison is absorbed into 
the system and septicaemia is the result. 

The causes of abortion, both remote and exciting, 
i6 (243) 



244 CAUSES OF ABORTION. 

are numerous. Any diseases of the womb that take 
away its vitality or prevent its enlargement will re- 
sult in death of the fetus. Any general disease or 
condition of the system that results in weakness or 
feebleness may make the continuance of life in the 
embryo impossible. 

Lack of room in the pelvis and abdomen is a fre- 
quent cause of abortion in first pregnancies. This is 
the result of tight and heavy clothing and insufficient 
exercise. Remaining too much in-doors and suffer- 
ing the debilitating effects of impure, heated atmos- 
phere, is also a remote cause. The violation of the 
laws of sexual congress is another. Immoderation in 
this respect is exceedingly harmful, as it diverts from 
its needed purpose the mother's energies, and weakens 
embryonic life. Any incontinence during pregnancy 
endangers a woman who has once miscarried. 

The recent causes are lifting, straining, a fail, a jar, 
a blow, a violent cold, or an acute attack of disease, 
sudden mental emotions, etc. The system so soon 
takes on any habit that, having once aborted, one is 
very liable to a recurrence of the same results in sub- 
sequent pregnancies, at the same period. 

To pj^event a miscarriage, observe faithfully the 
hygienic rules laid down in this book. Make the 
best possible conditions for health in every direction. 
Especially observe the law of continence. Once 
threatened with abortion, hemorrhage ever so slight 
having set in, a woman should by all means take her 
bed and observe perfect quiet. She must run no 
risks. Apply compresses and take frequent short, 
tepid sitz-baths, live on a mild, cooling diet, and the 
danger may be averted. 



TREATMENT— FETICIDE. 245 

Aconite. — Chill or fever, with quick pulse and flow 
of bright red blood. Six drops of first dilution in a 
glass full of water; take a tablespoonful every hour. 

Secakyjd. — ^Cramp-like pains, blood clotted and 
dark, cadaverous expression of face. Dose: Six 
pellets every two hours. 

Cimicifuga, 2d. — Pain in the back of the neck, ach- 
ing in the limbs, back and groin, with pressing, bear- 
ing down. Dose: One grain every two hours. 

A woman requires the same attention and treat- 
ment during and after a miscarriage that she re- 
quires in a confinement. A labor at full term is nat- 
ural; a miscarriage is unnatural, and often requires a 
longer time for the system to recover from the shock. 

Feticide is a produced abortion^ whether by drugs, 
intentional shocks, electricity, or by instrumental in- 
terference, either by one's own hand or by the hand 
of a surgeon. 

Many women have been taught to think that the 
child is not viable until after quickening, and that 
there is no harm in arresting pregnancy previous to 
the feeling of motion; others believe that there is no 
life until birth, and the cry of the child is heard. 

A high legal authority says: ^'The absurdity of 
the principle upon which these distinctions are found- 
ed is easy of demonstration. The fetus, previous to 
the time of quickening, must be either dead or living. 
Now, that it is not the former, is most evident from 
neither putrefaction nor decomposition taking place, 
which would be the consequence of an extinction of 
the vital principle. The embyro, therefore, before 
the crisis, must be in a state different from that of 
death, and that can be no other than life." 



246 INCEPTION OF LIFE. 

When the female germ and male sperm unite, then 
is the inception of a new life; all that goes to make 
up a human being — body, mind and spirit, must be 
contained in embryo within this minute organism. 
Life must be present from the very moment of conception. 
If there was not life there could be no conception. 
At what other period of a human being's existence, 
either pre -natal or post-natal, could the union of soul 
and body take place.? Is it not plain that the violent 
or forcible deprivation of existence of this embryo, 
the removal of it from the citadel of life, is its prema- 
ture death, and hence the act can be denominated by 
no more mild term than murder, and whoever per- 
forms the act, or is accessory to it, in the sight of 
God and human law is guilty of the crime of all 
crimes. 

The life of the babe in her arms is to the mother 
more precious than all else; her heart is thrilled with 
a pang of agony at thought of the least danger to its 
life. By what false reasoning does she convince her- 
self that another life, still more dependent upon her 
for its existence, with equal rights and possibilities, 
has no claim upon her for protection.? More than 
this, she deliberately strikes with the red hand of 
murder, and terminates its existence with no thought 
of wrong, nor consciousness of violated law. 

The woman who produces abortion, or allows it to 
be produced, risks her own health and life in the act, 
and commits the highest crime in the calendar, for 
she takes the life of her own child. She defrauds the 
child of the right to its existence. 

By a wise provision we are placed in this world for 
growth, development and preparation for another 



INCENTIVES FOR ABORTION. 247 

life. As we leave this life, we must enter the other. 
In so far as a human being is deprived of this exist- 
ence, to that extent he is deprived of schooling and 
preparation for the other life. Pause for one moment 
and think of the thousands of stunted, dwarfed beings 
that are prematurely ushered into an existence that 
can not be normal and designed. Were infants 
to have been born into spirit life, provision would 
have been made to that effect. That they are born 
into this life is proof that this world is best adapted 
for their growth and education. 

There may be no harm in preventing the concep- 
tion of a life, but once conceived it should not be de- 
prived of its existence in that world which in all its 
appointments is specially adapted to its development. 

What are some of the incentives to produce abor- 
tion .-* An unmarried woman seduced under false 
representations by a man who feels no responsibility 
for his own offspring, suffers alone all the shame and 
contumely of the act, and is tempted to cause miscar- 
riage to shield her good name. 

Married women who fear that maternity will inter- 
fere with their pleasures, are guilty of forcibly 
curtailing embryotic life. Others, again, who are 
poor or are burdened with care or grief, or have 
licentious or drunken husbands, shrink from adding 
to an already overburdened existence. 

The first class, the girls who have lost their virtue 
under promise of marriage- -are most deserving of 
sympathy and commiseratioi, though none receive 
less. " Let him who is without sin cast the first 
stone." At the least imputation against a fair girl's 
character, even those professing to be the followers 



248 Pi OTECTIVE CHIVALRY. 

of the loving Christ, often have so little leniency, so 
little of the Father's love in their hearts, that they 
hug their Christian robes to their bodies, lest they be 
contaminated by the polluting touch of the victim. 
They "pass by on the other side" and leave the poor 
broken-hearted child bleeding by the wayside. 

The girl's lessons of life and purity have been 
learned mainly from one she loved and trusted, only 
to be betrayed. What wonder that in her ignorance 
of the value of life she should be tempted to add a 
second wrong to the first ? She knows the shadow 
that has darkened her path ; she realizes : 

"Alas! for the rarity 
Of Christian charity 
Under the sun." 

And if she can conceal the evidence of her guilt, 
she may hope by honest endeavor to retrieve her 
good name, and thus is tempted to produce an 
abortion. 

Two wrongs can not make one right. Before God 
and her own conscience, the only tribunals that in 
justice have any right to accuse her, she can not by 
any act gain absolution. 

When girls are given proper instruction upon the 
relation of the sexes and understand how to govern 
and guard themselves ; when young men are taught 
that virtue has as high a meaning for one sex as an- 
other, that the protective chivalry of which they 
boast does not imply that they shall force the woman 
with whom they associate to the defensive ; and that 
the /^/^r;/<3'/ interest in, and responsibilities for a child 
are equal to the maternal^ then the temptation to pro- 



PERSONAL PLEASURES. 249 

duce abortion for the purpose of shielding one's 
character will not exist. 

Of the second class, who produce miscarriage for 
pleasure and selfish interest, there is little to say in ex- 
tenuation. They may be victims of ignorance or of 
a false education. The maternal instinct is mherent 
in every woman's heart. It seems strange that any 
morbid idea of pleasure could antagonize the natural 
aspiration to such an extent that one could destroy 
the viability of her own offspring. 

I well remember years ago the wife of a well-to-do 
lawyer making application to me to produce abortion. 
She had but one child, and he three years of age. 
She was surrounded by every comfort a prosperous 
business man could afford. I sought the cause of the 
unnatural promptings of this intelligent woman's 
heart. It seems that a trip to Europe was contem- 
plated and planned for in the early sum^mer, and that 
this unanticipated and chance maternity would thwart 
their expectations. With all the arguments I then 
possessed, I showed her the wrong she sought to do, 
but nothing seemed to weigh against the proposed 
trip. She returned the second and third time even, 
armed with a lav/yer's sophistry to endeavor to per- 
suade me to be accessory to the diabolical deed. No 
doubt one cause of her persistenjy was fear of trust- 
ing her secret to me unless she could persuade me to 
be an accomplice. 

She probably found some one to assist her out of 
the " trouble," for she took the proposed trip, but I 
was not astonished to learn three or four years later 
that she was lying at death's door with consumption. 
How many times she produced abortion I know not 



250 THE REMEDY. 

but I was told that for months she suffered froni 
uterine hemorrhages and in the weakened state of 
her system a violent cold settled upon her lungs 
which soon terminated her life. This was the physi- 
cal result 6i the crime she had committed. 

Of the last class, who have an apparent need to 
limit the size of the family, what can be said in ex- 
tenuation of their committing this crime ? Shall not 
the mother who already has many children, who is 
herself sick, nervous and prostrated, or else has a 
husband who is diseased or a drunkard, leaving her 
the support of the family, save herself additional care 
by arresting the life of the embryo ? The heart goes 
out in sympathy for all such, but even the most 
aggravating circumstances can not atone for the 
crime. The whole nature of every true woman re- 
volts against forced maternity. 

Thoughtful minds must acknowledge the great 
wrong done when children are begotten under ad- 
verse conditions. Women must learn the laws of life 
so as to protect themselves, and not be the means of 
bringing sin-cursed, diseased children into the world. 

T/ie remedy is in the prevention of pregnancy y not in 
producing abortion. When men and women have 
learned the wise control of the procreative functions, 
then may we hope that children will be begotten in 
love and unselfishness. It is the undesired and unde- 
signed maternity that is revolting to the nature of 
woman. As long as men feel that they have a right 
to indulgence of the passions under law, no matter 
what the circumstances, what the condition of the 
wife, or the probabilities of maternity, so long will 
the spirit of rebellion take possession of women and 



UNWELCOME CHILDREN. 2$ I 

the temptation enter their souls to relieve themselves 
of this unsought burden. May the day soon arrive 
when men will learn that even passion should serve 
reason, and that gratification should, at least, not be 
sought at the expense of conjugal happiness and un- 
welcome children. 



CHAPTER XX. 



MENSTRUATION. 

Menstruation is the sanguineous flow accom- 
panying the maturation of the ovum in the ovaries. 
It generally occurs regularly every twenty-eight 
days, and in temperate climates continues from about 
the fifteenth year to the forty-fifth. 

Physiologists differ as to the cause of this phenom- 
enon. It was for a long time believed to be a cleans- 
ing process peculiar to women; that Eve, having 
through her transgression entailed upon her daugh- 
ters a curse, they needed more renovation and regen- 
eration than men; and that aside from ordinary de- 
purition this special secretion was given to them. 

The theory now prevails that accompanying the 
maturation of the ovum there is a flow of blood to 
the generative organs, which in medical parlance h' 
called hyperemia. The exudation of this venou^ 
blood from the membrane of the uterus constituted 
menstruation; also that this menstruation is a pro- 
vision of nature for the supply of a superabundance 
of blood, which during pregnancy is appropriated to 
the growth of the fetus. Thus is it allied to maternity 
leading us to regard this function with reverence. 

In a normal state the discharge is slight, being from 
one to three ounces, and lasts two or three days. 

Certain physiologists claim that all sanguineous 
(252) 



NORMAL MENSTRUATION. 253 

flow is abnormal, that there should be no show of 
blood in a perfectly healthy woman. It is averred 
that the squaws of some Indian tribes have no show 
accompanying either ovulation or parturition. 

Menstruation should be entirely devoid of suffer- 
ing. A woman should have no cognizance of this 
function, save by the discharge. Could this be the 
rule, instead of the prevalent exception, the capacity 
of strength and endurance either for work or pleasure 
would be increased one hundred fold. The nation not 
only needs strong men but strong women, strong in 
physical as well as mental development. This strength 
is required for prosecuting a persistent warfare against 
prevailing and existing wrongs, as well as for trans- 
mitting health and vigor to the coming generation. 

A woman in perfect health need take no especial 
care and make no change in her manner of life at this 
period. But under our artificial habits of life, such a 
woman is the exception rather than the rule, and in 
most cases some attention must be paid to the recur- 
rence of the menses. 

Many young ladies in attendance upon school, feel 
a need of some indulgence at that time, and are often 
granted respite from duty. Women following any 
regular occupation have learned to plan a day of 
lighter work at the recurrence of the period. Yet 
on the contrary some have found that congestion and 
pain are relieved by occupation sufficient to interest 
the mind, with exercise adapted to increase the 
circulation. 

The disorders incident to menstruation are: 
Amenorrhea, Dysmenorrhea and Menorrhagia. 

Amenorrhea is absence or suppression of the menses 



254 DISORDERS OF MENSTRUATION. 

caused by cold, a chronic ailment, an enemic condi- 
tion or some ovarian or uterine affection. It is also 
often the result of mental conditions, as grief, fright 
or severe mental strain. 

One need not be uneasy about suppression when 
there is no special constitutional disturbance. Our 
grandmothers taught that the absence of the menses 
was always greatly to be feared, the prevailing idea 
being that serious results would follow to some vital 
organ. This is a mistake. 

Patients during treatment for uterine ulceration 
and inflammation often gain steadily in health, al- 
though the menses cease for months. This has been 
observed especially in hygienic institutions. 

At all events, in treating suppression avoid strong 
remedies, such as old-fashioned tansy tea, steel fil- 
ings and ergot. These produce congestion, and may 
be the source of severe chronic ailments. 

See to it that a general condition of health is at- 
tained. With plenty of out-door exercise, congenial 
employment and freedom from care, the young girl 
may, with rare exceptions, trust to nature for correc- 
tion of suppression. 

Dysmenorrhea^ or painful menstruation, is of such 
frequent occurrence that it deserves especial atten- 
tion. Most young ladies experience more or less 
suffering at this time. It may be only nervousness, 
wakeful nights, a slight headache, some pain in the 
back or pelvic regions, and a disposition to be alone; 
or the attacks may be severe, with pain in the back 
and pelvis, running down into the limbs; the surface 
and extremities cold, face palid, with nausea, vomit- 
ing or fainting, and perhaps spasms. 



CAUSES OF DYSMENORRHEA. 255 

This ought not to be, and, in most instances, need 
not be. With our present knowledge, the conditions 
for and causes of dysmenorrhea may be removed. 

Among causes we find inflammation of the ovaries, 
oviducts, or mucous membrane of the womb, mechan- 
ical closure of the outlet of the womb, or, simply 
constipation, neuralgia or rheumatism. 

With inflammation of the ovaries there is, pre- 
vious to the recurrence of the menses and through- 
out its course, a dragging pain in the pelvis with 
swelling and soreness of the breasts, and more or less 
mental distress. These symptoms are not always 
relieved by the flow. 

Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the uterus 
is the most frequent cause of dysmenorrhea. With 
this the pain begins with the flow and increases as the 
flow increases. There may be a discharge of shreds of 
membrane or clotted blood, and sometimes a mem- 
brane having the entire form of the cavity of the 
womb. This is produced by deposits of fibrine, like 
that of membranous croup. 

When there is undue closure of the cervix the pain 
precedes the menstrual flow, and is relieved as the 
discharge becomes free. 

The remote causes for dysmenorrhea are errors in 
dress and diet, want of exercise, etc. 

To errors in woman's dress more than any other one 
thing is the unnatural pain due. Women are bur- 
dened with heavy clothing, and every vital organ 
restricted by bands and bones. It is not unusual to 
count from sixteen to eighteen thicknesses of cloth 
worn so tightly about the pliable structure of the 
waist that actual deformity is produced. 



256 NO ROMPING ALLOWED ! 

The pelvis and chest are naturally well guarded 
from intrusion by the ribs and pelvic bones. But 
just at the point where belts are adjusted there is no 
protecting wall. Thus these parts are easily de- 
formed, consequently digestion becomes imperfect, 
the circulation obstructed, the respiration restricted, 
and what is worse than all, the viscera crowd down 
upon the womb, the citadel of life. 

Thus, by abuse, the maternal organism fails of ful- 
filling the divine charge committed to it by the 
Creator. The wonder is that intelligent, educated 
woman has ordinarily no thought of her relation to 
posterity, and her responsibility to offspring. 

Exercises adapted to develop the muscles of the 
trunk and abdomen, giving breathing power and 
room for all the viscera will be found very satisfac- 
tory in their results, to women who will arrange their 
clothing suitably. 

The restraint placed upon young girls, according 
to the usages of society, at the time when they most 
need exercise and muscular development, is not only 
mistaken wisdom, but a cruel physical wrong. They 
miist be ladylike I So, perforce, they must not jump 
nor skip ; they must not run up stairs two steps at a 
time, like a boy. No romping allowed ! The physical 
freedom which is everywhere accorded to a boy, and 
by which he, all unconsciously fits himself for man- 
hood, is forbidden the girl. 

So she grows up without strength of nerve or mus- 
cle, and readily becomes a victim to all the ills that 
woman is heir to. 

A very little care and planning devoted to this 
subject would bring to women both health and hap- 



MISS ALCOTT'S ROSE. 25/ 

piness. Like Rose, in Miss Alcott's delightful story, 
a naturally frail girl may be developed into a hearty 
and vigorous young woman, and this too without un- 
duly subjecting her to the mortification of singularity. 

Neither is it necessary, in order to preserve health, 
that her thorough education should be neglected. The 
hue and cry that has been raised against the higher 
education of woman, on the ground of her physical 
incapacity to endure severe mental training, is not 
well founded. 

The fact is that girls and women can bear study, 
but they can not bear compressed viscera, tortured 
stomachs and a misplaced uterus. The impure air, 
almost universal in schoolrooms, has much to answer 
for in the alleged incapacity of girls for mental wear 
and tear. Given pure air, the Delsarte training, 
loose and light clothing and unimpaired digestion, 
and our girls will in due time prove to the world that, 
notwithstanding a vigorous pursuit of study, *' a girl 
is jiist as good as a boy." 

Out-door games and amusements are becoming 
more and more fashionable. Among these lawn 
tennis, croquet, archery, rowing, bean-bags and tri- 
cycling are popular and healthful in their tendency. 

Next to errors in dress and deficient exercise^ errors 
in diet may be responsible for painful menstruation. 
How can this be ? Once, on inquiring of a class of 
young ladies the cause of this trouble, I received 
various replies ; as skating, jumping rope, climbing 
stairs, improper clothing, etc. 

A little eleven-year-old girl raising her hand, asked: 
" Is it not eating too much candy 1 " The rest of the 
girls laughed. But I replied, " You need not smile ; 



258 HEAT BETTER THAN ALCOHOL. 

this young lady has sounded the keynote of your 
trouble. It is not only too much candy, but you eat 
too freely of the carbonaceous foods, fats and sweets, 
without taking sufficient exercise to have them appro- 
priated. Inflammation is the result and hence suffer- 
ing ensues." 

Treatment for dysmenorrhea must be palliative 
and curative. No young girl should be allowed to 
endure this pain. It gives a shock to the nervous 
system, which sooner or later will act upon her gen- 
eral health, and depreciate her vitality. 

In palliative treatment it has been customary to 
use alcoholic stimulant in some form. Symptoms at 
first are relieved, the blood being caused to flow to 
the surface, thus lessening congestion. The patient 
is made perhaps not actually drunk, but is stupefied. 
My observation, however, is that menstrual pain re- 
moved by this agency, recurs more severely at sub- 
sequent periods. The reason of this must be that 
the alcoholic stimulant increases the already inflamed 
condition. It is not good treatment. 

The application of heat in some form will safely re- 
lieve almost any case. A relay of hot lamp chimneys 
is available in sudden attacks, even if at night ; or a 
hot plate or stove-lid, wrapped in cloths is excellent 
in an emergency. In more severe cases, use hot 
fomentations (Page 114) or the hot water bottle. 

A hot sitz-bath (Page 184) is the best resort where 
cramp-like symptoms with vomiting or fainting are 
experienced, or where the patient is threatened with 
spasms. Anticipate suffering by this treatment as 
soon as indicated by premonitory symptoms. Con- 
tinue the bath until a copious perspiration is induced, 



A CASE OF RHEUMATISM. 259 

probably from thirty minutes to an hour. Then rub 
off lightly without exposure, keeping wrapped in the 
blankets, and applying the hot water bottle, lie quietly 
for some time. Manywho ordinarily suffer from three 
to five days can be relieved in one hour by this means 
alone. This course will prevent a recurrence of so 
severe an attack. 

The curative measures employea musr accord with 
the pathological condition of the patient. For local 
ailments, treatments must be that indicated for them; 
neuralgia and rheumatism will demand their own 
suitable remedial agents. 

A lady, thirty-five years of age, had been for a long 
time a great sufferer at every menstrual period, five 
or six days being spent in bed each month. There 
was apparently no uterine disease. Ordinary treat- 
ment proved ineffectual. A casual inquiry at length 
disclosed the fact that she had long been afflicted 
with rheumatism, not confined to any locality. This 
gave a clue to her case, and a short treatment for 
this affection resulted in entire recovery from both 
that malady and the distressing menstrual attacks. 
The thermal bath (Page 118) was mainly depended 
on in her cure. 

Local treatment or remedies will seldom be found 
necessary, if the whole system is kept in the best hy- 
gienic condition. Ayoung woman had for nine years 
been a martyr to dysmenorrhea, spasms attending 
every period, often continuing for days. Like the 
woman in Scripture, "She had suffered many things 
of many physicians, and had spent all that she had, 
and was nothing bettered, but rather grew worse," 
having had in all nine doctors, one of whom had per- 

17 



26o A COMMON CASE. 

formed a severe operation. Although still young, 
she was almost a perfect wreck. She had no strength 
for manual labor, often being unable to walk across 
the room. Her mental condition was equally deplor- 
able, being scarcely able to do for herself. She was 
very sensitive to the cold, and consequently wore 
much heavy clothing suspended around her hips. 

In her case few remedies were used. She was in- 
duced to make a radical change in her dress, and put 
upon a thorough course of exercises adapted to de- 
velop and invigorate the muscles of the abdomen, 
and insure a healthy action of the viscera. She was 
also encouraged to assist daily in light housework, 
with much free exercise in the open air. 

The change was marvelous. Upon the recurrence 
of her next period, a hot sitz-bath was administered 
at the first symptoms of distress, and relief was 
speedy. Her improvement steadily continued; she 
was no longer agonized with pain and subject to con- 
vulsions. Before the three months of her treatment 
had expired, she was entirely restored to health. 

The alteration in her appearance was great, buoy- 
ancy of manner and vivacity of expression taking the 
place of the look of dumb hopelessness which had 
been hers. The leaden load of physical suffering was 
lifted from her brain, and a new mental life began. 
No patient could evince or express more hearty and 
grateful appreciation of the great change which had 
been wrought. 

This is only one of many instances illustrating the 
ef¥icacy of simple hygienic methods. The cases are 
infrequent that will fail to respond favorably when 
nature is given an opportunity to rally her forces. 



REMEDIES IN MENSTRUATION. 261 

Meizorrhagia^ or ^voi\x?>Q menstruation, accompanies 
inflammation, ulceration, polypus and other uterine 
diseases. It is not unusual to find it with dysmen- 
orrhea, as it may be induced by the same causes. 

The general treatment and remedies are similar in 
both disorders. 

Aconitum, crude tincture. — This is one of the first 
remedies to be sought in any kind of hemorrhage, 
especially where there is throbbing pulse, with cold 
hands and feet. Dose: — Two drops in half a glass of 
water, tablespoon doses every ten to thirty minutes, 
according to severity of case. It is important to re- 
member that aconite is a number one remedy in the 
first stages of hemorrhage from any organ. One 
can hardly go amiss in giving it. It has a specific 
effect in controlling the heart's action, and thus re- 
lieves congestion and hemorrhage. An old lady had 
for twenty years been subject to frequent attack^ 
of hemorrhage of the lungs. She never allowed hei- 
self to be without her bottle ofaconite, and was 
always able to check an attack by using it promptly. 

Aconitum, 2d. — Is also indicated in cases of inflam- 
mation or congestion of the uterus or ovaries, es- 
pecially if attended with febrile symptoms. 

Ciniicifuga, 2d. — Heavy, aching pain in the back, 
extending to limbs, restlessness, cannot keep still. 
Rheumatic or neuralgic dysmenorrhea. It is also 
valuable for preparatory treatment, taken two or 
three doses a day for ten days previous to the recur- 
rence of the period. 

Belladonna, 2d. — Congestive enlargement of the 
uterus or ovaries, bearing down pains, and heat in 
the vagina. 



262 REMEDIES IN MENSTRUATION. 

Pulsatilla, 2d. — Vomiting, fainting, scanty menses, 
chilliness, moving pains in abdomen, mental depres- 
sion, hysteria. Discharges bright in color. 

Caidophyllum, 2d. — Painful menstruation, with a 
normal discharge. May be used as a palliative dur- 
ing the menses, and as a curative agent meanwhile. 

Ergot, jd to 6th. — Very severe, cramp-like pains, 
can not be endured. Discharge dark, clotted and 
fetid; surface and extremities cold; features pinched. 

Dose: — In each of the above remedies ten drops in 
eight spoonfuls of water. Take one spoonful every 
half hour. 



CHAPTER XXI. 



DISEASES OF WOMEN. 

Uterine diseases are the cause of many of the 
pathological symptoms accompanying- pregnancy, 
and may be the cause of the pain in parturition. To 
attain to the best conditions for maternity, the re- 
moval of these disorders is essential. 

Nine-tenths of American women are more or less 
afflicted with these maladies. They are thus unfitted 
for ordinary vocations, and the functions of repro- 
duction are so perverted that maternity becomes a 
dreaded burden. 

This book is not a '' doctor book " in the ordinary 
understanding of that term, neither is this chapter a 
regular treatise upon the diseases of women. The 
causes of these ailments, however, and some simple 
common sense hints are given. These will enable 
women to avoid and to alleviate suffering, without 
resorting to drugs, or severe local treatment. 

Inflammation is the most common derangement 
of the uterus ; indeed, some authors claim that it 
causes or accompanies all other uterine diseases. 

Inflammation may affect either the mucous mem- 
brane, the cervix or the fundus, or the entire organ 
may be involved. When the lining membrane only 
is affected, the patient has heat and burning in the 
pelvis; with or without pain, and there is a light, 

(263) 



264 INFLAMMATION— ULCERATION. 

glairy discharge which later may become dark and 
offensive and often irritating. 

Inflammation in the fundus or cervix gives at first 
a dragging, heavy pain in the pelvis, extending down 
the thighs and legs, with heat and pain in the lower 
part of the back. It is also attended with swelling 
of the organ and more or less discharge. 

As the disease progresses there are usually sym- 
pathetic or reflex symptoms. These are heat and 
pain in the top of the head, aching, sore pain at the 
base of the brain, a pain and burning between the 
shoulders, which may extend up and down the spine, 
and to the arms. Physician and patient both are 
often deceived, and diagnose this last symptom as 
neuralgia or spinal complaint. The patient may 
have stricture and pain in the throat, with a dry, ner- 
vous cough. She also is liable to severe attacks of 
headache, suffers from dyspepsia, and indeed her 
symptoms are apt to assume the form of, or resemble 
any disease. 

Her mental sufferings are even worse than her 
physical. She has loss of memory, is fretful and irri- 
table. Carried to the extreme, her mind becomes 
unbalanced and insanity results. Statistics show that 
uterine disease is a very common cause of insanity 
in women. 

UlceratiQii is usually found upon the mouth of the 
womb, or occasionally on the lining membrane. The 
raspberry ulceration ,is the most common form. This 
appears like granulation on the eyelids, and is 
always preceded and accompanied by inflammation. 
The surface becomes red, swollen and then abraded, 
resulting in ulcers. This is accompanied by a thick, 



ERRORS IN DRESS. 265 

purulent, yellow discharge, which, as the disease 
advances, becomes thin and bloody, with an offensive 
odor. The pain and reflex symptoms are much the 
same as in inflammation. 

Induration, or thickening and hardening of the 
cervix is a frequent sequel of inflammation, especially 
were caustic treatment has been used. 

Violations of physical lazvs cause the occurrence of 
tlie above named diseases. 

Women take it as a matter of course that the 
organs of generation should be diseased, without one 
thought of their responsibility in the matter. Physi- 
cians, too, as specialists, treat woman much as though 
she were a machine to be adjusted at will. 

Errors in dress, in diet, want of exercise and the 
abuse of the sexual relation are the principal causes 
of these ailments. The frequent use of drugs that act 
directly upon the generative organs induce and en- 
hance these affections. 

There is no doubt that the customary dress of 
woman, causing such deformity, and such perversion 
of all her powers, is the prime factor in producing ail- 
ments peculiar to her sex. 

Being unequal in distribution, it leaves the extrem- 
ities unprotected ; by pressure it restricts digestion, 
respiration and circulation, while by its weight it bur- 
dens the weakened muscles. 

Who has the power to save women from this one 
sin ? Who has the pen or voice to present the claims 
of unborn generations ? Many women who have suf- 
fered years from uterine diseases have finally re- 
covered by simply adopting a hygienic dress. One 
thing is certain ; it matters not what treatment one 



266 HINTS FOR TREATMENT. 

takes for these ailments, she can not hope to get well 
and keep well if she does not remove the restraints of 
clothing. (See Chap. VII.) 

In diet, highly seasoned food, rich pastries, and in- 
deed all food containing in excess the carbonaceous 
elements, eBpecially the fats and sweets, will produce 
an inflammatory condition. Some irritating cause 
locates the affection in certain organs. Constipation 
also will induce and aggravate any uterine affection. 

The treatment of these disorders should be less 
local than constitutional. The whole system must 
have the best conditions for health, giving nature a 
chance to restore harmony in organic powers. 

The tepid sitz-bath will be found invaluable in both 
inflammation and ulceration of the womb. It should 
be taken in most cases as often as every other day, 
preceded by exercise, and followed by friction and 
rest. Half the value of this bath is lost if one fails to 
lie down after it. The best time for the bath is in 
the forenoon, but if, on account of daily duties, this 
time is unavailable, there is no special objection to 
taking it just before retiring. It is very quieting, and 
prevents sleeplessness. 

The thermal bath (page Ii8) is especially desirable 
if the circulation seems sluggish, the skin inert, and 
the patient sensitive to cold. Take it twice a week. 

Hot vaginal injections are found invaluable for these 
affections. They should be taken with a fountain 
syringe, using a large quantity of water as hot as can 
be borne. If practicable the patient may recline over 
a bed pan. Not having this, she should stand over a 
vessel, elevated upon a chair. If the discharge from 
the womb is offensive, use carbolic soap in the water. 



BEST TREATMENT 26/ 

Glycerine diluted one-third with water, and applied 
by inserting absorbent cottton or oakum, is excellent 
to reduce inflammation and induration. This at first 
increases the discharge. In severe cases it can be 
applied daily, but ordinarily every other day is sufifi- 
cient. Some mild remedies like hydrastis or calen- 
dula are useful in stimulating healthy action, and can 
be used under the direction of the physician. 

Exercise is one of the most valuable therapeutic 
measures for uterine affections. If one is quite fee- 
ble, applied motion in the form of Swedish move- 
ments, massage or muscle-beating is most desirable. 
Women suffering from uterine diseases are unable to 
take needful exercise in an erect position. Walking, 
riding, housework, etc., aggravate the symptoms, in- 
creasing the local irritation and inflammation. 

In most women the muscles of the trunk or the 
abdomen, and the involuntary muscles of respiration, 
from lack of proper use, are weak and atrophied. 
"They have not been trained to life's occasions." 
The following exercises, taken in a reclining posture, 
will serve the purpose of producing attrition and 
vigor of muscles, accelerating the circulation of the 
blood, and developing the involuntary muscles used 
in respiration; at the same time they increase the ac- 
tion of all the digestive organs, and by a derivative 
effect remove local inflammation, beside^ m.echani- 
cally correcting mal-positions: 

1. Reclining on back, holding knees and shoulders 
firm, move hips from side to side ten times. 

2. Same position, on spring bed, move hips up 
and down fifteen times. This exercise can be taken 
by one that is weak, as the springs aid the motion. 



268 VALUABLE EXERCISE. 

3. Flex knees, same as No. i, twenty times. 

4. Flex knees, same as No, 2, twenty times. 

5. Flex the knees and sway them from side to side 
twenty times. 

6. Flex the knees and elevate the hips, resting the 
body on shoulders and feet. Move slowly up and 
down ten times, holding to count ten. 

7. Elbows flexed to the sides, hands grasped by an 
assistant and slowly brought to a horizontal position 
parallel with the head, patient resisting. Bring them 
back to the sides, assistant resisting, ten times. 

8. Same, only bring arms to a perpendicular 
position. 

9. Reclining, face downward, flex knees and sway 
feet from right to left fifteen times. 

10. With the help of an assistant, flex and extend 
the limbs, using resistance as in No. 7. 

11. Rest on elbows, and sway shoulders from right 
to left ten times. 

12. Elevate the body slowly five times, resting 
only on toes and elbows. Hold to count ten. 

13. Recline on back and make hand thrusts, with 
or without weights, upward, outward, forward and 
downward. 

14. Same position, flex and thrust the limbs down- 
ward alternately. 

15. Kneel face downward, gradually raise the hips 
until the whole weight rests upon the shoulders. 
Remain in this position for five minutes. This is in- 
valuable for prolapsus and retroversion, and should 
be resorted to several times a day. One may get the 
position more readily by sliding off from a bed or 
lounge head first; relatively, standing on one's head. 



VALUABLE EXERCISES. 269 

16. Lie face downward on two stools, 18 to 24 
Inches apart, resting the knees upon one and the 
shoulders upon the other, five minutes. 

17. Same position; have an assistant knead the 
bowels by gentle pressure with clenched fists five 
minutes. 

18. Same position, elevating hips five times. 

The last three are quite severe, but if there is 
strength to adopt them, they are valuable in retro- 
version of the womb. 

If there is no pelvic inflammation, and it is required 
to aid digestion and develop the muscles of trunk, 
the following are invaluable: 

19. Sit upon a stool, feet firmly upon the floor, 
hands upon sides, hips firm; sway body from side to 
side as far as possible. 

20. Same position, hands clasped over the head; 
sway body backward and forward. 

21. Same position; combine Nos. 19 and 20 m a 
twisting motion of the body. The effect of the 
three last can be varied by holding one or both hands 
perpendicularly over the head. 

22. 23, 24. Same as 19, 20 and 21, only standing 
position. 

The beneficial effects are increased in the six last 
by inflating the lungs. 

The severe caustic treatmemt that has been 
so universal in these affections is greatly to be de- 
precated. There are fashions in medicines as in other 
things, and the one fashion the last twenty-five years 
has been local treatment for diseases of women. In 
no department of medical practice has the physi- 
cian's prerogative been more abused. For the slight- 



270 CAUSTIC TREATMENT. 

est ailments the severest applications are often em- 
ployed. Nitrate of silver^ sulphate of zinc, corrosive 
sublimatey tannic acid, nitric acid, all violent in their 
action, are in common use. Physicians are known 
to resort frequently to the application of a probe, 
heated to a white heat, and, what is just as bad, to 
wet a swab in fuming nitric acid, and introduce it 
into the womb. The delicate mucus membrane is 
burned and scarified, the patient tortured, and the 
nerves receive a severe shock. Patients able to be 
about are often laid up for several days by one of 
these treatments. 

One day I met a lady upon the street who had 
been confined to the house for two years. I ex- 
pressed pleasure at seeing her out. She told me that 
she could get out because her doctor was absent and 
her local treatment suspended. She said: "That 
always makes me sick in bed three or four days." 
"What! do you permit such treatment.'*" 
*'The doctor says I cannot get well without it." 
She, like many other poor suffering women, was 
persuaded that all this torture was necessary to her 
final recovery. 

Physicians are known to keep women under treat- 
ment two or three years, yet frequently, instead of 
improvement, there is only a constant decline in 
health and strength. 

The tide is now turning, and both physicians and 
patients begin to see that a great wrong has been 
done. So high an authority as Dr. Gaillard Thomas 
says: "Every one who has had experience in the 
treatment of these disorders must have been im- 
pressed with the wonderful improvement in cases 



EMINENT TESTIMONY. 271 

which have long resisted local treatmejit, resulting from 
a sea voyage, a visit to a watering place, a course of 
sea bathing, or a few months spent in the country.'' 

Dr. George T. Elliott says: — *'In cases of uter- 
ine diseases, the best success will be attained by 
securing for patients a life of muscular activity', so 
equalizing the circulation. And that thus the local 
treatment, now so much in vogue, might commonly 
be dispensed with." 

*' It is easy for a sensitive woman to persuade her- 
self that her afflictions from the toothache downward, 
are due to diseases of the womb. Here comes in the 
charlatan, to exaggerate the disease, if any, and to 
beguile the patient with promises of cure. The 
speculum, the caustic and the knife look like work, 
and she feels that something is being do7ie for her. 

** By and by the bubble bursts, and for all the good 
that this torture has accomplished, the poor woman 
might as well have adopted the scientific treatment 
of La-potai, namely, the application of a blister to 
the top of the head, to raise the fallen womb." 

Dr. E. R. Peaslee says of local treatments ; "They 
have thus far produced, on the whole, more evil than 
good." 

Dr. Taylor, in his valuable little volume, ** Health 
for Women," assures us ''that by using mere local 
treatment, the essential disease itself is left neglected, 
untouched, and even unsought; that symptoms only 
command the attention, and they will subside and 
become of trifling account whenever the essential 
malady is recognized and provided for." 

Such words as these, from men high in the pro- 
fession, give hope of a tendency to a reaction from 



272 HOPEFUL RESULTS. 

the prevalent dependence on local treatment. When 
such men take the back course, and condemn their 
own uterine surgery, hope may arise for long-suffer- 
ing woman. TJiis local treatment should be protested 
against by zvonieii. It is a relic of the past, and is 
contrary to science and common sense. 

Within the memory of many now living, every 
patient under treatment for acute or chronic diseases 
was bled. He was also tortured by blisters, leeches 
and setons. Had he fever, he was denied water to 
quench his -thirst. How the mother's heart has been 
wrung with anguish when her darling babe, lying 
sick in her arms, has pleaded again and again for 
water } Who has not heard '' Drink! mamma, drink! " 
and turned to hide the sympathetic tear, for, by the 
doctor's orders, the little one must be denied ! 

To-day, where is the physician who bleeds his 
patient, and applies the blister ? Many young doc- 
tors have never even seen a leech. Who would think 
of denying the fever patient water, and all that he 
desires } What has wrought this change } Mainly 
the protest of the people. Reforms in medical prac- 
tice have come because the people have demanded 
them. 

Severe local treatment should be classed with the 
bleeding and blistering, and, with them, be relegated 
to the past. Women must protest positively and per- 
sistently against the burning, probing and scarifying 
of the womb. As you value health and life, seek such 
measures for restoration as are more in accordance 
with nature. With these diseases as with others the 
simplest measures are the most effective. 

Leuchorrhea is not a disease, it is only a symptom 



DISPLACEMENTS. 273 

of uterine derangement, as a cough is of a lung or 
throat affection. It is an increase of the normal mu- 
cus secretion, being an effort of nature to throw off 
inflammation. As a symptom it need cause no un- 
easiness, and should not be interfered with, unless by 
an occasional warm vaginal bath to insure cleanliness. 
The conditions which cause the discharge being re- 
moved, it will give no farther annoyance. 

At all events styptics and astringents should not be 
resorted to. They only arrest the discharge tem- 
porarily, and do not remove the cause. The general 
and local treatment for inflammation is usually suf- 
ficient. Remember that as long as the uterine irrita- 
tion exists one is better to have this discharge than 
to have it suppressed. 

The displacements of the uterus most frequently 
found are prolapsus, retroversion and anteversion- 
Very much the same causes induce these different 
deviations. The supporting muscles in the perineum 
become weakened, it may be from a lack of exercise, 
or from the constant pressure of hardened feces, 
consequent upon constipation, or sometimes as the 
result of long continued inflammation. 

The viscera are pressed down from above by the 
stricture and weight of clothing. The mobility of 
the organ renders it susceptible to change of position 
under these circumstances. 

These conditions must be overcome, or treatment 
will prove futile. In most cases the uterus can be 
readily restored to its natural position. First remove 
the pressure from above, and then take the exercises 
prescribed on page 267. This will give room for the 
pelvic viscera, and strengthen the supporting muscles, 



274 PESSARIES— HYSTERIA. 

Nature's recuperative powers are never more re- 
markably demonstrated. 

The prevailing custom of introducing pessaries of 
rubber, glass, etc., is to be deprecated. While they 
may give temporary relief, they increase the relaxa- 
tion of the vagina and muscles, besides constantly 
drawing the attention of the patient to her ailment. 

The connection of mind and thought with pelvic 
disorders is close, and is susceptible of becoming per- 
manently fixed upon any organ. The effect is highly 
injurious. It must result in increasing this kind of 
morbid action, thus fixing and perpetuating the dis- 
ease. This should most carefully be guarded against. 
In every way divert her mind from the subject. Let 
her but forget that she has a womb, and she will have 
found the best remedy for her affection. 

Hysteria is only a culmination or exaggeration 
of the reflex or nervous symptoms in diseases of the 
uterus. It is simply temporary insanity, and should 
be treated as such. The patient loses self-control, and 
gives way to violent paroxysms of laughing or cry- 
ing, possibly fainting fits and convulsions. 

Some quiet, decisive means will restore her. In- 
halation of ammonia, cold water on the head, a hot 
foot bath, a full bath, or even a decided word from a 
friend readily establishes her balance. The spoken 
word must not be given in a combative spirit, but 
simply with cheerfulness and decision. Banish fear 
from your own heart, and agitation from your manner, 
and then say to the patient, ''Why, you are all right! 
Listen to me a moment." Get her attention, then 
with tact relate some incident, or make some start- 
ling statement that will change the current of her 



MIND CONTROLS THE BODY. 2/5 

thought. To prevent the attacks, treat the uterine 
affection from which they arise. 

The vii?td can j-ise superior to the body in uterine 
affections, as in all other bodily ailments, and thus 
aid in establishing harmony. One can, by persistent 
argument with himself, conquer or dispel the thought 
of pain or disease. Also, by engaging in some work 
which calls forth the highest impulses. 

By seeking to ennoble and enrich the lives of 
others, by ignoring personal sense and pleasure, the 
soul, the ego, becomes in harmony with the spirit of 
the universe, and this harmony should give health of 
body, as well as peace of mind. 

The body is only a reflection of the spirit, is con- 
stantly and entirely subject to it, and if the spirit rises 
above error, discord and sin, dwelling in the realm 
of truth and love, disease and infirmity of the flesh 
cannot exist. 



18 



CHAPTER XXIL 



CHANGE OF LIFE. 

Change of life is one of the scape-g-oats of phy- 
sicians and bugbears of patients. If any lady from 
thirty-five to fifty-five years of age is afflicted with 
dyspepsia, neuralgia, rheumatism, consumption or 
any other ailment, the doctor, not being able to cure 
her, pronounces it the meno-pause, or "change of 
life," and that time alone can bring relief. Most 
women plan and expect to give up from eight to ten 
years of the best part of their lives to this climacteric 
period. They consider themselves of little account 
for business or social duties. They must be petted 
and nursed, and have every passing whim gratified. 

The meno-pause is simply a cessation of ovulation. 
It is the exhaustion of the germ-making power. If a 
woman menstruates because of the monthly ovula- 
tion and deposit, she will cease to menstruate because 
ovulation has ceased to be a physiological operation. 

At puberty the ovaries enlarge. When fully de- 
veloped they begin casting off each month perfected 
ovula, which are taken up by the fimbriated extremi- 
ties of the oviducts and conveyed to the uterus. 
This function of the uterus continues on an average 
thirty-two years. After the meno-pause begins the 
ovaries become small and shriveled, resembling " 
Qeach stone in shape and appearance. 

(276) 



SYMPTOMS OF MENO-PAUSE. 2// 

**At the same time that the ovaries are undergoing 
this remarkable degenerative change, a similar change 
is taking place in the other organs of generation. 
The uterus diminishes in size, as does also the vagina. 
The mouth of the womb becomes contracted and 
after a time entirely closed. The upper part of the 
vagina is often contracted to such a degree as to pro- 
duce folds closely resembling those which result 
from serious inflammation about the uterus. The 
breasts usually diminish in size. These changes indi- 
cate unmistakably the decline of the function of re- 
production, preparatory to its entire suspension. 

"As a rule, the capability of procreation ceases 
with the cessation of menstruation; but this is not 
universally the case. Instances are on record in 
which pregnancy has occurred before the appearance 
of menstruation. This seeming anomaly is due to the 
fact that ovulation and menstruation are really two 
distinct acts, although usually coincident." 

Although menstruation usually ceases from the 
forty-fifth to the fiftieth year, cases are on record in 
which ''change of life" occurred at much earlier, as 
well as later periods. Dr. T. J. Patchen relates a 
remarkable case where a girl ceased menstruation at 
twenty-two, accompanied by all the physical changes 
of the organism as well as attended by the usual 
symptoms of that period. Cases are recorded where 
menstruation continued with regularity until the 
seventieth year, and the reproductive function re- 
mained unimpaired. 

In a state of health the meno-pause should be at- 
tended by no unpleasant symptom, by no change 
from the normal condition. Ordinarily all the suffer- 



2/8 IRREGULARITY — HOT FLASHES. 

ings and ailments incident to this period can be 
accounted for from some ovarian or uterine disease, 
dyspepsia, or other deviation from health. Irrita- 
tion or congestion in the ovaries, more than any 
other cause, decides the numerous symptoms of the 
climacteric. Uterine inflammation or derangement 
also causes many of the distressing ailments of the 
meno-pause. 

Irregularity in menstruation may be looked for 
about the forty-fourth year in temperate climates. In 
the torrid zone, where girls menstruate as early as the 
tenth or twelfth year, it may occur much earlier. But 
in this country it is often delayed even far beyond 
the fiftieth year. 

There may be occasional absence of the menses, or 
it may first be indicated by frequent and profuse 
menstruation. In rare cases the menses cease sud- 
denly, without any warning or any special derange- 
ment. Women often feel alarmed at the sudden 
suspension of this discharge, but their fears are 
groundless if all other functions are normal. With 
some women the flow is alternately scanty and pro- 
fuse for months. 

The length of time in which these symptoms occur 
is extremely variable. It may be only a few months 
or it may be several years. In extreme cases the 
symptoms have continued nearly twenty years. The 
average period, however, is about three years. 

These changes are accompanied by various path- 
ological symptoms. Hot flashes or "flushings" are 
especially peculiar to this period. First one feels a 
decided glow or heat, as if suddenly transported to a 
hot room; this is soon followed by a perspiration 



PROFUSE PERSPIRATION- HEMORRHAGE. 2/9 

which may terminate in a chill. They are often ac- 
companied with a sense of suffocation or violent 
throbbing. The phenomenon is precisely the same 
as blushing, and indeed this may be said to be a sort 
of pathological blushing. 

With some the chill is the precursor of the " hot 
spell." The flashes occur at all times of day, and 
often one awakens with them in the night. They 
may occur but two or three times a day or every ten 
or fifteen minutes, making one wretched by their fre- 
quency. They are often the result of some sudden 
emotion as fright, anger, grief or anxiety. They 
are wonderfully the product of thought. By obser- 
vation the patient will notice that they are also more 
frequent after drinking wine, tea and coffee, or par- 
taking of stimulating food. Sometimes nausea and 
vomiting accompany flushings, as well as a feeling of 
weakness and malaise. 

ProfiLse pcrspii'ation, sometimes so copious as to 
saturate the bed clothing, is also a common symp- 
tom of this period. This may follow the hot flushes 
or occur independently, but occurs more usually dur- 
ing sleep. It may accompany mental excitement 
of any kind. 

Uterine Hemorrhage, common to the ** change of 
life," is the only peculiar symptom which really need 
cause any special anxiety. This may occur once a 
month or at longer intervals, or may be almost con- 
stant. It may become so profuse as to endanger the 
life of the patient. Indeed, one is often surprised 
that life can be sustained under the great loss of blood 
that some experience. 

The appetite is sometimes capricious and fitful, as 



280 TUMORS—MENTAL SYMPTOMS. 

during pregnancy, or at the beginning of menstrua- 
tion. Frequent derangements of stomach, liver and 
kidneys occur. 

Skin diseases, often accompanying this period, are 
especially distressing from being attended with great 
itching. One also may have constipation, or diarrhea, 
swelled limbs or joints, swelled breasts, headaches, 
with heat and burning in top of the head or a sore 
pain at base of the brain ; dizziness, dimness of vision 
with floating specks before the eyes, loss of voice and 
aching at the base of the tongue, insomnia, strange 
cravings, difficult breathing, neuralgia, hysteria, etc. 

Tumors y cancers, polypi, etc., are more frequent dur- 
ing the meno-pause than at any other time of life. If 
the neck of the womb has been injured by attempts 
at abortion or indurations caused by frequent applica- 
tions of caustics, conditions are produced that are 
liable to result in cancer. 

** The mental symptoms are quite as marked and 
prominent in most cases as are those which relate to 
any part of the system. Loss of memory to a greater 
or less extent is apt to be first and most noticeable. 
Frequently there is an entire and most remarkable 
change in disposition. A kind, patient mother, or for- 
bearing, confiding, exemplary wife, becomes irritable, 
unreasonable and suspicious. 

'' Her natural modesty may even give place to wan- 
tonness in extreme cases, and the mother instincts 
may become so thoroughly obliterated as to cause an 
almost uncontrollable desire to take the lives of her 
little ones. The once happy woman becomes despon- 
dent, moody and taciturn. She avoids company, has 
no taste for amusements, and spends her time in 



SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT. 28 1 

watching the varying symptoms, and bewailing her 
real and imaginary woes. In many cases, actual in- 
sanity, usually of a temporary character, is the result 
of the profound disturbance which the system under- 
goes at this time." 

Constipatiofi is not unfrequently attendant upon, and 
the cause of, many symptoms of the meno-pause. 

General Treatment. — First: Convince yourself 
that there is no actual need of any indisposition con- 
nected with the \' change of life." Forget all the 
traditions and teachings upon this subject, and learn 
that nature creates no pathological coitditions, and that 
if you live according to her laws you can by no pos- 
sible means experience suffering. 

You have no use for these ailments. If you are pos- 
sessed of any stubbornness in your nature, bring it 
into requisition at this time. Plant your foot down 
with emphasis, and say, with one of old, *' Get thee 
behind me, Satan." 

It is thoroughly proven that mind can control even 
malignant diseases, and a woman that has lived until 
she is forty-five should know enough, and be strong 
enough in her mental organization to say to these 
symptoms, " I will not be your slave, you cannot 
dominate my life and chain my energies." Do not 
wait for some doctor to cure you with bread-pills or 
placebo powders. 

Th.Q physical should be subjective to the mentalydind can 
be if one learns the law. The world is only begin- 
ning to know how much can be accomplished for 
physical health by the controlling power of the mind. 

The charge must be laid to physicians that women 
have made such a mountain of the meno-pause, and 



282 NATURAL REMEDIES. 

they must undo their work by teaching that this is 
only a natural change, and removing it from the cate- 
gory of diseases. 

Before and during this period observe all condi- 
tions of hygiene. Perfect health and vigor is more 
frequently attainable than women are apt to believe. 
The maintaining of a hygienic life by proper dress, 
diet, etc., will go far toward causing the '' change of 
life" as a deranged condition to be unknown. 

Sleep in rooms so thoroughly ventilated that the 
air will be as pure and sweet as the out-door atmos- 
phere. If women would increase the capacity of 
their lungs and breathe air abundantly charged with 
oxygen, four-fifths of their ailments would be pre- 
vented. But who has the wisdom to convince them 
of this.? 

The dress and exercise that increase ability to 
breathe with the diaphragm and abdominal muscles 
do more to prevent and cure diseases of women, if 
not all diseases, than all other possible preventives or 
medicines. When a mother thinks her rosy nine- 
year-old daughter is deformed, and she must begin to 
put her in stays to change her horrid figure to one 
that is trim and neat, what can we hope for the daugh- 
ter when she takes the responsibility of her own gar- 
ments.? If I could do the greatest thing to stay de- 
generacy and disease of the human race it would be 
to convince women that lung power more than any- 
thing else contribute: to health, longevity and power 
of endurance. To attain this a radical change must 
be made in clothing. 

A sponge bath (page 112), upon arising in the 
morning, taken quickly, three or four times a 



BATHS AND DIET. 283 

week, is valuable during change of life. Accom- 
pany it by friction from the hand, a Turkish towel or 
flesh brush. Follow it by a draught of cold or hot 
water, the latter if there is dyspepsia. 

A hot sitZ'bath should be taken in case of inflam- 
mation of the ovaries or uterus. (Seepage 184.) This 
may be taken every day for a week, and then every 
other day. In case of hemorrhage this bath is invalu- 
able, and will relieve it when all other means have 
failed. It can be taken during the hemorrhage or at 
frequent intervals between times. 

Hot or tepid vaginal infections are invaluable for con- 
trolling hemorrhage and removing congestion of the 
uterus. For this it is best to use a fountain syringe, 
hung very high so as to get good force to the water. 
This measure alone often removes many of the un- 
pleasant symptoms of the meno-pause. 

Hoi fomentations may be applied twice a day for 
pain in the back. The hot water bottle is the best 
for this. Should be very hot and continued thirty or 
forty minutes, or even longer. If there is pain at 
base of the brain or in the pelvic region this same ap- 
plication is invaluable. 

The Thermal bath (page 118) taken three times a 
week will be found invaluable in all the ailments of 
the meno-pause. 

Sanguinaria, 2d, will give temporary relief from 
hot flashes. Dose, six pellets every two hours. 

Alcohol and aqua-ammonia, equal parts, heated over 
steam, as hot as can be borne, and applied with the 
hand, relieves profuse perspiration. Or rub the en- 
tire surface with very hot fine salt. Hot baths will 
be found useful for this also. 



284 SIMPLE HABITS. 

The diet during the change of life should be 
simple, consisting largely of fruits and grains, mod- 
erate in quantity. These can be prepared in many 
palatable and dainty dishes. (See Dietetics.) If one 
has been accustomed to high living, to rich and 
greasy food, composed largely of the carbonaceous 
starch, sugar and fat, a change to a simple diet will 
work wonders in a short time. 

The habit once established for a diet that furnishes 
the nutriment demanded for the system, one cannot 
be induced to return to that which gorges, stimulates 
and fattens, but does not nourish. The real relish 
and gustatory pleasure found in a fruit and grain diet 
can never be appreciated by those who indulge in 
inconsistent mixtures of stimulants and disease-pro- 
ducing elements. If there is no appetite, wait for its 
bidding; do not coax it by stimulants and appetizers. 
Rest of the digestive organs is often the best and 
surest cure for many diseases. 

Let the woman who is a sufferer from hot flushes, 
dizziness, neuralgia, etc., give up strong tea and 
coffee, hot bread, pork, and rich pies and cake. Eat 
only what the appetite demands; and until the 
severest symptoms are relieved, partake of food not 
more than twice a day, and possibly only once. In 
fasting, if the stomach has a feeling of goneness or 
craving, drink a cup of hot water, hot lemonade or 
thin gruel, made from wheat, barley or oats. A sense 
of faintness and the inability to omit or postpone a 
single meal is almost a sure indication of dyspepsia. 
In hundreds of cases all the symptoms and diseases 
c^ change of life will yield to treatment for this com- 
mon ailment. (Page 42.) 



NATURE ALWAYS KIND. 285 

Look to it that a constipated habit is entirely over- 
come. Study and follow the hints in Chap. V., 
and the cases are rare that torpidity of the bowels 
cannot be removed. For any serious illness accom- 
panying the change of life, a physician should be 
consulted. In all ordinary cases, however, one can 
be relieved entirely and that in a short time by relig- 
iously following the foregoing advice. Nature is 
kind and heals all our maladies if we only give her 
the shadow of an opportunity. In the climacteric 
period put yourself in harmony with nature's laws 
and you will have no occasion for the physician's 
potions. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 



DIETETICS. 

In what thou eatest and drinkest, seek from thence 
Due nourishment, not gluttonous delight. 
So mayest thou live, till, like ripe fruit, thou drop 
Into thy mother's lap ; or be with ease 
Gathered, not harshly plucked ; for death mature. 

— Milton. 

DRINKS FOR THE SICK. 

LEMONADE. 

Juice of half a lemon, one tea-spoon white sugar^ 
one goblet water. Grate into it a little peel if desired. 

HOT LEMONADE. 

Is made the same way, only using hot water. Is 
good for colds and biliousness. 

ORANGE WHEY. 

The juice of one orange to one pint sweet milk. 
Heat slowly until curds form, strain and cool. Good 
drink after confinement. 

RENNET WHEY. 

One quart milk, almost boiling ; two table-spoons 
prepared rennet or a piece of rennet which has been 
soaked in water. Sugar to taste. Stir the rennet 
into the milk ; let it stand until cool, then strain. 

(286) 



DIETETICS. 287 

EGG LEMONADE. 

White of one egg, one table-spoon pulverized 
sugar. Juice of one lemon, one gobiet water. Beat 
together. Very grateful in inflammation of lungs, 
stomach of bowels. 

GUM ARABIC WATER. 

One tea-spoon gum arable, one goblet cold water, 
stand until it dissolves. Flavor with juice of lemon, 
orange, or any other fruit. 

^ JELLY WATER. 

Sour jellies dissolved in water make a pieasant 
drink for fever patients. 

OATMEAL TEA. ^ 

Two table-spoons raw oatmeal to one quart cold 
water, stand two hours in a cool place, then drain off 
as it is wanted. Nourishing in convalescence, and 
an unequalled drink for harvesters or moulders. 

TOAST WATER. 

Toast slowly a thin piece of bread till it is extreme- 
ly brown and hard, but not black. Put it in a bowl 
of cold water, and cover tightly. Let it stand an 
hour before using. 

SAGO MILK. 

Three table-spoons sago, soaked in a cup of cold 
water one hour ; add three cups boiling milk, sweeten, 
and flavor to taste. Simmer slowly half hour, eat 
warm. Tapioca milk is made in the same way. 

FLAXSEED LEMONADE. 

Two table-spoons of whole flaxseed to a pint of 



288 DIETETICS. 

boiling water; let it stand until cool, then strain and 
add the juice of two lemons and two table-spoons 
honey. Invaluable for coughs and suppression of 
urine. 

TAMARIND WATER. 

One tumbler of tamarinds, one pint cold water. 
Turn water over tamarinds and let it stand an hour; 
strain before using. Currant jelly or cranberry jelly 
can be used similarly. — Mrs, Owens' Cook Book. 

BEEF TEA. 

One pound lean beef cut into small pieces, put into 
a bottle without a drop of water, cover tightly and 
set in a pot of cold water; heat gradually to a boil, 
and continue boiling steadily for three or four hours, 
until the meat is like rags, and the juice all out. Salt 
to taste. 

Beef tea does not afford as much nutrition as peo- 
ple have been taught. It is readily taken up by 
absorption, and is desirable where a mild stimulant 
is required. In fevers and inflammations bran or oat- 
meal gruel furnish much more desirable nutrition. 

BEEF TEA A STIMULANT, AND NOT A FOOD. 

Notwithstanding it has been repeatedly shown 
that beef tea is not a food, the laity, and to a consid- 
erable extent the profession, are slow to be convinced. 
That patients fed on beef tea slowly starve is a fact, 
which the analysis only too conclusively supports, 
and which is sustained by accurate clinical observa- 
tion. In the Lancet for October, 1880, p. 562, Mr. G. 
F. Masterman publishes an analysis, which shows 
that beef tea has a chemical composition similar to 



DIETETICS. 289 

urine. Beef tea, most carefully prepared, says Dr. 
Neale in the Practitiojter (^OYQvahQY, 1881), does not 
contain, including alkaline salts, more than from 1.5 
to 2.25 per cent, solid matters, and such matter is 
mainly composed of urea, kreatin, kreatinin, isolin 
and decomposed hematin. As a stimulant, beef tea 
may be, and often is, highly serviceable, but as a 
means of support during the exhausting drain of a 
long illness, it does not compare in nutritive value to 
milk. Dr. Lauder Brunton raises the question 
whether beef tea, a product of muscular waste, may 
not under some circumstances be actually poisonous! 
— Medical NewSy 

RICE GRUEL. 

Two table-spoons rice, one quart cold water; steep 
slowly one hour; strain through a gravy strainer; 
add a little cream and salt. 

GRUEL FROM RICE FLOUR. 

Wet one table-spoon flour, stir into boiling water, 
cook five minutes. 

CORN TEA. 

Parch common corn until browned through, grind, 
and pour on boiling water. Drink with or without 
cream. Excellent for nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. 

WHEAT, OAT OR BARLEY COFFEE. 

Brown the grain thoroughly, and grind. Can be 
mixed if desirable. Take three table-spoonfuls. Mix 
with the white of an egg, pour over it one quart of 
boiling water. When it comes to a boil, set it on the 
back part of the stove and steep slowly fifteen min- 



290 DIETETICS 

utes. A nourishing drink and a good substitute for 
tea and coffee. When made right is very palatable. 

BRAN GRUEL. 

Boil for half an hour one pint of bran of white 
wheat, in three pints of water. Strain through a 
gravy strainer and add a little salt. This is a good 
gruel for fevers and inflammations. Makes a good 
drink by thinning and adding lemon juice. 

CORN MEAL GRUEL. 

One table-spoon finely sifted corn meal wet in cold 
water. Have one quart boiling water in a gruel pan, 
dip a spoonful of this thin coldbatter into the water, 
stir, let it boil up, and then add another spoonful, and 
so on until the gruel is of the right consistence. Let 
it boil briskly twenty minutes or more. Salt to taste. 

GRAHAM GRUEL. 

Make like cornmeal gruel. Can be strained or not, 
as desired. 

OATMEAL GRUEL. 

Stir two table-spoons of oatmeal in one quart boil- 
ing water. If the meal is coarse, boil one hour and 
strain through a gravy strainer. Wheatlet gruel 
prepared in same manner. 

MILK PORRIDGE. 

One and a half table-spoons flour, wet to a paste, 
stirred in a quart of boiling milk; add a pinch of salt; 
can substitute rice flour, oatmeal, arrowroot, corn 
starch, or the Lockport entire wheat flour. 

BAKED MILK. 
Put half a gallon of milk in a jar and tie over it 



DIETETICS. 291 

writing paper. Let it stand in a moderate oven eight 
or ten hours. It will be like cream, and is good for 
consumptives and invalids generally.— J/r.?. Owens* 
Cook Book, 

HOT MILK. 

Take nine parts of milk and one part of water, and 
heat to 1 10*^ F. in a milk boiler. Sipping this slowly, 
the saliva combines with the milk, and this with the 
added water will prevent coagulation in the stomach; 
hence will be taken up at once by the absorbents. 
This is valuable food in morning sickness of preg- 
nancy and for nursing women. It is also good in low 
fevers and nervous dyspepsia. 

The Medical Record, speaking of hot milk as a bev- 
erage, says: " Milk heated to much above lOO^ F. 
loses for the time a degree of its sweetness and its 
density. No one who, fatigued by over-exertion of 
body or mind, has ever experienced the reviving in- 
fluence of a tumbler of this beverage, heated as hot 
as it can be sipped, will willingly forego a resort to it 
because of its having been rendered somewhat less 
acceptable to the palate. The promptness with which 
its cordial influence is felt is indeed surprising. Some 
portion of it seems to be digested and appropriated 
almost immediately; and many who now fancy they 
need alcoholic stimulants when exhausted by fatigue, 
will find in this simple draught an equivalent that 
shall be abundantly satisfying, and far more endur- 
ing in its effects." ' 
BUTTERMILK. 

Buttermilk, when sweet and fresh from the churn, 
is nutritious and wholesome. It contains about ^^ 
19 



292 DIETETICS. 

per cent, of water, 4 of nitrogenous food, 3 of sugar, 
only a trifle of fat, and considerable mineral matter, 
by some estimated at over 5 per cent. There is also 
a small amount of lactic acid. As a heat producing 
food, it is poor. There are many forms of dyspepsia 
in which it " will set on the stomach " when hardly 
anything else will. Often in fevers this organ be- 
comes rebellious from the effects of large amounts 
of medicine, and it is then a serious question how to 
nourish the patient. In such cases buttermilk is some- 
times found to be the best food that can be given. 

In diabetes it may be employed as a chief article of 
diet to great advantage. Corpulent people who will 
not adopt the bread and fruit regimen and take much 
exercise, may use buttermilk in preference to milk. 
It may be put in clean bottles and canned or sealed, 
as in preserving fruit, and kept for a long time. Af- 
ter a little, one becomes fond of the taste and relishes 
it. It ought not be allowed to stand till it is bitter 
before nslng^—Dr, Holbrook. 

BUTTERMILK POP. 

Put one quart of buttermilk in the milk boiler. 
When nearly boiling, add two table-spoons flour 
which has been rubbed with one tea-spoon of milk. 
Stir until boiling. Good in nausea and heartburn of 
pregnancy. Also for nervous dyspepsia. I knew 
one man that lived on buttermilk pop alone for six 
months, and cured himself of dyspepsia. 

CHICKEN BROTH. 

In one quart of water boil the dark meat of half a 
chicken with a table-spoon of rice or barley; skim off 



DIETETICS. 293 

the fat; use as soon as the rice is well done. When 
taken up, add a few narrow strips of bread toasted — 
Mot too brown. 

MACARONI SOUP. 

Into a quart of boiling watei put a handful of 
macaroni broken into inch pieces. Let it boil an 
hour, then add two cups of strained stewed tomato, 
and just before serving pour in half a cup of cream. 
A delicious soup. 

FARINA SOUP. 

Add to any kind of soup stock one half cup of 
farina, the same of cream, or an egg well beaten, and 
let it cook gently half an hour before serving. 

TOMATO SOUP. 

Put one pint of canned or fresh tomatoes and one 
quart of water, in a granite stew pan. When boil- 
ing, thicken with three table-spoons of graham flour 
mixed with cold water. Add one quart milk and 
Btir until it boils, this prevents curdling. Season to 
taste. Can be made in ten minutes. 

PUREE OF SPLIT PEAS. 
One cup of split peas. Soak over night. Put on 
in cold water. Boil two hours slowly. Put through 
the colander. Heat in the kettle a cup of sweet 
cream, into which has been stirred two large spoon- 
fuls graham flour, or that of entire wheat, and a pinch 
of salt. When it thickens, return the peas to the 
kettle and stir. Then set back. 

LEMON JELLY. 
Moisten two table-spoons corn starch, stir into one 
pint boiling water; add the juice of two lemons and 



294 DIETETICS. 

one-third cup of sugar. Grate in a little of the find. 
Put in moulds to cool. 

LEMON GELATINE. 

Soak one ounce of gelatine in a quart of water. 
When dissolved, pour it in a saucepan and let it 
come to a boil. Add the juice of three lemons, a 
little grated rind, and one cup of sugar. Strain 
through a thin cloth, put into moulds, and set on ice 
to cool. 

SAGO JELLY. 

Soak five table-spoons sago in half a pint cold 
water thirty minutes, then add one cup sugar and 
two table-spoons lemon juice. Pour over three cups 
boiling water; boil the whole in a farina boiler one 
hour; pour into moulds; when cold turn out and 
serve with fruit juice. 

SAGO CURRANT JELLY. 

Soak in cold water five table-spoons sago one hour; 
strain off the water, add half pint currant juice 
(strained); boil slowly fifteen minutes, stirring occa- 
sionally, then add half a cup sugar. Pour into 
moulds; serve the following day without sauce. 
Cranberries or other acid fruits can be used. Makes 
a very tempting dish for an invalid. 

NUTRINA OR BRAN JELLY. 

1st. Go to the m\\\ yourself y and watch the miller 
while he gives you clean wheat bran. 

2d. Have a kettle of boiling soft water on the 
stove. Sift with one hand, stirring briskly all the 
while with a paddle or wooden spoon, held in the 
other, until the mass is about the consistency of a 



DIETETICS. 295 

thick gruel. Let this boil slowly two hours. Place 
a sieve over the top of a pan and pour this gruel in 
it to drain. When well drained place the pan on the 
stove and allow it to come to a boil. Mix with cold 
water a spoonful or so of sifted graham flour, enough 
to bring the boiling gruel to about the consistency 
of a smooth gravy, or thick gruel. 

Dip into moulds — coffee cups are nice for this~ 
and allow to become cold, when, if right, it will be a 
trembling, delicate jelly. Perhaps it will be neces- 
sary to experiment a little, as the first trial may not 
be entirely successful, but depend upon it, the out- 
come is well worth painstaking. 

Nutrina accompanied with various sa ces makes a 
welcome dessert. People who use milk or cream 
would like nutrina with a cream sauce. Nutrina can 
not be too highly recommended, for it suits so wide 
a range of conditions. — Dr. M. Augusta Fair child. 

Nutrina contains the phosphates of the grain, 
hence it is a valuable nerve nutritive. Is especially 
excellent for nursing mothers and children when first 
weaned. 

CEREALS. 

Every table should be abundantly supplied with 
well-cooked cereals. Cook in a farina or milk boiler. 
No housekeeper should be without this important 
utensil. Do not soak cereals in cold water over night. 
All of them, even rice, are far better to be put to 
cook in boiling water. This bursts the starch cells 
at once, and prevent^the raw taste and stringy, dark 
look these preparations frequently have. Should not 
be stirred while cooking, as it breaks the grains and 
makes them pasty. 



296 DIETETICS. 

CRACKED OR ROLLED WHEAT. 
In two quarts boiling water stir one pint cracked 
wheat. Half tea-spoon salt. Use a farina boiler or 
double kettle, and cook three hours without stirring-. 
When done, mould in dishes. Eat hot or cold with 
fruit sauce or cream and sugar. Excellent in consti^ 
pation or biliousness. The rolled wheat is preferable. 
Not being able to procure it ready prepared, one can 
crack wheat in an ordinary coffee mill. 

OATMEAL MUSH. 

Coarse oatmeal should be cooked like rolled wheat. 
If desired warm for breakfast, can be left in a granitci 
or porcelain farina boiler over night, and heated in 
a few minutes. Do not soak oatmeal over night, nor 
try to cook it sufficiently in the morning. It must 
never be stirred while cooking. Fine oatmeal can be 
made in a mush, like Indian meal, and be ready fot 
the table in twenty minuies. 

INDIAN MEAL MUSH. 

Take fine meal of northern corn, a little salt; stir 
slowly in boiling water until as thick as can be stirred 
easily. Stand it on back of the stove and cook slowly 
one hour. Is better cooked in a milk boiler. 

GRAHAM MUSH. 

Stir graham flour in boiling water slowly, until it 

makes a thick batter. Set on the back part of the 

stove ten minutes, then beat two minutes and turn 

into the dish. To be eaten with fruit juice or cream 

and sugar. 

FARINA MUSH. 

Stir a half cup of farina slowly into a quart of 



DIETETICS. 297 

boiling water; cook fifteen minutes in a milk boiler 
without stirring; add one-half cup of cream just be- 
fore removing from the fire. Served with stewed 
fruit or fruit sauce. 

HOMINY. 

Mix one cup of hominy with three and a half cups 
boiling water, a little salt. Cook in farina boiler four 
hours. Delicious eaten with milk with or without 
sugar. — Hygienic Cookery, 

WHEATLET MUSH. 

Use water, or equal parts of milk and water. Salt 
to taste. Have boiling, foaming, scalding hot, then 
sprinkle into it from the hand sufficient wheatlet to 
make a thin pudding. 

Keep it boiling hard for five minutes. Then set it 
back to cook slowly ten minutes longer. 

WHEATLET BLANC MANGE. 

Pour wheatlet mush into forms and serve cold. 

WHEATLET PUDDING. 

Break up cooked wheatlet with a fork, add milk 
enough to make a thin pudding; two eggs, currants 
and raisins to suit. Brown in a moderate oven. 

WHEATLET AND APPLE PUDDING. 

Make as cracked wheat pudding, (page 311). 

GRANULA. 

-Take equal parts of graham flour, fine oatmeal and 
cornmeal, mix to a batter thick enough to cling to 
the spoon. Bake in thin cakes in a quick oven. 



29^ DIETETICS. 

When baked, break into pieces and dry out thof^ 

oughly in a slow oven until crisp. Then roll with 
the rolling pin into fine crumbs. Delicious eaten in 
milk. Many families prepare it from their cold gems, 
bread and corn bread, thus finding an economical use 
for "dry bread." 

RICE AND APPLE PUDDING. 

One quart boiled rice, three pints tart chopped ap- 
ples, half cup sugar, put in layers In earthen baking 
dish, add half cup water, and bake two hours slowly. 
Raisins, plums or prunelles can be used to flavor if 
desired. Serve warm or cold, with cream. 

RICE AND RAISINS. 

Three cups boiling water, one cop sweet milk, one 
cup rice, half cup raisins. Mix well together. Cook 
in steamer or farina boiler. Mould and eat warm or 
cold, with cream or fruit sauce. 

RICE SNOW. 

One quart sweet milk, five tablespoonfuls rice flour 
or corn starch, one-half cup sugar, whites of four 
eggs. Boil the milk, stir in the rice flour moistened, 
and add the sugar. When cold v/hip a little at a time 
into the eggs, after they are well beaten. Mould and 
serve with cream or fruit sauce. 

RICE SNOW BALLS. 

Two quarts boiling water, one pint boiling milk, 
two cups rice; cook two hours in farina boiler with- 
out stirring. Mould in small cups, and serve with 
boiled custard or fruit sauce. 



DIETETICS. 299 

mCE GRIDDI-E CAXK^l 

Two cups boiled rice, one cup sweet milk, two 
eggs, one cup sifted flour. Bake slowly. 

RICE OMELET. 

Two cups boiled rice, one cup sweet milk, two 
eggs. Stir together with egg beater, and put into a 
hot buttered skillet. Cook slowly ten minutes, stir- 
ring frequently. 

RICE AND BERRY PUDDING. 

Two cups sweet milk, two cups cold rice, samp or 
barley; two cups blueberries, currants, strawberries, 
seeded cherries or chopped apples; one-third cup 
sugar, two eggs — yokes and whites separate. Time, 
one hour; slow oven. Soften the cold rice (or other 
grain) with the milk, working out all the lumps; then 
stir in the yolks and sugar beaten together, and also 
the well whipped whites. Add the fruit, mixing it in 
lightly; pour the batter into a dish, set in a dripping 
pan of boiling water, and bake slowly one hour. 
Serve cold or lukewarm, with or without a dressing 
of cream. — Health in the Household. 

BROWNED RICE. 

Parch or brown rice slowly; steep in milk for two 
hours. The rice or the milk only is excellent in 
summer complaint. 

RICE CREAM. 

Thicken a pint of scalding milk with rice flour to 
the consistency of cream; sweeten and flavor to taste. 
Beat the whites of two eggs to a stiff froth, put a 
half ounce of gelatine to half pint of cold water; when 



300 DIETETICS. 

well soaked, place over the fire until the gelatine is 
dissolved; when cool, beat to a froth with an egg- 
beater; mix with the egg and milk. 

BOILED RICE. 

Put two cups of rice to three pints of boiling water, 
half teaspoon salt. Cook in a farina boiler four hours. 

RICE. -JAPANESE METHOD. 

Only enough water is poured on the rice to pre- 
vent burning. Cover tightly and set over a moderate 
fire until nearly done. Remove cover to allow 
moisture to escape. The rice turns out a mass of 
snow-white separate kernels, each burst open like a 
mealy potato. — Hygienic Cookery. 

It is far less trouble to cover the dish tightly and 
cook it in a steamer. 

BREAD. 

Bread is the representative of human food, because 
wheat, of which it is made, embraces all the elements 
of nutrition necessary to build up and sustain every 
part of the system, keeping it in good working con- 
dition and preserving it unimpaired to ripe old age. 
It is the only single article of food upon which man 
can live after he is weaned, without danger of impov- 
erishing his system. 

Bread to serve the best purposes of nutrition should 
contain all the elements of the grain. White bread 
that holds a popular place as an article of diet, is 
greatly deficient in the nitrates or muscle-feeding ele- 
ments. The gluten of the grain, in which these are 
found, is removed in the bran. Besides, fermentation 
of flour is at the expense of the gluten. Conse- 



DIETETICS. 301 

quently to obtain bread that contains all the elements 
of nutrition in the right proportion, it must be made 
from the popular graham or Lockport entire wheat 
flour, and not raised with yeast or chemicals. If 
raised with yeast, the less number of times it is mixed 
the better. The most popular unleavened breads are 
gems, muffins and rolls. 

GRAHAM GEMS. 

Take three cups of entire wheat flour or graham 
made from white wheat, two cups of cold water, half 
cup of milk. A little more wetting may be needed 
for graham. Omit salt. Heat gem pans very hot on 
the top of the stove, fill them even full with the 
batter, place on the grate of a very hot oven. Let 
them remain ten minutes, then bake thirty minutes 
on the bottom of the oven. The *'acorn" gem pans 
are essential. These are small, round, deep iron pans. 
Notice, three things are necessary for good gems: 
The best white wheat flour, very hot pans and oven, 
and the ''acorn" gem pans. No beating is required. 
These conditions observed, the gems will be as light 
as sponge cake. They can be eaten warm or cold, 
but are best heated over in a quick oven. They make 
excellent toast and pudding. I was many years in 
learning to make good gems without yeast or soda. 
This receipt never fails, even with a "green" cook. 
GRAHAM MUFFINS. 

Take one pint of new milk, one pint graham or 
entire wheat flour. Stir together and add one beaten 
^ZZ' C^^ b^ baked in any kind of gem pans or muffin 
rings. Salt must not be used with any bread that is 
made light with ^^'g. 



302 BIBTETICS* 

UNLEAVENED BREAD. 

Mix entire wheat flour with ice cold water, to a 
stiff dough; knead for four or five minutes; cut in 
small pieces and roll into cakes size of clothes-pins. 
Bake on wire pan or toaster in hot oven, leaving 
room to rise. Very light and sweet. An addition 
of raisins and hickory nut meats is much enjoyed. — 
Mrs, Purdy. 

OATMEAL AND GRAHAM GEMS. 

Mix equal parts of graham and fine Irish oatmeal 
into a thick batter, with equal parts of milk and 
water, fill hot gem pans, and bake with a brisk heat. 
Very sweet and tender. — Dr. Holbrook. 

WHITE FLOUR GEMS. 

Stir briskly into new milk, or milk and water, suffi- 
cient flour to make a batter not too stiff to drop from 
a spoon — much depends on the consistency; experi- 
ment only will decide. Add the whites of two eggs 
whipped to a stiff froth and beat all together thor- 
oughly. A little cream put in at the last makes the 
gems more tender. Bake in hot gem pans in a quick 

oven. 

BROWN GEMS. 

Mix with water equal quantities of rye and Indian 
meal, beat it to a cream, perhaps ten or fifteen 
minutes, bake in thin cakes in flat gem pans. 

BEST GRAHAM BISCUITS. 

Make as thick a graham mush by stirring the flou^ 
into boiling water, as is possible, then take it from 
the stove to the moulding board, knead into it more 



DIETETICS. 303 

graham flour, roll about an inch thick, cut into bis- 
cuits, and bake in a hot oven. 

LIGHT GRAHAM BISCUITS. 

Make the dough of graham yeast bread a trifle 
stiffer, roll and cut into biscuits. When light, bake 
thirty minutes. 

DELICIOUS CORN BREAD. 

One quart corn meal, partly scalded with one pint 
boiling water. Add to this one pint sweet milk, stir 
to a smooth batter, dip a large cooking spoonful at a 
time on your hot griddle in separate cakes, let it 
stand to get the lower crust well started, then place 
the griddle in the hot oven, on the top grate, and 
allow the baking to be finished there. The cake 
should be a nice brown. About half an hour's time 
will be required for bkaing.— Z>r. M. A. Fairchild, 

OATMEAL CAKE. 

Take one pint of fine oatmeal, and warm water 
enough to stir up a batter, like griddle cakes. Pour 
it into a shallow baking pan or griddle, and bake 
twenty minutes in a hot oven. Or bake in small cakes 
on the griddle, first putting in a handful of wheat 
flour and a little more water. 

BOSTON BROWN BREAD. 

Three cups graham flour, one cup Indian meal, one 
cup molasses, two cups sweet milk, one cup sour 
milk, one teaspoon soda. Steam three hours and 
bake two hours. 

GRAHAM BREAD. 

Soak half a cake of compressed yeast, stir it into 



304 DIETETICS, 

one quart warm water and two quarts graham flour. 
Put into a deep sheet iron bread pan which has been 
well greased. When light bake one hour or more. 
If compressed yeast cannot be obtained, use home- 
made or baker's yeast. The dough should be as stiff 
as can be stirred with a spoon. Make bread from 
fine flour of the entire wheat the same way, only a 
trifle stiffer. 

YEAST BREAD FROM WHITE FLOUR. 

Make a sponge by boiling one pound of potatoes 
in two quarts of water; stir up a pint of sifted flour 
as for starch, and pour the boiling water over it, 
adding the potatoes when well mashed; when cool, 
add a cup of yeast, or two ounces dried yeast soaked, 
and a table-spoon of salt. Make this the day pre- 
vious to baking; it will save labor to do it at the same 
time you boil potatoes for dinner. 

To make the bread, take three quarts sifted flour 
warmed, and wet with the sponge, adding no more 
liquid or salt; knead at least half an hour, keeping 
the dough soft and warm; put it in the baking pans, 
which are well greased, and when it is light it is 
ready for the oven. Bake forty minutes. The dough 
must be soft and thoroughly kneaded. 

This method preserves the gluten. 

OATMEAL SNAPS. 

Mix one cup sweet cream and three table-spoonfuls 
sugar; add fine oatmeal till stiff; knead slightly; roll 
to the thickness of an eighth of an inch; cut in 
shapes; bake crisp in moderate oven. — Hygienic 
Cookery. 



DIETETICS. 305 

GRAHAM FRUIT CRACKERS. 

Two-thirds cup sweet cream; one cup dried cur- 
rants picked and washed, one-fourth tea-spoonful 
soda, one-half tea-spoonful cream tartar. Use equal 
parts graham and white flour to make a very stiff 
dough. Roll out less than an eighth of an inch in 
thickness. Cover thickly with the fruit. Lay on 
another sheet of the dough, pass the rolling pin over 
it. Cut in shapes; prick deeply; bake in a moderatie 
oven thoroughly, — Hygienic Cookery, 

GRAHAM WAFERS. 

Take graham flour. Mix with pure cold water. 
No salt. Knead thoroughly fifteen minutes; roll very 
thin, about half as thick as soda crackers; cut in two 
inch squares and bake quickly. These will keep for 
months in a dry place. It makes them crisp to place 
them in the oven a few minutes before bringing them 
to the table. Better if made by a baker, using the 
cracker machine. These are the best dyspeptic bread 
made, and are soon relished by all who eat them, 

GRAHAM CRACKERS. 

Take one part cream to four parts milk, mix with 
flour, as soft as can be handled; knead twenty min- 
utes; roll very thin; cut square or round, and bake 
quickly twenty minutes. Handle carefully while hot; 
pack away when cool in a stone jar. 

RICE MUFFINS. 

One cup of boiled rice, two eggs, two cups of 
sweet milk, two cups of flour. Beat well. Bake in 
gem pans or muffin rings. 



306 DIETETICS. 

BUCKWHEAT CAKES. 

One quart of warm water, one quart of buckwheat 
flour, a cup of bread sponge, one tea-spoon salt. 
Make over night, or will rise in three or four hours 
in the daytime. Some batter being left will raise 
cakes the following day. 

Buckwheat contains a large proportion of gluten, 
and is very desirable for batter cakes. ■ It has been 
brought into disrepute for two reasons: First, suffi- 
cient pains has not been taken to cleanse out the 
smut of the grain, which is poisonous, producing 
eruptions, etc. Second, too much butter and syrup 
are consumed with the cakes, supplying to the sys- 
tem a superabundance of carbon. Substitute honey 
or fruit sauce to make the cakes relish. 

WHEATLET CAKES. 

Make like buckwheat cakes. These are delicious, 
and are destined to become very popular. 

GRIDDLE CAKES FROM ''SHORTS." 

Shorts, or middlings, are obtained in grinding 
wheat, between the fine flour and bran. These are 
rich in gluten, and, prepared in the same way, make 
cakes equal to buckwheat. Not being able to pro- 
cure ''shorts," use graham, wheatlet, or entire wheat 
flour. 

RICE GRIDDLE CAKES. 

One cup boiled rice, one egg, one cup sweet milk, 
one cup water, two cups of white flour, entire wheat 
flour or "shorts." 

CORN GRIDDLE CAKES. 

Pour boiling water on a pint of corn meal to make 



DIETETICS. 307 

a stiff batter; let It stand over night. In the morn- 
ing add one cup of graham flour and one cup of 
sweet milk. If not light, add a tea-spoon of baking 
powder; except in cold weather, the corn will fer- 
ment sufficiently to make it light. Can be baked in 
gem pans if preferred. 

BREAKFAST PATTIES. 

Make a thick gruel of equal parts of graham ana 
corn meal. Let it stand over night. Add sifted 
graham flour, or flour of the entire wheat, until the 
batter is thicker than for batter cakes. Bake as grid- 
dle cakes, giving them plenty of time. If just right, 
most delicious breakfast cakes. 

MILK TOAST. 

Heat six slices of graham or entire wheat bread in 
the oven; toast an even brown over coals. Boil one 
pint of milk and half a cup of cream. Thicken with 
one tea-spoon corn-starch ; half a tea-spoon salt. Pour 
over the toast and serve hot. 

GEM TOAST. 

Split graham gems, toast the same as the bread, 
and cover with the same dressing. This is the best 
toast made. Is not harmed by standing, 

OYSTER TOAST. 

Pour stewed oysters over graham gems or bread 
toasted. An excellent breakfast dish. 

CODFISH TOAST. 

Toast graham bread or gems; lay upon a platter 
and cover with codfish prepared in milk. 

20 



308 DIETETICS. 

TOMATO TOAST. 

Stew one quart tomatoes; season with one table- 
spoon sugar and half a teaspoon salt; pour over 
graham bread or gems to^isted. 

EGGS ON TOAST. 

Soften brown bread ^,oast with hot water, put on a 
platter and cover with poached or scrambled eggs. 

ASPARAGUS ON TOASl. 

Cut the green of one pound of asparagus in one 
pint hot water. Stew thirty minuses; add half a cup 
of cream, a little salt, turn over graham toast. 

RHUBARB TOAST. 

Take one pint water, half a cup of sugar; when 
boiling, put in two pounds rhubarb cut in small 
pieces. Stew until done; when cold, pour over a 
platter of hot toasted graham bread, having a little 
butter upon it. This is an excellent breakfast dish, 
and as the toast absorbs the peculiar rhubarb flavor, 
can be eaten by those who usually dislike it. 

Gooseberries, tart apples, peaches and other acid 
fruits can be prepared in the same way. 

Note." — Never use white bread for toast when 
bread of the unbolted or entire wheat flour can bo 
had. The latter never becomes doughy, and is much 
better flavored, besides being more nutritious. 

EGGS AS FOOD. 

Eggs, at average prices, are among the cheapest 
and most nutritious articles of diet. Like milk, an 
egg is a complete food in itself, as is manifested from 
the fact that from it a chick draws all the nonnsh-^ 



DIETETICS. 309 

ment needed in its development. This is one of the 
mysteries of nature that the yolk and white of an egg 
can contain elements capable of producing so many 
and such varied parts as constitute a living fowl. An 
egg is easily digested if not damaged in cooking. In- 
deed, there is no more concentrated and nourishing 
food than eggs. The albumen, oil and saline matter 
are, as in milk, in the right proportion for sustaining 
animal life. Two or three boiled eggs, with the addi- 
tion of a slice or two of toast, will make a breakfast 
sufficient for a man and good enough for a king. 

BOILED EGGS. 

An egg should never be boiled. Immersed in boil- 
ing water for a few moments the white part coagu- 
lates and becomes hard, and more or less indigestible. 
If cooked at a temperature of 165° for fifteen or 
twenty minutes the white part coagulates into a ten- 
der, delicate, jelly-like substance, which is not only 
very digestible but delicious, while at the same time 
the yolk becomes sufficiently hard. If placed in 
boiling water and set back for ten minutes it will 
cook to perfection. A little experience will enable 
any one to do it successfully. 

POACHED EGGS. 

In a skillet of salted boiling water, place muffin 
rings. Drop the egg in them and let them stand tea 
minutes without boiling. Remove the rings, and the 
eggs will be nicely moulded and evenly cooked. 

EGGS POACHED IN MILK. 

Take one cup of milk, half a cup of water, when 
boiling break in six eggs. Cook slowly and serve on 



3IO DIETETICS. 

toast. A lady told me she cured herself of nervous 
headaches by eating an egg every morning cooked 
in this way. The milk prevents the poisonous effect 
of the sulphur in the egg, and the nerves get decided 
nutriment. 

SCRAMBLED EGGS. 

Beat six eggs and one cup of milk together. Cook 
in a buttered skillet, stirring occasionally. Take up 
before it is quite thickened. 

STEAMED EGGS. 

Break into egg cups and steam ten mi nutes. 

BAKED EGGS. 

Put unbroken eggs in one dripping pan and covei 
with another the same size; bake in a quick oven 
twenty minutes. 

EGG OMELET. 

Beat the whites of six eggs separately. Beat the 
yolks with three table-spoons of milk and one table> 
spoon of flour; stir the whites in lightly. Cook in ^ 
hot buttered skillet. When the edge is cooked, turn 
over carefully. In two minutes more, double tOn 
gether on a hot platter. Use no salt. 

ESCALLOPED EGGS. 

Cut light bread in pieces about three inchest 
square and one and a half inches thick; dip in milk, 
then scoop out about two-thirds of the center. Fill 
with egg prepared as for omelet, and bake in a quick 
oven. 

RAW OYSTERS. 

It is an old theory that a raw oyster digests itself. 
This is owing to the diastase or glycogen in the liver. 



DIETETICS. 311 

A fat oyster is half liver. Cooking destroys this 
diastase. So also much vinegar and condiments make 
it slow to assimilate. Alcohol also destroys the 
diastase. Valuable in nervous dyspepsia, and conse- 
quently useful in the early months of pregnancy. 

STEWED OYSTERS. 

Take one pint of milk, one cup of water, a tea-spoon 
of salt; when boiling, put in one pint of bulk oysters. 
Stir occasionally and remove from the stove before it 
boils. An oyster should not be shriveled in cooking. 

BROILED OYSTERS. 

Put large oysters on a wire toaster. Hold over 
hot coals until heated through. Serve on toast moist- 
ened with cream. Very grateful in convalescence. 

GRAHAM GEM PUDDING. 

Take six cold gems, baked the day before, break 
into small pieces and pour over them a pint of hot 
water and half cup of sugar; stir in six large tart ap- 
ples, cut in thin slices. Bake two hours. Other fruits 
are sometimes used. 

CRACKED WHEAT PUDDING. 

In a deep two-quart pudding dish put layers of cold, 
cooked cracked wheat, and tart apples sliced thin, 
with four table-spoons sugar. Raisins can be added 
if preferred. Fill the dish, having the wheat last, add 
cup of cold water. Bake two hours. 

FARINA BLANC-MANGE. 

Stir into a quart of boiling milk farina enough to 
make a thin pudding, then set away to cool. Before 



312 DIETETICS 

the farina is quite cold, stir in the yolk of one egg 
and a little sugar, then add the whites of two eggs 
whipped to a stiff froth and beat thoroughly. It is 
more creamy if not made too thick with farina. Serve 
cold with fruit or jelly. 

RICE PUDDING. 

One quart new milk, two table-spoons rice, two 
table spoons sugar, pinch of salt, one tea-spoon lemon 
extract, or if preferable, half cup of raisins. Bake 
three hours in a moderate oven. 

For summer it is delicious cold. Better made in 
a large quantity. 

APPLE TAPIOCA PUDDING. 

Soak a tea-cup of tapioca in a quart of warm water 
three hours. Cut in thin slices six tart apples, stir 
them lightly with the tapioca, add half cup sugar. 
Bake three hours. To be eaten with whipped cream. 
Good either warm or cold. 

INDIAN FRUIT PUDDING. 
One pint cornmeal mush made with water. Add 
one pint stewed dried apples, peaches or prunes, one 
half pint water, one cup sugar. Stir ingredients well 
together. Bake five hours. 

ORANGE PUDDING. 

Pare and slice five large oranges, removing seeds. 
Lay in a deep dish and sprinkle with half cup sugar; 
let them stand two hours. Make a custard of one 
pint milk, yolks of three eggs, two table-spoons corn- 
starch. When cool, pour over oranges. Beat the 
whites with two table-spoons of powdered sugar and 
place on the top; brown quickly in the oven. 



DIETETICS. 313 

CORN MUSH PUDDING. 

One quart milk, one pint corn mush (page 296), 
two-thirds cup molasses, one tea-spoon cinnamon. 
Bake four hours, 

BAKED INDIAN PUDDING. 

Boil one quart of milk, stir in seven table-spoons 
meal. Take from the stove, add one quart cold milk, 
one cop molasses, one tea-spoon ground mace. Bake 
in an earthen pudding dish five hours. Double the 
recipe makes a better pudding, and it is good cold. 

MOTHER'S APPLE PUDDING. 

One pint rolled bread cru.. bs; tvv^o pints of tart ap- 
ples, chopped; one cup seedless raisins, half a cup 
sugar. Place in layers in an earthen pudding dish; 
add one cup water; bake slowly two hours. Re- 
quires no sauce. Peaches, cherries, plums, etc, can 
be used in place of apples, and also stewed dried 
fruits. 

HUCKLEBERRY BREAD PUDDING, 

Heat one cuart milk and pour it over one pint dry 
graham bread crumbs; cool add two beaten yolks, 
three table-spoons sugar, two well-whipped whites. 
Stir in one pint huckleberries, dredged with flour, 
bake in a pudding dish, set in a pan of boiling water 
forty or fifty minutes. — Hygienic Cookery, 

PLUM PUDDING. 

One cup seedless raisins, one cup currants, one 
quart chopped apples, one cup sugar, one cup graham 
flour mixed in a pint of water. Mix all together, and 
bake five or six hours. 



314 DIETETICS. 

STRAWBERRY DESSERT. 

Place alternate layers of hot cooked craoked wheat 
and strawberries in a deep dish; when cold, turnout 
on platter; cut in slices and serve with cream and 
sugar, or strawberry juice. Wet the moulds with 
cold water before using. This, moulded in small 
cups, makes a dainty dish for the sick. Wheatlet 
can be used in the same way. 

PIES. 

A very palatable pie crust can be made of sweet 
cream and graham or entire wheat flour. Should be 
worked soft, made thin, and baked in a hot oven. 
Eaten the day it is baked. In a dietetic point of view 
there is little objection to this crust. Any acid fruit 
can be used for the filling. A crust of fine flour and 
lard does not make suitable nutriment for sick or well. 

PIE FOR DYSPEPTICS. 

Four table-spoons of oatmeal, one pint of water; let 
stand for a few hours, or till the meal is swelled, 
Then add two large apples, pared and sliced, a little 
salt, one cup of sugar, one table-spoon flour. Mix all 
well together and bake in a buttered dish; makes a 
most delicious pie, which can be eaten with safety 
by the sick or well. — Dr. HolbrooL 

STRAWBERRY PIE. 

Place the under crust upon a deep plate, and the 
upper one— -cut just the right size- — on a flat tin or 
sheet iron; prick to prevent blistering, and bake. Fill 
the deep crust while hot with strawberries, and cover 
with the Oat crust. If the fruit is rather hard, re- 



DIETETICS. 315 

place in the oven till heated; if quite ripe, the crust 
will steam sufficiently. 

Raspberry and blackberry pie can be made in the 
same way. The flavor of these delicious berries, 
when quite ripe, is greatly impaired by cooking; they 
are also changed to a mass of little else than seeds 
and juice. — Mrs, Cox's Hygiene Cook Book, 

APPLE PIE CAKE. 

Of flour of the entire wheat and cold water, make 
a batter soft enough to level itself. If shortening is 
desired, use sweet cream. Fill a deep pie-platter a 
third full of the batter, sprinkle over a little sugar. 
Wash, quarter and core tart apples and place as many 
in the batter (skin side up) as it will hold. Press 
down and level with a spoon. Over the top sprinkle 
sugar and bake till brown. ^Dr. Holbrook, 

CAKE. 

Cake is hardly considered a dietic food. A few 
recipes, however, are given that experience has 
proved good, and may be eaten by convalescents or 
invalids at the seaside or in the mountains. 

STRAWBERRY SHORT-CAKE. 

Bake a short-cake in three thin layers. Then put 
strawberries between, having them mashed and 
sweetened, and on the top layer and all about the 
side of a dish, put your finest large berries. This 
needs no sauce. 

We also make a simple pudding, which is well 
cooked cracked wheat, with the whole berries 
stirred in when done, and put in moulds. To be 



3l6 DIETETICS. 

eaten cold. Rice and corn mushes may be treated 
in the same way. 

But best of all, is strawberries and plain unleav- 
ened bread. This exceeds in wholesomeness, and 
really in gustatory delight, all the ways that man has 
invented to punish strawberries. — Dr. Fairchild. 

The short-cake should be make of cream and 
graham or entire wheat flour. 

GRAHAM CAKE. 

One cup sugar, two eggs, half a cup sweet cream, 
one cup of flour, one tea-spoon of baking powder. 
Bake in a deep tin. Adding currants and chopped 
raisins and baking in small cake tins makes a nice 
children's cake. 

EUREKA SPONGE CAKE. 

Four eggs beaten with one and a half cups of 
sugar, two cups of sifted flour, baking powder and 
lemon extract, each one tea-spoon. Beat thoroughly 
together, and add three-fourths cup of boiling water. 
Is very thin, but makes a delicious and wholesome 
cake. It is good made from white or graham flour. 
Makes a nice layer cake by baking it in jelly tins. 

CORALINE CAKE. 
Half a cup of sweet milk, half a cup of rich cream, 
one cup of sugar, one ^%^y two cups graham or 
entire wheat flour, one tea-spoon baking powder. 
Bake in two pie tins. When done split open with a 
sharp knife, and fill in with raspberry or strawberry 
juice that has been thickened with corn starch or 
gelatine. By using boiled custard for filling, it will 
make what cooks call a French pie. 



DIETETICS. 317 

GRAHAM FRUIT ROLL. 

To two and a half cups sifted graham flour add 
three cups sifted white flour. Mix with two cups 
sweet cream, one teaspoon soda and two of cream 
tartar. Roll the dough into two oblong sheets about 
a quarter of an inch thick. Put layers of fruit 
between and on them, using one cup each of chopped 
raisins and dried currants. Roll closely, pinching 
the ends flrmly together to secure the fruit. Bake 
in a moderate oven one hour. — Hygienic Cookery, 

HUCKLEBERRY CAKE. 

Beat together one-half cup butter and two of 
sugar. Then add one cup of sweet milk, three of flour 
and four eggs. One tea-spoon of soda dissolved in 
a little hot water. Add last one quart ripe berries. 

FRUIT SAUCE. 

Boil the juice of any acid fruit, adding an equal 
part of water. To one pint put one table-spoon of 
sugar and one tea-spoon corn starch. This makes a 
clear juice about the consistence of syrup, and is very 
desirable to eat with wheat, mush, gems, griddle 
cakes and plain puddings. Jellies and jams can be 
made into fruit sauce by adding four parts of water, 
and thickening. Will not require sugar. These are 
valuable sauces for invalids and children. Once 
learning how delicious they are, persons in health 
will demand them. In many of the small fruits the 
seeds are very objectionable. This method of using 
the fruits obviates that. 

PEACHES A LA STRAWBERRY. 

Ripe peaches cut in small pieces, with soft, mild 



3l8 DIETETICS, 

eating apples in the proportion of three peaches to 
one apple, mixed with sugar, and left to stand two 
or three hours, makes excellent mock strawberries. 
Kansas Home Cook Book. 

BAKED APPLES. 

Pare tart apples; core with a corer or small knife 
Place them in pans and fill cavities with sugar. 
Bake in a slow oven until tender. If sweet apples 
are used, it is better not to pare; sugar not needed- 

APPLE SNOW. 

Take apples, not very sweet ones, and bake till soft 
and brown. Then remove the skins and cores; when 
cool, beat them smooth and fine; add half cup of 
granulated sugar and the white of one ^g^. Beat 
till the mixture will hold on your spoon. Serve 
with soft custard. — V. Mills, 

BAKED PEARS. 

Take a stone jar, and fill it with alternate layers of 
pears (without paring) and a little sugar, until the 
jar is full, then pour in as much water as the jar will 
hold. Bake in a moderate oven three hours. — Kansas 
Home Cook Book. 

BAKED PIE-PLANT. 

Cut two pounds of pie-plant into a pudding dish, 
sprinkle over it half a cup of sugar and half a cup of 
rolled bread crumbs or granula, Add water until 
the pie-plant is two-thirds covered. Bake in a quick 
oven, thirty or forty minutes. This method of pre- 
paring pie-plant removes the medicinal taste, and 
makes an acceptable spring dish. 



DIETETICS. 319 

FRUIT BLANC-MANGE. 

One quart of juice of strawberries, cherries, grapes 
or other juicy fruit; one cup water. Whfen boiling, add 
two table-spoonfuls sugar, and four table-spoonfuls 
corn-starch wet in cold water; let boil five or six 
minutes, then mould in small cups. Serve without 
sauce, or with cream or boiled custard. Lemon juice 
can be used the same, only requiring more water. 
This is a very valuable dish for convalescents and 
pregnant women, where the stomach rejects solid food. 

FRUIT ICE. 

Apples, pears, quinces, or any fruit grated fine, 
sweetened to taste, and frozen is delicious. May be 
taken where there is fever or inflammationc 

GRAVY FOR CHILDREN. 

Stir a heaping table-spoon of whole wheat flour 
smoothly in half cup cold milk. When a pint of milk 
boils, stir the above in slowly; add a half tea-spoon 
salt. To prevent burning, melt a little butter in the 
spider before pouring in the milk. It is more nutri- 
tious and wholesome than meat gravy. 

MACARONI, STEWED. 

Cover half pound of macaroni with plenty of boil- 
ing water and stew slowly two hours, without stir- 
ring. Before taking up, season with salt and cream. 

MACARONI, BAKED. 

Break in small pieces half a pound of macaroni; 
mix with a half cup shavings of cheese and a half 
tea-spoon salt. Put into a baking dish, cover with 
boiling milk or water, and bake two hours in a mod- 



320 DIETETICS. 

erate oven. If cheese is not relished, use bread- 
crumbs and cream instead. 

CRACKER OMELET. 

Break one quart of oyster crackers in small pieces; 
pour over them one pint of hot milk, with half tea- 
spoon salt. Stir in three eggs well beaten and put 
into a hot buttered skillet. Cook slowly ten minutes, 
stirring frequently. 

TOMATOES WITH CORN. 

Cook the tomatoes half an hour; then add one-third 
as much green corn, cut from the ear. Stew slowly 
for half an hour, stirring occasionally. — Hygie7tic 
Cookery. 

SCALLOPED TOMATOES. 

Place m a pudding dish alternate layers of toma- 
toes and bread crumbs, or thin slices of toast, letting 
the topmost layer be tomatoes. Add a little salt. 
Bake slowly, covered an hour or more; uncove/ and 
brown ten minutes. 



A FAMILIAR LETTER 

TO THE READER FROM THE AUTHOR. 



In presenting a revised edition of Tokology^ the 
author takes the liberty of responding to inquiries 
upon different subjects of vital importance. 

''Can a law be given for regulating the sex of off- 
spring.^" This is a subject which has elicited much 
study and discussion among physiologists. Various 
theories have received the support of investigators. 

Dr. Sixt, a German physician, asserts that the right 
testicle and the right ovary secrete the male princi- 
ple, and the left the female, and that in coition the 
sperm is injected from one testicle only. He claims 
that experiments upon animals prove his theory; that 
whenever the left testicle is removed, the animal 
begets males only, and when the right one is want- 
ing, females. 

Mrs. Duffey, in mentioning this theory, very 
shrewdly adds: ''He does not, however, tell us what 
would be the result if the germ and the sperm should 
proceed, the one from the right ovary and the other 
from the left testicle." 

The fact also remains that a man who has been 
deprived of one testicle has become the father of 
children of both sexes. Also, that a woman having 
lost one ovary has conceived and brought forth both 



sons and daughters. 



(321) 



322 AUTHOR'S BELIEF. 

Prof. Thury, of Geneva, gives the following the- 
ory; That if impregnation takes place immediately 
or very soon after menstruation, the child will be a 
female; but if not till some days later, the child will 
be a male. 

This theory is pretty generally depended upon by 
stock breeders, who claim that early union after heat 
produces /e^naleSf while the to^ produces males. Yet 
Darwin affirms that the results of experiments have 
gone far to disprove Thury's theory. 

Girou, a French scientist, as well as some French 
and German physiologists, claims that experiments 
show that if the male is older and stronger than the 
female, the offspring will be more largely males, and 
vice versa. 

Samuel Hough Terry gives as a tested and proved 
theory that if the wife is in a higher state of sexual 
vigor and excitement at the time of conception, boys 
will be conceived; but if the reverse is true, girls 
will be the result. 

A study of these various theories confirms our 
doubts as to whether the true law has as yet been 
discovered. If, as I believe, sex is in the soul, then 
the sex of offspring must be determined by a law of 
the soul. So far human knowledge has not arrived 
in its investigations at sufficient data for understand- 
ing that law. 

The probabilities are that it will eventually be 
proven that the parent whose mental forces previous 
to, and at the time of conception, are most active 
and vigorous, controls the sex of the child. 

Facts proving any of the above theories are 
solicited. 



LIMITING OFFSPRING. 323 

The desirability and practicability cf limiting off- 
spring are the subject of frequent inquiry. Fewer 
and better children are desired by right minded pa- 
rents. Many men and women, wise in other things 
of the world, permit generation as a chance result of 
copulation, without thought of physical or mental 
conditions to be transmitted to the child. Coition, 
the one important act of all others, carrying with it 
the most vital results, is usually committed for selfish 
gratification. Many a drunkard owes his life-long 
appetite for alcohol to the fact that the inception of 
his life could be traced to a night of dissipation on 
the part of his father. Physical degeneracy and 
mental derangements are too often caused by the 
parents producing offspring while laboring under 
great mental strain or bodily fatigue. Drunkenness 
and licentiousness are frequently the heritage of 
posterity. 

Future generations demand that soch results be 
averted by better pre-natal influences. The world 
is groaning under the curse of chance parenthood. 
It is due to posterity that procreation be brought 
under the control of reason and conscience. 

It has been feared that a knowledge of means to 
prevent conception would, if generally diffused, be 
abused by women; that they would to so great an 
extent escape motherhood, as to bring about social 
disaster. 

This fear is not well founded. The maternal in- 
stinct is inherent and sovereign in woman. Even 
the pre-natal influences of a murderous intent on the 
part of parents scarcely ever eradicate it. 
" With this natural desire for children, vv^e believe 

21 



324 MATERNAL INSTINCT. 

few women would abuse the knowledge or privilege 
of controlling conception. Although women shrink 
from forced maternity, and from the bearing of chil- 
dren under the great burden of suffering, as well as 
other adverse conditions, it is rare to find a woman 
who is not greatly disappointed if she does not, some 
time in her life, wear the crown of motherhood. 

An eminent lady teacher, in talking to her pupils, 
once said: ''The greatest calamity that can befall a 
woman is never to have a child. The next greatest 
calamity is to have one only." From my profes- 
sional experience I am happy to testify that more 
women seek to overcome causes of sterility than to 
obtain knowledge of limiting the size of the family, 
or means to destroy the embyro. Also, if consulta- 
tion for the latter purpose is sought, it is usually at 
the instigation of the husband. 

Believing in the rights of unborn children, and in 
the maternal instinct, I am consequently convinced 
that no knowledge should be withheld that will se- 
cure proper conditions for the best parenthood. 

Many of our advanced physiologists and philan- 
thropists teach that the law of continence should be 
the law to govern married people in the sexual rela- 
tion. (See page 157.) However, if a woman is not 
convinced of the truth of this theory, oris practically 
unable to accord her life to it, we would suggest to 
her the study of the physiological laws of ovulation. 

Conception can take place any time after ovulation 
until the ovum' passes from the uterus. The time of 
viability is from two to fourteen days. The balance 
of the month conception cannot ordinarily take 
place. 



THEORY OF OVULATION. 325 

Sterile women desiring offspring should seek sex- 
ual union soon after the appearance of the menses. 
Those not desiring offspring should avoid copulation 
until the ovum has passed the generative tract. 

Married people, in normal health, temperate in 
the sexual relation, desirous of controlling the size 
of their family, can usually depend upon this law. 

Can conception possibly take place after sufficient 
time has elapsed for the ovum to have left the 
uterus.'* Dr. Cowan says: "Sexual excitement has- 
tens the premature ripening and meeting of the 
germ-cell with the sperm-cell, and impregnation may 
result, although intercourse occurs only in the spec- 
ified two weeks' absence of the egg from the uterus." 

Possibly this may be the case under some circum- 
stances,, such as diseased conditions, or after long 
separation of husband and wife. It is, however, of 
rare occurrence, where one's life is governed by 
moderation, and the act is mutual. 

Many of the means used to prevent conception are 
injurious, and often lay the foundation for a train of 
physical ailments. Probably no pne means is more 
serious in its results than the practice of withdrawal, 
or the discharge of the semen externally to the 
vagina. 

The act is incomplete and unnatural, and is fol- 
lowed by results similar to and as disastrous as those 
consequent upon masturbation. In the male it may 
result in impotence, in the female in sterility. In both 
sexes many nervous symptoms are produced, such 
as headache, defective vision, dyspepsia, insomnia, 
loss of memory, etc. Very many cases of uterine 
diseases can be attributed solely to this practice. 



326 WISER PARENTHOOD. 

The objection to the use of the syringe is that if 
the sperm has passed into the uterus the fluid cannot 
reach it. A cold fluid may in some instances produce 
contractions to throw it off, but cannot be relied 
upon. Drugs that are used to destroy the germ are 
usually injurious, and cannot accomplish the purpose 
beyond the vagina. 

A theory has been advanced that conception is 
under the control of the woman's will; that by avoid- 
ing the last thrill of passion herself, during coition, 
she can prevent the ovules being displaced to meet 
the male germs. This is, however, inconsistent with 
the teaching that ovulation is coincident with men- 
struation. 

By some also a theory called sedular absorption is 
advanced. In this, intercourse is had without culmi- 
nation. No discharge is allowed. People practicing 
this method claim the highest possible enjoyment, 
no loss of vitality, and perfect control of the fecun- 
dating power. ^ 

When men and women learn that the procreative 
function is the highest function of their nature, and 
consequently that passion instead of dominating their 
lives should be under the reign of reason, then may 
we hope for a wiser, happier and purer race of 
beings. Wiser parenthood and intelligent generation 
is the surest regeneration. 

In answer to inquiries for knowledge upon pre- 
natal culture, we refer to A. E. Newton's estimable 
work upon this subject. At first we were jealous 
that such a needed work was not written by a woman, 
but we have become thankful that that man lives 
whose heart is in sympathy with the needs of the 



PRE-NATAL CULTURE. 327 

race, and was inspired to give us such words of wis- 
dom. He teaches us that we may take the crude 
metal, fashion and burnish it into a thing of beauty. 

He directs the attention especially to the truth 
that the father's responsibility to the child is equal 
to the mother's. That his life must be pure, his 
appetites subservient, and his soul filled with high 
aspirations. To attain to such a life he must avoid 
stimulating food and drink, as well as tobacco. 

Few realize the ill effects 01 the latter, especially 
upon the pregnant woman, the fetus and the infant. 
In the mother the sick headaches, nausea, and many 
nervous ailments of pregnancy are directly attribu- 
table to the effect of tobacco smoke which she must 
inhale. 

The child in utero and in the cradle, is also poi- 
soned by it. Chorea, paralysis, heart disease, con- 
vulsions, and many other maladies are the result of 
the father's tobacco habit. 

TESTIMONIALS. 

Many testimonials have been received from people 
*ho have derived benefit from following the teach- 
^r:gs of Tokology. By permission a few extracts are 
taken from letters which are only similar to hundreds 
received, giving wonderful proof of the efficacy of its 
teachings. In some families the work is used as a 
Veference book, while others loan it to. friends and 
Neighbors, keeping it on its mission of health and 
j^appiness. Frequently the writer says: '*I would 
not take $10 for my copy if I could not procure an- 
>>ther." 

One writes: *'It has been such a comfort to pre- 



328 INTERESTING TESTIMONIALS. 

pare dainty and palatable dishes for an invalid 
mother from the recipes in dietetics. It is a great 
gratification to her that she can have even pies and 
puddings that can do her no possible harm." 

Mrs. W., of Forest City, says: ''I have depended 
on Tokology for knowledge in bringing up my twin 
babies. Have taken them through attacks of croup 
and summer complaint, and have never called a 
doctor." 

Mr. J. C. A., of Henderson, Ky., says: "I have 
been afflicted twenty-five years with constipation, 
and rejoice to say I am entirely relieved by follow- 
ing the diet and exercises recommended in Tokology. 
I wish every one knew the value of these simple 
measures." 

Mrs. E. J. McElwain, of Michigan, says: "A friend 
of mine, advanced to the seventh month of preg- 
nancy, bought Tokology. She lived entirely by the 
instructions contained therein. Last Monday was 
confined. The child was born before the doctor or 
any one could get there. She is a true woman, and 
desires every woman to have the benefit of her 
experience." This is only one of many similar 
testimonials. 

Dr. E. M. Hale, of Chicago, says: **I consider 
Tokology the very best book that can be put into the 
hands of a girl or young wife." 

My Dear Dr. Stockham:— I have had three chil- 
dren, and in the delivery of each have suffered com- 
paratively no pain. With the two first the physician 
was not in the house ten minutes before the birth of 
the child, while the last was born half an hour before 
his arrival, although he made all possible haste. I 



ACCIDENTAL EXPERIENCE. 329 

had never heard anything in regard to painless child- 
birth. I never was strong, and being over thirty be- 
fore my first child was born, it was a mystery to my- 
self and friends why I should have such easy labors. 
Several months ago I read Tokology^ and then I un- 
derstood it, for accidentally I have lived according 
to its teachings. My diet was entirely of fruits and 
grains. Meats I had a positive dislike for, and never 
ate them. Lemons I craved, and would eat three or 
four a day, also all kinds of fruits. Pastries I cared 
nothing for, living on rice, oatmeal, etc., and the re- 
sult was, as you teach, a painless child-birth. One of 
my friends, Mrs. M. H., of Springfield, Ohio, in her 
first confinement, which was severe and prolonged, 
came near losing her life, with that of her babe. The 
cervix and perineum were lacerated, and her confine- 
ment was followed by inflammation and prolonged 
prostration. Her physician said she probably could 
not again become pregnant; if she did she would 
surely die. This was five years ago. Last spring 
she again conceived, and was very despondent, fear- 
ing the worst. When I heard of it I sent her Tokol- 
ogy. Hopefully she began following its teachings. 
She was amply repaid by being safely delivered, com- 
paratively without pain, and having no subsequent 
illness, in her own language, ''feeling so well, it 
seemed an absurdity to remain in bed." I have 
known several others who have followed Tokology^ 
and in each case it has proved equally successful. 
Hov/ I wish that every pregnant woman could have 
this grand work. I know then that the agony so 
many women endure would be prevented. 

Mrs. S. a. Goff, Lincoln. Kan, 



330 A FEW weeks' training. 

Dear Doctor:— I am astonished at the benefits 
derived from Tokology. I had the book only a few 
weeks before confinement; when I procured it my 
feet were so bloated I could scarcely walk across the 
room. I followed the advice In the book faithfully, 
and in a short time got so smart I could do my work 
with ease. The night before confinement I walked 
two miles and came home, feeling well. I got up In 
the morning and gathered up my clothes for wash- 
ing, but soon found I had other business on hand. 
At lO o'clock A. M. I had a nice little daughter; was 
sick only one hour, and no very hard pain. Always 
before, my sickness at such times had been long and 
severe; have lain unconscious for hours. My re- 
covery, too, from previous labors, has been very lin- 
gering. This time in five days I was dressed and 
stood upon my feet; in two weeks was able to take 
care of my child, and do much besides. No money 
could buy my book from me. I most cheerfully give 
my experience for the benefit of others. 

Mrs. Maggie Mead, 

Friend, Neb. 

To Doctor Stockham, wnom I call my best 
friend: — When about three months advanced in preg- 
nancy I bought Tokology. My health was very poor; 
I w^as a constant sufferer. My children had all been 
weak and puny, and died when from three to six 
months old. With the last I lost my own health; 
many said I would not live to have another child. I 
have followed the directions of Tokology to the letter. 
From the first my health improved, and I had a com- 
fortable confinement. The contrast to the previous 



SATISFACTORY RESULTS. 33 1 

labors was as day is to night. I can truly say I owe 
my life to Tokology. Could I not get another, I 
would not take $100 for it. I wish every woman 
knew the value of the work as I do. 

Mrs. a. R. Stewart, 

St. Paul, Minn. 

My Dear Miss Stockham: — In presenting me 
your mother's book, you add another one to your 
many kind and thoughtful deeds, which will aid me 
wonderfully in my mission as wife and mother. To- 
kology contains a wealth of enlightenment calculated 
to promote all that is pure and noble. You and your 
mcther are truly great philanthropists. 

Marie F. Bornefeld, 

Galveston^ Tex. 

Dear Dr. Stockham: — My delivery was the 
shortest and easiest I ever had. The Lord was good 
to me in giving me what I needed. Tokology proved 
a great blessing, as my health improved all the time. 
I have a fine little girl, who is perfectly healthy. I 
can, with good conscience, recommend Tokology. My 
sister officiated as midwife by the instructions in the 
book, though previously entirely inexperienced, and 
did well. How can any one help understanding your 
plain directions.'* I feel very grateful that Tokology 
ever came into my hands. Some of the suggestions 
are invaluable. Bathing the babe in sweet oil worked 
like a charm. "Not tying the cord," of which some 
were fearful, worked nicely. I thank the Lord for 
giving you the power to write such a valuable book. 

Mrs. L. a. Sherman, 

Litc/ifieldy III. 



332 CURSE OF SUFFERING REMOVED, 

My Dear Mrs. Talbot: — Your invaluable gift, 
Tokology^ reached me Christmas morning. I was in 
bed, suffering intensely from uterine disease. I eag- 
erly grasped the book and read as I never did be- 
fore. Many times I have said that God had shown 
no consideration iov frail^ delicate vioxnQn'y that bear- 
ing children was a blight to womanhood and a curse 
to the marriage vow. Why was this? My heart has 
been in one life-long rebellion. I could not be re- 
signed to the agony endured by wives and mothers. 
I knew there was something terribly wrong. Tokol- 
ogy has solved the problem for me. You cannot im- 
agine how happy it has made me. Already I begin 
to feel the joy of returning health. I want all my 
friends and neighbors to have the book. My parents 
and sisters must read it. I can never tell what a 
blessing your gift has bestowed on me and us, I 
thank you a thousand times. 

S. L. PiGGOTT, 
Skreveporty La, 

The following is a P. S. to a business letter from a 
lawyer: — Mrs. K. wishes me to add that she faith- 
fully followed your instructions in regard to fruit 
diet and sitz-baths, and owes you very much for good 
results obtained. The doctor did not reach the house 
until half an hour after the child was born. She 
really experienced but one severe pain, while our first 
child caused her much suffering. We are both grate- 
ful for the science you teach. W\ F. K., 

HuroUy Dak, 

My Dear Doctor: — In all previous confinements 
I had very severe after-pains; when I asked the doc- 



AFTER-PAINS REMOVED. 333 

tor for something to give relief, he replied unfeelingly 
that this is nature's method of restoringthe womb to 
its natural condition, and that our first mother had 
no medicine for after-pains. Thanks to Tokology^ I 
had no after-pains this time. I followed the fruit and 
grain diet, often using three lemons a day. I always 
took a glass of hot lemonade before breakfast. How 
good of a woman to write these things as you have 
done for women. Yours truly, 

Mrs. K. J., 

Louisville^ Ky, 

The following is from an experienced physician: 
Dear Doctor: — I am glad to add my testimony 
to the truths of Tokology. I was past thirty-five when 
I first became pregnant, but by hygienic training 
before and during pregnancy, I bore three children 
without suffering. I ate food containing little or no 
bone-forming material. Every day took plenty of 
exercise; gardening, walking, gathering fruit, etc. I 
was careful that my dress caused no restriction about 
my waist, abdomen or hips, not wearing even one band- 
to an under-garment. I took sitz-baths before retir- 
ing, and during the entire pregnancy enjoyed perfect 
health. Still, on account of my age, I fully expected 
some suffering in child-birth. 

On the morning of the 3d of December I noticed 
painless contraction of the uterus, recurring regularly 
every hour, the intervals gradually shortening to 
twenty minutes, by night. I spent the evening very 
pleasantly entertaining company, no one suspecting 
I was in labor. I went to bed and slept until 11 
o'clock, when I was awakened by a positive expulsive 
effort; still no pain. I aroused my husband, asking 



334 DR. LARKIKS' TESTIMONY. 

bim to prepare a hot sitz-bath, which was very grate- 
rul. He v/as anxious to call the doctor and nurse, 
and also to arouse my mother, who was in the house, 
but I assured him it was too soon. Although I had 
lived carefully, I fully believed I must suffer, and I 
begged him to disturb no one until I became sick. 

In a few minutes I felt I must arise from the sitz- 
bath, and quickly knelt beside a chair. The next 
expulsive effort brought a welcome little stranger. I 
poured my heart out in gratitude for the knowledge 
that had brought about such wonderful results. With 
my own hands I tied the cord and removed the 
placenta. I fixed myself nicely in bed and enjoyed 
the washing and dressing of my own darling with true 
motherly delight. My own mother in an adjoining 
room knew nothing of the event until all was over. 
The second day I was out doors, and the third I took 
a short ride to visit a patient who needed a minor 
surgical operation. 

When my second child was born we had just made 
the trip by steamer from New York to San Fran- 
cisco. We had been out to an evening lecture, and 
were guests at a Water Cure, separated from our 
baggage. I had slept quietly about an hour, when I 
became aware that I must arouse my husband to go 
for one trunk with all possible speed. Although he 
had to go only a short distance, which he accom- 
plished in haste, the child was born without pain 
while I was entirely alone. I really felt no need of 
assistance. With the dear oy who has blessed every 
hour since his advent, we continued the journey to 
Santa Cruz the third day of his life, with no bad 
results. 



ABSOLUTE FREEDOM IN DRESS. 335 

My third child was born with only half an hour's 
painless expulsive effort, and, as usual, I was up and 
out doors the second day after. 

If women could be made to understand what is 
gained by absolutely dressing the waist free from any 
pressure or constriction, we could hopefully predict 
a near millennium of safety and freedom of pain in 
child-birth. It seems almost hopeless to convince 
any lady that the bands of her skirts and drawers are 
any detriment to her in the performance of natural 
functions. I have known of hundreds of cases where 
natural conditions have brought about results similar 
to my own experience. * *"' * 

I must take from my diary one case, a strong proof 
of the truths taught in Tokology, Mrs. H., of Phila- 
delphia, in the fifth month of pregnancy placed her- 
self under my care. She was married at thirty-five, 
and soon became pregnant. At her full term, sur- 
geons discovered deformity of the pelvis, and were 
forced to perform craniotomy and instrumental deliv- 
ery. She was told she never could give birth to a 
living child. Twice subsequently, by eminent sur- 
geons, abortion was produced, in order to save her 
life. In this last pregnancy she was told that her 
constitution was so undermined it would be certain 
death to destroy the fetus, and she had better take 
her chances by going full term. She came under my 
care with the expectation of only four months of life, 
very feeble, and a great sufferer. I was never more 
determined that any one should have the advantage 
of the truths of Tokology. I kept her out doors lying 
on a cot, and had her practice deep breathing and 
gymnastics. Three times daily she had thorough 



336 A GRATEFUL WOMAN. 

massage, taking cool sitz-baths frequently. She soon 
began to take short walks, although when she came 
she was unable to cross the room alone. Previous to 
the birth of the child, she could walk with ease a mile 
before partaking of her breakfast of fresh fruit. 
Although deformed and apparently a physical wreck, 
by reliance upon these simple methods only, discard- 
ing all drugs, she brought forth a living child with 
only a few hours of suffering. She has ever since 
been a proud, healthy, happy mother. May God 
bless you, dear doctor, in your mission of good health 
to women. Ever faithfully, 

Harriet H. Larkins, M. D., 

Wright J Dickey Co., Dak, 

A grateful woman writes: — My reason for wishing 
to sell Tokology is this: Twice I went down to death, 
suffering all the agony a woman can suffer and live. 
For what? Only to receive into my aching arms a 
piece of lifeless clay. 

The last time I was pregnant I stumbled upon 
Tokology, and followed its teachings. The result is a 
beautiful living daughter. These are glad tidings of 
great joy. MRS. Geo. N. Jarvis, 

Arapahoe, Neb. 

The following letter is from a lady well known in 
philanthropic work. She says, — I wish to give you 
the praise and credit of assisting me in obtaining 
such an easy confinement, and such rest and good 
health the last three months of pregnancy. I think 
it was remarkable, in view of my age (forty years), 
and the length of time (fourteen years) since I had 
borne a child. I was very poorly the first three 



A TEMPERANCE WORKER'S WORDS. 33/ 

months. During my absence at Detroit, where I had 
been attending the W. C. T. U. Convention, one of 
your circulars was sent to me. At the urgent solici- 
tation of my family I obtained the book. I am very 
thankful for it. It has been of untold help to me. 
From the first it gave me great encouragement. 

I took a bath every other night. My food con- 
sisted of graham gems, lean meats, cooked fruits and 
a little hot water and cream. I ate nothing from my 
noon dinner until morning, and slept much betterat 
night. Women eat too much. If they would only 
try, they would soon get over that feeling of hunger 
of which they complain. One thing they should in- 
sist upon, and that is to sleep alone for at least the 
last three months. The last night I slept well, arose 
in the morning and assisted in preparing the break- 
hst. After the meal was over, I sent for the nurse 
3 *d physician, who arrived about nine o'clock. Be- 
N v;e eleven o'clock I had a beautiful nine-pound baby. 

I had passed through my confinement with such 
'* ^ nfort that I could but wish that all mothers might 
^!v> likewise, and that I could have read your book 
twenty-five years earlier. It would have saved me 
"|reat suffering and trouble. 

Mrs. M. a. Luley, 

SL Patd^ Minn. 

Mrs. Prof. Kinzie, of Emporia, Kansas, writes: 
>IRS. A. B. Stockiiam, M. D.: 

Dear Madajn, — By direction of my physician, I 
iollowed the laws of health as given in your valua- 
i)ie book, and feel amply repaid. 

Ten years ago, in my first confinement, I suffered 
iorty-eight hours, twenty-four of hard labor, and in 



338 THE MILLENNIUM FOR WOMEN. 

this second confinement not even one hour. This 
was no comparison to the first. My baby (now four 
months old) is the picture of good health, and I am 
myself more than ordinarily well. 

My diet was of fruit and vegetables, with graham 
mush for breakfast. I was very regular the last three 
months with my sitz-baths, taking them just before 
retiring, and finding them very quieting. 

I took a walk every day for the first seven months. 
After that my only exercise was my housework. I 
wish that this valuable book could reach all. If any- 
thing I have said will help some poor mortal, I shall 
be very glad to have you use my words. 

Occasionally it has been reported to me that wo- 
men following the teachings of Tokology in pregnancy 
have failed in securing desired results. Almost Inva- 
riably In such cases investigation has proven that 
some of the directions have not been followed. 
Nearly always th.Q fruit diet has been adopted quite 
faithfully, and sitz-baths taken as directed. Often no 
special change has been made in dresSy the exercises 
and the hot bath at confinement have been omitted, 
and the teachings in Chap. XL entirely ignored. 

These are all equally important with diet and bath- 
ing The millennium for women, so far as health is 
concerned, would be at hand if they could be con- 
vinced of the injurious results of corsets, bands and 
heavy skirts. These must be discarded. There is no 
compromise if one desires the physical development 
so essential to healthy child-bearing. 

The stock-raiser would not allow one single girth 
around a mare in foal that in any way restricted res- 



REASONS FOR FAILURES. 330 

piration, digestion and circulation, lest the mare or 
her offspring be injured. In the physical life of 
woman she is just as amenable to the laws of nature 
as is the animal 

If a man were to exchange and wear his wife's 
clothing, for one month, only he would show more in- 
terest that the mother of his child should avoid the 
deleterious influence of the fashionable dress. The 
natural and artistic lines of the body must be pre- 
served to insure the noble attributes and capacities 
of motherhood. 

Exercise \^ especially essential in pregnancy. Those 
recommended in Tokology increase the capacity of 
the pelvis and abdomen, develop the muscles to be 
used m parturition, aid digestion, and equalize cir- 
culation. 

Many ladies, following faithfully the directions for 
exercise, have been very lax in regard to diet and 
baths, and yet brought about remarkable results in 
having an easy delivery. Several instances have 
come to my knowledge of ladies who, having taken 
elocution lessons during pregnancy, and with these 
lessons a thorough course of gymnastics, have brought 
about a natural delivery, where labor previously had 
been prolonged and severe. These were persons who 
had no knowledge of special baths ox fruit diet. 

The following interesting letter is from an intelli- 
gent lady who is selling Tokology as missionary 
work: 

Dear Dr. Stockham:— -Be sure to tell the ladies 
the importance of exercise during pregnancy. Many 
are blinded to any measure save \hQ fruit diet. I had 
Tokology only the last six weeks of pregnancy. Fre- 

22 



540 RESULTS FROM EXERCISE. 

vious to that I had exercised very little. As soon as 
I read the work I began gymnastics and walking; 
took sitz-baths to remove any lameness caused. I 
also went up and down stairs a great deal, following 
directions in Tokology. To the very last week I con- 
tinued canvassing for your valuable work. I had paiu" 
less contractions of the uterus every few moments 
during the entire day. 

After eating my supper and refusing to play cro- 
quet, as I had an engagement^ I hastened to my room 
to prepare for the arrival of the little stranger. The 
contractions began to cause some pain. I made use 
of the hot sitz-bath, and it gave wonderful relief. I 
remained in the bath a long time, until I became so 
sleepy it was necessary to go to bed. I had no hard 
pain. The expulsive efforts were not as painful as 
the first contractions, and those I had were in the 
abdomen. After three bearing-down pains I laid 
down, and the fourth pain brought the child from the 
uterus into the world, and without any of that tear- 
ing pain usoally experienced. All was over at 10:30 
o'clock. 

This was my third boy. With both of the others 
I was in labor all night and half of the next day, and 
took chloroform for hours, the agony was so unbear- 
able. Each time i was so sore and weak afterward 
I could not move myself in bed. This time I could 
move nght away to any part of the bed; and the 
next day sat up to eat food three times. I had my 
nurse only four days, while each time before I could 
not do without her under three weeks. I was out 
selling Tokology in less than two weeks, and can as- 
sure you, dear Doctor, I never did any work with 



EFFECTS OF INDURATION. 34I 

guch a good will as this. It is taking a blessed truth 
to women. Sincerely your friend, 

Mrs. G. E. Brown, 
Las Animas^ CoL 

It is probable, if a woman has had inflammation and 
ulceration of the womb a long time, that she will be 
unable to bring about conditions to insure a painless 
labor. This is true, especially, if caustic treatment 
has been resorted to, resulting in induration. In such 
a case, a course of hygienic treatment during preg- 
nancy will be valuable, but to restore the parts to 
their normal conditions may require years of right 
living. 

I must again emphasize the need of continence be- 
tween husband and wife during pregnancy. A lady 
physician in Iowa relates many interesting cases 
where labor was rendered almost painless, simply by 
the continent life. Her theory is, that the repeated 
contractions of the vaginal walls and vulva render 
them unyielding, and consequently there is absolute 
mechanical obstruction to the passage of the head. 
The theory is certainly worthy of consideration. 

I have long been thoroughly convinced that sexual 
intercourse during pregnancy is entirely inimical to 
the best conditions for maternity. The natural re- 
pugnance that most women have for the act during 
fetal growth, ought to cause right-minded people 
serious thought. 

Col. A. B. Meacham, who has spent much time 
among the Modocs, says: "There is a tradition 
among them that the Great Spirit blew his breath 
upon a maiden, and said to her that she should be- 



342 INDIAN TRADITION, 

come the mother of the son of the Great Spirit. He 
forbade her to look upon the face of man until the 
child was born. To this day no Indian woman of 
the tribe who is to become a mother, ever looks upon 
the face of man." 

Is it not possible that here is one potent reason 
that Indian women have so little suffering in child- 
birth.^ May not the intelligent white man learn a 
lesson of purity, of self-abnegation, as well as of 
honor to his wife and offspring, from the untutored 
savage."* 

We are counseled by eminent physicians, like Ac- 
ton, Gerrish, Cowan and Winslow, that the continent 
life gives to the individual the best physical develop- 
ment, the greatest intellectual strength and the high- 
est moral excellence, as well as promotes conditions 
for the improvement of the race. 

Prof. Huxley says: "That man has had a liberal 
education who has been so trained in youth that his 
body is the ready servant of his will -^s- * * * 
and who, no stunted ascetic, is full of life and fire, but 
whose passions are trained to come to heel by a vig- 
orous will, the servant of a tender conscience." 

Dr. F. H. Gerrish says: "Man's procreative energy 
should be to him a sacred trust, to be kept inviolate, 
and to be used only with the distinct and definite 
purpose of perpetuating his kind. His children would 
never be accidents, but begotten intentionally, at a 
time when both parents are in good physical and 
mental condition." 

Further, in opposing the prevalent opinion that 
continence is a cause of disease, he says: "I very 
much doubt if a member of this association ever had 



THE BETTER WAY. 343 

to treat a disease resulting from chaste continence. I 
would emphasize the adjective, for nothing but harm 
can come from the excitement dependent on the con- 
stant or frequent entertainment of lewd imaginings, 
even if one abstain altogether from sexual indul- 
gence. 

Rev. N. E. Boyd says: *'Men need all their vital 
force not required in fatherhood, for the performance 
of the labors, material, mental and moral, whereunto 
they are called." 

A well-known author testifies: ''Beyond doubt, as 
men now live, continence is almost impossible. They 
drug themselves with tobacco and excite themselves 
with wine. They enervate their powers in heated 
rooms, and read books which arouse lascivious desires. 
Naturally, sexual passion attacks them, and if it be 
refused gratification they become fevered and rest- 
less, and declare that health demands frequent inter- 
course, and suffers without. But it is not 2l physical 
necessity. Under certain conditions absolute conti- 
nence is consistent with the highest health during 
the whole lifetime. To attain this, however, one must 
live in perfect accordance with hygienic laws; he can- 
not expect to suppress one vice and yield to another." 

The following wise counsels to fathers is in a 
pamphlet entitled *The Better Way," by A. E. New- 
ton: "The matron, when once her organism has en- 
tered upon the work of developing a new life, should 
be left unmolested by intrusion in that department of 
her being. The work cannot be well performed — it 
may be woefully defaced or ruined — If the energies of 
her system are drawn upon hy additional demands 
upon the sexual organism. At all events, the intui- 



344 TESTIMONY OF EMINENT MEN. 

tion of the mother, when against the practice referred 
to, should never be violated. To abstain from all 
intrusive acts is a duty which no father can disregard 
with impunity. 

"The strength of the sexual appetite in men is 
unquestionably the grand obstacle to the improve- 
ment of the race in the manner proposed. But is 
this strength in all cases purely natural and healthy.? 
Otherwise, no one can rationally urge that its de- 
mands should be indulged to their full extent — much 
less thatthepersonal rights, the health and happiness 
of the opposite sex, and the welfare of unborn gener- 
ations, should be sacrificed to its indulgence. * * * 
Experience has proven that mastery can be attained. 
A determined will— an earnest, constant aspiration 
for power from above to overcome, with a careful 
abstinence from exciting foods, drinks^ acts and 
thoughts, and the use of appropriate means to allay 
excitement — these, persisted in, will bring the victory 
in due time.'* 

William Acton, M. R. C. S., an English physician, 
eminent in his profession, says: "True continence is 
complete control over the passions, exercised by one 
who has felt their power, and who, were it not for 
his steady will, not only could but would indulge 
them. * * * Granted, that continence is a trialy 
a sore trial, a bitter trial, if you will, what, I would 
ask, is the use or object of a trial but to try, to test, 
to elicit, strengthen and brace whatever of sterling, 
whatever of valuable, there is in the thing tried.? To 
yield at once, is this the right way to meet a trial? 
To lay down one's arms at the first threatening of 
conflict, is this a creditable escape from trial, to say 



BEST INTERESTS OF OFFSrRING. - 345 

no more? Nay, is it safe, when the trial is imposed, 
by the highest possible authority? Our object ought 
to be to preserve a pure and healthy mind in a pure 
and healthy body. Judiciously directed, training and 
exercise of both toward this definite object would, I 
am sure, in most cases, reduce the difficulty of living 
a chaste life to the minimum, and indeed render the 
conflict rather a proud and thankful sense of self- 
command than an arduous struggle. -^ "^ "^ The 
m.an who can command even his thoughts will have 
an easier task in keeping himself continent than he 
who cannot. He has great power who, when physi- 
cal temptations assail him can determinedly apply 
his mind to other subjects, and employ the whole 
force of his will in turning away from the danger.' 

Carpenter, in a late edition of his work, says to 
those who urge the wants of nature as an excuse for 
the illicit gratification of the sexual passion: "Try 
the'effects of close mental application to some enno= 
bling pursuit, in combination with vigorous bodily 
exercise, before you assert that the appetite is unre- 
strainable, and act upon that assertion." 

To parents desiring the best interests of offspring, 
these quotations from men of known scientific and 
professional reputation are worthy of careful thought. 
Lives based upon these truths will make motherhood 
desired, and offspring a blessing. 

To secure the best possible conditions for mater- 
nity, a lady should never lose sight ■ of the value of 
congenial, absorbing occupation. There should be 
no leisure to foster morbid symptoms. Having 
neither financial need nor desire for following a spe= 
cial vocation, the systematic pursuit of some study. 



34^ VALUE OF A VOCATION. 

as geology, natural history or botany, will make con- 
ditions for satisfactory pre=natal culture. 

Who knows but by throwing her whole soul into 
the search, and thus being carried out of herself by 
these ennobling pursuits, she may become the mother 
of a Humboldt, an Agassiz or an Audubon. 

A letter lies before me from a lady who had long 
been a sufferer from chronic diseases. By following 
the instructions of Tokology since her marriage, and 
for some months previous to pregnancy, she has 
overcome most of her troubles. She writes: " I 
have good news for you. Two months from now I 
expect to become a mother. The past six months' 
life has been a constant joy. I never have had such 
good health, consequently such good spirits and en- 
joyment in my work. I am now spending four or 
five hours a day in study — German and music, and at 
his earnest request, Latin, with my husband. 

**I do vay own housework, and with my sewing, 
social demands and daily walks, am busy every mo- 
ment, yet, strange to say, I never seemed to have as 
much leisure as now. We live simply, and, I believe, 
sensibly, and I try to do the things that are best 
physically and mentally for me as a mother, and for 
the little one who is now part of my life." This lady 
finds absorbing interest in training classes of young 
girls for a noble v/omanhood and motherhood. 

So many objects of philanthropic interest now ap- 
peal to every woman that there is abundant opportu- 
nity to reach out beyond self. In every di ection 
the needs of humanity demand of all who have 
hitherto been idlers, that they try theblesjedness of 
unselfish endeavor. By responding bravely to these 



SELF-HEALING. 347 

appeals in the days of prospective maternity, the 
mother will find both present and future reward. 

In pregnancy, as in chronic diseases, symptoms are 
often attributed to hnagination. It has been proven 
that the imagination or belief can create, not only 
symptoms, but actual disease. Physicians recognize 
this fact, but are slow to acknowledge the correlative 
one, that this same imagination or belief is of untold 
therapeutic value in medical practice. 

Dr. Evans says: **As thought and existence are 
identical, a change of thought must necessarily mod- 
ify our existence. To think a change in our bodily 
condition, and not merely to think about it, will de- 
termine all the living forces toward that result, as 
certainly as a stream issuing from a fountain will 
flow in another direction when we change the direc- 
tion of its channel." 

For self-healing, one can learn to abstract his 
thoughts from suffering or from the organ affected, 
so as not to sense the pain. This is somewhat dif- 
ferent from opposing the ^///power, as is usually un- 
derstood; indeed, it is rather the opposite. By an 
introversion of thought, a/^^^^^V^ condition is secured 
and maintained. Evans styles this an ^Hmpressible 
conscious state!^ 

Understanding the conditions, this state can be 
attained by any one, and while in it pain and disease, 
real only in tkoughfy can be removed. In this way 
one thinks himself out of morbid conditions. One 
then, really is only to think the opposite of his seem- 
ing condition steadily, persistently and honestly, to 
effect a change. 

When a student at Olivet College, Michigan, I 



34^ OLIVET STUDENTS. 

heard Professor Hosford lecture upon '' Health and 
Disease." He asserted that sickness could be in- 
duced by working- upon the imagination or belief. 

In support of this statement he related a case of a 
dose of flour, supposed to be ipecac, producing the 
ordinary results of that drug. Four of the fun-loving 
students determined to test this assertion. In one of 
their rambles they saw a teamster on his way to pro- 
cure lumber at a place some miles distant. They 
resolved to experiment upon him. Awaiting his re- 
turn, they stationed themselves at considerable dis- 
tances and accosted him in a friendly manner. Each 
of them, however, added to his cordial greetinj 
words of dismay at seeing him look so ill. 

To the first he stoutly denied any indisposition, 
but to the second admitted slight indigestion; the 
third found him looking miserable and suffering from 
colic. He was persuaded to stop walking beside his 
team and ride on the lumber. The fourth easily 
induced him to resign the reins, while the teamster, 
really ill at last, rode home reclining upon his load, 
unable for the rest of the day to leave his home. 

A curious experiment was tried by noted surgeons 
upon a condemned criminal. He was made to be- 
lieve that he was to be bled to death. Stretched 
upon a table, bound and blindfolded, he awaited the 
operation. The surgeon, with a sharp instrument, 
pricked his flesh to simulate the opening of an ar- 
tery. At once a small fountain, from which water 
at blood-heat flowed, was opened over the supposed 
incision; the water flowing freely at first, gradually 
became less and less copious. 

The surgeons and attendants spoke among them- 



MIND-CURE A REALITY. 349 

selves of his failing powers, of his pallor, of his loss 
of heat and pulse-beats. They questioned him mean- 
while as to these symptoms, which questioning he 
answered in full faith that his life-blood was indeed 
passing from him. He grew fainter and more faint, 
gasped for breath, and finally expired. 

If a well person can be made to believe he is ill, 
yes, and really to die of his affection, as in the case 
above noted, and also as is often noticed in an epi- 
demic, may not a sick person be led to believe he is 
well.'* Sometimes a silent suggestion of friend or 
physician to this end is more potent than the spoken 
word. In the former case the thought of the pa- 
tient unconsciously seconds the thought of the 
friend, while in the latter, argument and discussion 
rouse an opposing force. 

A pregnant woman, by ignoring her ailments, by 
abstracting from them her thoughts, by occupying 
her mind entirely, can bring about wonderful results 
in overcoming undeslred conditions. In following 
the teachings of Tokology, care must be taken that 
the mind is not directed to watching for and fos- 
tering morbid symptoms. 

The 7nindy the real self ^ controls all the functions 
pertaining to life, and its supremacy can be directed 
toward removing morbid tendencies. One can train 
the 7nind to this end. It is merely what is usually 
termed ** getting above one's self," or *' putting sor> 
row, grief and pain under one's feet." It is simpl)? 
the conquest of self and sin, as taught in different 
v/ays in religion and philosophy. Cheerfully, hope^ 
fully bring the soul into harmony with the good in the 
universe. Where there is light there can be no 



3 so HEALTH FOR ALL POSSIBLE. 

darkness, where health reigns, disease disappears. 
Learn to subordinate the body. Encourage all in- 
dications of health. By a calm trust and a restful 
faith in the Divine, sins of the body (disease) as well 
as sins of the soul may be dethroned, and health and 
happiness reign supreme. 

For the sake of human progress, may every parent 
lose sight of selfish interest, and strive to the utmost 
for all conditions that shall favor the highest good 
of offspring, " for to be well-born is the right of every 
child." 



AUTHOR'S SPECIAL REQUEST. 

The author earnestly solicits every lady who has 
followed the teachings of 7"<?/^^/<?^ during pregnancy 
to communicate the result. Her name will be sup- 
pressed if desired. For the sake of all suffering 
women she asks a faithful report upon these points: 

What has been your experience in previous labors? 

How long before your confinement did you have 
Tokology? 

What hindrances existed to your following the 
directions strictly.? 

Did you take all the exercises recommended.-' 

Did you climb stairs and walk daily.-* 

Did you follow any occupation or do housework.? 

How ..ear did you dress according to instructions.? 

Did you take the baths prescribed, and which gave 
the most relief for existing symptoms.? 

Were hot sitz-baths taken during confinement.? 

How faithfully was fruit diet followed.? 

Did you eat meat, pastry or butter.? 

Did you omit the products of the wheat.? 

How many meals 2. day were taken.? 

Did you live a continent life during the entire nine 
months.? 

Give the length and severity of labor, also condi- 
tion of child at birth, and its subsequent health.? 

Did you have trouble with the breasts or any post- 
partum disease.? 

State length of time and particulars of recovery. 

Add other items of interest, also experiences of 
other persons coming to your knowledge. 

A. B. Stockham, M. D. 
Evanston, IlL 

(350 



GLOSSARY. 

Abdominal. — Belonging to the abdomen or belly. 
Abnortnal. — Unhealthy, unnatural. 
Aconite. — Aconitum Napellus. Monk's-hood. 
Accoucheur. — Surgeon in childbirth. 
Adipose. — Fatty. 
Adjuvant. — Aid. 
Alterative. — A mild cathartic. 
Amaurosis. — Paralysis of optic nerve. 
Amenorrhea. — Suppression of the menses. 
Amjnonia. — Hartshorn. 

Amnion. — The internal membrane containing the waters and fetus- 
A?)miotic. — Pertaining to amnion. 
Anemia. — An impoverished state of blood. Bloodless. 
Anodyne. — Soothing pain. 
Anteversion. — Bending forward. 
Antiperiodic. — A remedy for intermittent affections. 
Antiphlogistic. — Counteracting inflammation. 
Antiseptic. — Preventing or retarding putrefaction. 
Anus. — Circular opening or outlet of the bowels. 
Aorta. — The great artery of the heart. 
Aperient .—'L,2i-^?iWv^^ mild cathartic. 

Aphrodisiac. — To excite sexual desire, or to increase the generative 
power. 

Aphtha. — Thrush, Infants' sore mouth. 

Apis Mellifica. — Honey bee. 

Arnica Montana. — Leopard's bane. 

Arsenicum Album. —White arsenic. 

Astringent. — Binding, contracting. 

Auricle — Upper chambers of the heart. 

Auscultation. — Act of listening to sounds in any part of the body 

Axilla, — Arm pit. 

Bacteria. — Infusoria. Microscopical insects. 

Belladonna. — Deadly nightshade. 



GLOSSARY. 353 

Benzoin. — Balsamic resin from sty rax benzoin. 

Bronchorrhea. — Increased discharge of mucus from the bronchia. 

Bryonia Alba. — White bryony. 

Calcarea Carbonica. — Carbonate of lime. 

Calenduline. — Mixture of calendula and cosmoline. 

CizwM^r/j-."— Spanish fly. 

Capillaries. — Hair-like vessels for conveying the blood from the 
arteries to the veins. 

Capsules. — Small membranous sacs. 

Cardiac. — Belonging to the heart. 

Catarrh. — A discharge from mucus surfaces of the body. 

Cathartic. — A drug that increases the action of the bowels. 

Caul. — The membranes which, not being ruptured, cover the child's 
head and face at birth. 

Cellular. — Composed of cells. 

Cellulitis. — Inflammation of the cellular tissues. 

Cervix. — Neck. 

Cervix Uteri. — Neck of the womb. 

Chamomilla Matricaria. — Wild matricaxy. Chamomile. 

Chorion — The most external membrane enveloping the fetus. 

Cindcifuga Racemosa. — Macrotis. Black cohosh. Black snake root. 

Clavicle. — Collar bone. 

Cliviacteric. — A critical period. 

Coccyx.— HexrmnoX bone of the spine. 

Cohosh. — Black snake root. Squaw root. 

Colocynthis. — Bitter cucumber. 

Congestion. — Over-fullness of blood-vessels. 

Contusion. — A bruise. 

Crural. — Belonging to the leg. 

nystitis. — Inflammation of the bladder. 

Defecation. — The act of voiding excrement or feces. 

Depurition, — Removal of impurities. 

Diagnosis. — Scientific determination of diseases. 

Diaphragm. — Breathing muscle between chest and abdomen. 

Diaphoretic. — A remedy that produces perspiration. 

Diluent. — A substance that dilutes or thins liquid. 

Diphtheria. — A malignant membranous disease of the throat. 

Diphtheritic. — Pertaining to diphtheria. 

Diuretic. — Causing increased discharge of urine. 

Duodenum. — The first part of the small intestines. 

Dystocia. — Difficult and surgical delivery. 



354 GLOSSARY. 

Eclat. — Brilliant reputation, distinction, prestige. 
Emmenagogue. — Remedy that promotes the menstrual discharge. 
Emulsify. — Soften, make milky. 
Enciente. — Pregnant. 
Enema. — Injection. 

Enteritis. — Inflammation of the intestines. 
Epidermis. — Outer skin. 

Ergot. — Smut of rye. A poisonous fungus growth. 
Etiology. — The science of the causes of disease 
Eustachian valve. — A valve of the heart. 
Excoriation.— Ps. chafing or abrasion of the skin. 
Excretion. — Anything thrown off from the system. 
Excretory. — Throwing off matter. 

Exosmosis.~-^3&'s,2^^Q. of liquids through membranes outward. 
Fallopian Tubes.— ^vXi&'s, from ovaries to uterus. Oviducts. 
Fauces. — The upper part of the throat. 
Feces. — Discharge from the bowels. Excrement. 
Fecundation. — The act of impregnation. Fertilization. 
Fetal. — Pertaining to fetus or child in the womb. 
Fetus. — Child in the womb after the fifth month. 
Fimbriated. — Fringed, finger-like. 
Flatulence. — Gases in the stomach or bowels. 
i%x.— Bend." 

Fomentation. — Warm or hot application to the body. 
Foramen Ovale. — Opening between the auricles of fetal heart. 
Friable. — Easily crumbled or broken. 
Function. — The office or duty of any organ. 
Fundus. — Body, 
Ganglia. — Nerve centers. 
Ganglionic. — Pertaining to ganglia. 
Gangrene. — The first stage of mortification. 
6^aj-/r2Vw.— Inflammation of the stomach. 
Gelsemium Sempervirens. — Yellow Jessamine. 
Gestation. — Period of growth of child in the womh 
Glairy.— lX^<t the white of an egg. 

Gravid. — From gravis, heavy. A term applied to the uterus during 
gestation. 

Gustatory. — Pertaining to taste. 

Gynecologist. — One who makes a specialty of gynecology. 
Gynecology, — The science which treats of female organs. 
Hamamelis Virginica, — Witch Hazel. 



GLOSSARY. 355 

Hemorrhoids. — Piles, Tumors in and about the anus. 
Hydrastis. — Golden seal, yellow root. 
Hygiene. — The art of preserving health. 
Hyperemia. — Excess of blood in any part, 
Ignaiia Amara. — St, Ignatius' bean. 
Impact iojt. — Hardened and packed closely. 
Impotence. — Incapable of procreating. 
Induration — Hardening. 
Infusoria. — Microscopic insects. 
Insomnia. — Sleeplessness. 
Integument. — Skin. 
Intra-uterine. — Within the uterus. 
Introversion. — Turned within. 
Ipecacuanha. — Ipecac. 
Labia. — The lips of the vagina. 

Laxative. — Remedy increasing action of the bowels. 
Liquor Amnii. — Secretion in which the fetus floats. 
Lobelia Inflata. — Indian tobacco. 
Malaise. — Discomfort. Indisposition. 
Mammary. — Pertaining to the breast. 

Massage. — Manipulation of surface and muscles for remedial 
purposes. 

Maturation. — The formation of pus. The act of maturing. 

Meconium. — First feces of infant. 

Menopause. — Change of life. 

Menorrhagia. — Profuse menstruation. 

Menstruation. — Monthly discharge of blood from the uterus. 

Mercurius Corrosivus.. — Corrosive sublimate. 

Mercurius Solubilis. — Black oxide of mercury. 

Metritis. — Inflammation of the womb. 

Metrorrhagia. — Hemorrhage of the womb. 

Miscible. — Capable of being mixed. 

Morbific— Q,z.w&\wg disease. 

Muco-sanguineous . — Composed of blood and mucus. 

Multipara. — Having had several children. 

Nux Vomica. — Stry^hnos. Vomit nut. 

Obstetrics. — Tokology. Midwifery. 

Os. — Mouth. Used as mouth of womb. 

Osmosis. — Transudation of fluids through membrane. 

Osseous.-^'^oxvj. 

Ova. — Plural of egg. 

2J 



^^6 GLOSSARY. 



«j J 



Ovary, — Almoiid -shaped body in which the ova are developed. ' 

Oviducts. — Tubes which convey the ova from ovaries to uterus. 

Ovum. — An egg. 

Oxygenation. — The process of combining with oxygen. 

Parietes. — Walls of a cavity. 

Parturition. — Childbirth. 

Pathological. — Morbid, diseased. 

Peritoneal. — Pertaining to the peritoneum. 

Perineum. — The floor of the pelvis, or space between and including 
the anus and vulva. 

Peristaltic. — The peculiar worm-like movement of the intestines. 

Peritoneum. — A membrane lining the walls and organs of the 
abdomen. 

Peritonitis. — Inflammation of lining membrane of bowels. 

Pelvic. — Pertaining to the lower part of the abdomen or pelvis. 

Phytolacca. — Pokeroot. 

Placebo. — A remedy to gratify the patient. 

Placenta. — The after-birth. 

Placenta Previa. — Placenta presenting before child-birth. 

Plethoric— YvXX habit. Fleshy. 

Podophyllum. — Mandrake. May apple. 

Portal circulation. — Venous circulation of blood from the digestive 
organs to the liver. 

Post partum. — Subsequent to childbirth. 

Primapara. — Woman who has brought forth her first child. 

Prognosis. — Prediction of the termination of a disease. 

Prolapsus. — Falling. Protrusion. 

Prolapsus ani. — Protrusion of the rectum. 

Prolapsus uteri. — Falling of the womb. 

ProlificaHQn.—OexiQ.X2X\oxi. of offspring. 

Picbes. — External part of the organs of generation covered with hair. 

Pubic. — Pertaining to the pubes. 

Puerperal. — Belonging to or consequent upon childbirth. 

Pulmonary. — Pertaining to the lungs. 

Pulsatilla Nigricans. — Wind flower. 

Purzilent. — Consisting of pus. 

Pruritus. — A skin trouble characterized by intense itching. 

Pyei7iia. — Poisoned by absorption of pus. 

Radial. — Belonging to the radius, one of the bones of the fore-arm. 

Rectum. — Lower portion of intestines. 

Renal, — Pertaining to the kidneys. 



GLOSSARY. 357 

Retroversion, — Falling backward. 

Retroverted. — Bent backward. 

Rigor. — Chilliness. Convulsive shuddering. 

SacraL — Pertaining to the sacrum, the large, triangular bone near 
the end of the spinal column. 

Saline. — Salty. 

Salivation. — Unnatural flow of saliva. 

Sanative. — Health producing. 

Sanguineous. — Bloody. 

Sanguinaria. — Blood root. 

Sanious. — Secretion tinged with blood. 

Sciatic. — Pertaining to the hip. 

Sebaceous. — Secreting fatty matter. 

Sedative. — Quieting. Soothing. 

Sedular. — Pertaining to seed. 

Sedular absorption. — Absorption of the seed or semen. 

Semen. — Secretion of the testes. 

Septic. — A substance that promotes putrefaction. Putrid. 

Septum. — Partition. 

Septicemia. — Poisoning by putrid substances. 

Serous membrane. — The lining of cavities which have no external 
opening. 

Seton. — An opening in the flesh made and continued by drawing 
through a skein of silk or linen thread or horsehair. 

Siesta. — A midday nap. 

Silicea. — Pure flint. 

Sitz-bath. — A bath in a sitting position. 

Sphinctermuscle. — Circular, contracting muscle. 

Sperm. — Seed. Fecundating principle. 

Sputa. — Matter coughed up from throat and lungs. Phlegm. 

Sterility. — Barrenness. 

Stertorious. — Stertorous. Deep. Labored. Snoring. 

Stroma. — Connective tissue. 

Strumous. — Scrofulous. 

Styptic. — An astringent. A substance that arrests hemorrhage. 

Synchronous. — Happening at the same time. 

Tampon. — A plug to arrest hemorrhage. 

Terju. — Full time of gestation. 

Testes. — Glands which secrete the semen. 

Testicle.— GVdiXiA that secretes the semen. 

Therapia, — ^Therapeutics. Remedies. 



358 GLOSSARY. 

Therapeutic. — The treatment of disease. Curative. 

Tissue. — The peculiar structure of a part. 

Tokology. — Science of midwifery. From Greek Tokos ^ childbirth 
and Logos^ discourse. 

Toxocological. — Pertaining to poisons. 

Trachea. — Windpipe. 

Transudation. — The oozing of blood through a membrane. 

Tympanitic. — Distension of abdomen. Drum-like. 

Umbilical. — Pertaining to the navel. 

Umbilicus. — The navel. The place in the abdomen from which the 
cord is removed. 

Urachus. —A ligament that sustains the bladder. 

Urinary. — Pertaining to the urine. 

Uterus. — ^Womb. — ^The organ in vs^hich the fetus is developed. 

Vagina. — Passage leading from the womb. 

Varicose Veins. — Veins permanently dilated, with accumulation of 
dark-colored blood. 

Vascular. — Relating to the bloodvessels. 

Vena Cava.— Th.Q large vein communicating with the heart. 

Venous. — Pertaining to the veins. 

Ventricle. — One of the lower chambers of the heart. 

Veratrum Album. — ^White hellebore. 

Vernix Caseosa. — Unctious material found on a new-born babe. 

Vesicles. — A small cavity or sac in the human body. 

Viable. — Capable of life. 

Viability. — Capacity of living. 

Villi. — Minute papillary elevations for absorption. 

Viscera. — Organs within the cavity of the body. 

Vulva. — Outer lips of the vagina. 

Zymotic. — Caused by fermentation. A zymotic disease is one 
caused by bacteria, or some morbific principle, acting like a ferment. 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Abortion 243 

Absolute freedom of dress 335 

Accidental experience 329 

After pains 197 

'« ramoved 333 

Agent's testimony 336 

Alcoholic stimulant. 258 

Amenorrhea 253 

Analysis of food. » 137 

Analysis of milk 213 

Aphtha 217 

Appetite, greedy 80 

" lossof - 81 

Artificial human milk 212 

Author's special request 351 

Bandage 181 

Bates Waist 103 

Bathing in pregnancy lii 

Bath, sitz 113 

« «* hot 184 

" sponge 112 

*« thermal Ii8 

" Turkish 118 

Better way 343 

Biliousness 46 

Bill of fare in pregnancy , 135 

Blue baby 31 

Breathing, waist 141 

" instructions for 142, 143 

Burning feet 85 

Cathartic drugs 57 

Caustic treatment 269 

(359) 



$60 INDEX. 

?AGS. 

Change of life 276 

Chastity in marriage. 150 

Chemiloon , 102 

Child bed fever 199 

Childbirth, painless. ... 17 

Children's rights , , . ., 151 

Climbing hills 148 

" stairs , 147 

Cohosh 187 

Colic of infants 219 

Common sense shoes 99 

Control of sex 321 

Compress, cold 116 

" " in croup 117 

Conception.,.. 28 

Constipation , 51 

** causes of 52 

*' effects of 51 

** exercise in 68 

** exercises for 69 

" of infants 222 

" treatment of 58 

Contagious diseases. 238 

*' health. „ 242 

Continence, theory of 157 

'* in pregnancy 159 

Convulsions 240 

Corsets 105 

Cramps 85 

Croup, spasmodic , 234 

" membranous 334 

Curse of suffering removed 332 

Dentition. 229 

Diarrhea in pregnancy 82 

*« of infants 224 

Diet in pregnancy 124 

Dietetics 286 

** index 365 

Difficult labor 183 

Diphtheria ,. 236 



INDEX. 361 

PAGE. 

Diseases of women 263 

Displacement of the uterus 273 

Divided skirt 103 

Dress and freedom 104 

♦« errors in ... .255, 265 

" physiological, 98 

" in pregnancy 98 

Duration of pregnancy 33 

Dysentery of infants 224 

Dysmenorrhea 254 

Dyspepsia <. 42 

Education of respiratory muscles 139 

Eight months child 36 

Embryo, development of 29 

•' growth of ., 33 

Enema, warm or hot 48 

*' for sick headache 78 

Eminent testimony 271, 234 

Entire wheat flour 61 

Equestrian tights 103 

Ergot 187 

" cause of child-bed fever 201 

Errors in dress 255, 265 

Excessofmilk 196 

Exercise in constipation 68 

** "pregnancy 138 

♦• results from 340 

Exercises in constipation 69 

" " pregnancy 144 

** for uterine diseases 267 

Excoriation ,, 218 

Excoriated nipples 194 

Experience extraordinary 133 

" Mrs. Rowbotham , 125 

** touching 156 

Fallopian tubes 26 

Fashion in deformity 108 

Fetal circulation 30 

" heart-beat 38 

** nutrition , 29, 32 



362 INDEX. 

PAGE. 

Feticide 245 

Fetus, development of 35 

Fetus, position 36 

Flatulence „,... 79 

Flour of entire wheat 61 

Fomentation, hot 1 15 

Food, analysis of 137 

" constipating 67 

*' laxative 67 

Fowler's clarion note .., 109 

Fruit diet for pregnancy, . . . . 126 

" feast on 65 

Gardening, light 139 

Glossary 354 

Greedy appetite 80 

Habits of cleanliness 209 

Headache 74 

*' enema for 78 

" sick 74 

*« and tea-drinking o . . . 74 

" remedies for. 78 

Health contagious 242 

" for all possible 350 

Heart-burn 78 

Hemorrhage 198 

" hot applications for 198 

" uterine , 279 

Hemorrhoids 79 

Hotbread 54 

" flashes 278 

«* fomentations 114 

«< water bottle 115 

" sitz-bath 184 

Hygiene in pregnancy , 90 

Hysteria 274 

Impregnation ■...». 28 

Indian tradition 342 

Induration 265 

« effectsof 34^ 

Infants 204 



INDEX, 363 



PAGE. 

Infants, art ficial food 210 

" bathing 205,209 

Infant clothing. . , , 206 

" diseases 217 

*' nursing 210 

Inflammation of the bowels 229 

Injections 48 

Insomnia , 87 

Insufficient milk , „ 194 

Instruments 188 

Labor 174 

" cohosh in „ 187 

*' difficult 183 

" ergot in 187 

*' instrumental 189 

*' natural 174 

Law of continence , 157, 324 

Law of ovulation 324 

Lesson for husbands 155 

Leucorrhea 272 

" in pregnancy , . 88 

Lime and charcoal.. 168 

Limiting offspring 323 

Liquor amnii , 31 

Lochia 197 

Longevity and lung power 142 

Longings 82 

Loss of appetite 81 

Lucrative work , 96 

Lung power 142 

Magnetism 84 

Mammary abcess 193 

*' glands 28 

Measles ...239 

Meat-fed children 215 

Meddlesome midwifery , 178 

Membranes, fetal , 31 

Menopause 276 

Menorrhagia 260 

Menstruation ,..-.,, ,,,,,, ., , . 253 



364 ' INDEX. 

PAGB. 

Menstruation, cessation of , 37 

Metrorrhagia , 198 

Milk, analysis of 213 

" artificial human , 212 

" excess of 196 

" insufficient 194 

" for nursing mothers , 195 

Military position . o 144 

Mind cure 275, 347 

Morning sickness. ...... , 44 

Mothers overtaxed 92 

Natural remedies , 282 

Nausea 44 

Navel, dressing of 205 

*' pouching of ;,« 206 

Neuralgia 83 

" treatment for 84 

Nutrition of the fetus 29 

Obstetric harness 177 

Offspring, best interests of 345 

Olivet students 348 

Opiates , 220 

Ovaries 25 

Oviducts 26 

Ovulation, law of 324 

Pack, wet sheet , 225 

" infant 225 

Pains in the side 86 

Painless childbirth 17 

Pathological symptoms 39 

Parturition 174 

" without pain , 17 

Peritoneum 27 

Perspiration, profuse. . . , , 279 

Physicians' opinions c 19, 271 

Piles 79 

Placenta 30 

" adhered , 180 

Post partum diseases 190 

" ** treatment I90 



INDEX. 365 

PAGE. 

Pouching navel 206 

Pre-natal culture - 327 

Pregnancy, diseases of 42 

" dress in 98 

*' duration of 33 

* * hygiene of 90 

*' signs of 37 

** rest in 169 

Princess garment 102 

Prophecy for the future 97 

Pruritus 89 

Puerperal fever 199 

" " treatment of 202 

" peritonitis 199 

" septicemia 202 

Quickening 38 

Regulating sex of offspring 321 

Removal of placenta 180 

Rest in pregnancy 169 

Rigidity of integument 87 

Rights of children .., 151 

Rubber nipples 214 

Saliva, excessive secretion 80 

Salt rheum , 122 

Satisfactory results , . , . 331 

Scarlet fever 238 

Self healing 275, 281, 349 

Septicemia , . 202 

Siesta, daily 169 

Sitz-bath , 113 

" hot 184 

Sleeplessness , 87 

Soap suppositories 223 

Social evil 153 

Sponge bath , 112 

Stairs, climbing 147 

Stanton, E. C, testimony of 172 

Summer complaint , . . . 225 

Swelling of limbs 86 

Table of foods 67 



366 TNDEX. 

PAGB. 

Tea and sick hsadacbe. , 74 

Temperance worker's words , 337 

Testimonials 327 

Terry's theory , 322 

Thermal bath 118 

Thury's theory 322 

Tight lacing. ...,.., 109 

Umbilical cord , 31 

•' " treatmentof ,,,. 179 

Union undergarments loi 

" *' patterns of 102 

Unwelcome children 154 

Urine, incontinence of 233 

** retention of . . . . 233 

Uterus 26 

** inflammation of 263 

" ulceration of 264 

Uterine diseases 263 

'* ligaments 27 

Vagina 27 

Ventilation 163 

** in bedrooms 164 

Vocation, value of 346 

Weaning, time for 215 

Wheat, rolled or cracked 64 

Wheatlet 64 

Whooping cough 240 

Wiser parenthood , 326 

Worms «..,, .«••. • 332 



INDEX OF DIETETICS, 



PACK. 

Apples, baked 318 

Apple pie cake 315 

Apple snow. '. 318 

Apple tapioca pudding , 312 



INDEX OF DIETETICS. 36/ 

PAGE. 

Asparagus on toast 308 

Baked apples 318 

Baked eggs 310 

Baked Indian pudding 313 

Baked macaroni 319 

Baked milk 290 

Baked pears 318 

Baked pie plant -. 318 

Barley coffee 289 

Beef tea 288 

Blanc -mange, farina 31 1 

" fruit 319 

<« wheatlet 297 

Boiled eggs 309 

Boston brown bread 303 

Bran gruel 290 

" jelly , 294 

Bread 300 

" Boston brown ^ 303 

" corn 303 

" graham 303 

" unleavened 302 

" white, with yeast. , 304 

Breakfast patties 307 

Broiled oysters 311 

Broth, chicken 292 

Brown gems 3^2 

Browned rice 299 

Buckwheat cakes 306 

Buttermilk 291 

Buttermilk pop 292 

Cake 315 

<' apple pie 315 

** coraline 316 

*« eureka sponge 316 

" graham , 316 

" huckleberry 317 

Cereals 295 

Chicken broth 392 

Cracked wheat 296, 



368 INDEX OF DIETETICS. 

PA6B. 

Cracked wheat pudding. 311 

Crackers, graham 305 

** *' fruit 305 

Cracker omelet , 320 

Codfish toast 307 

Coffee, wheat, oat or barley 289 

Coraline cake 316 

Corn bread 303 

Corn griddle cakes 306 

Corn meal gruel 290 

*' mush pudding 313 

" tea 289 

Dessert, strawberry 314 

Drinks for the sick 286 

Eggs as food 308 

<' baked 310 

*' escalloped 310 

'* boiled 309 

Egg lemonade 287 

" omelet 310 

*' poached 309 

*' " in milk 309 

*' scrambled 310 

*' steamed 310 

" on toast 308 

Escalloped eggs 310 

Eureka sponge cake 316 

Farina blanc-mange „ 311 

" mush... , 296 

*• soup 293 

Flaxseed lemonade 287 

Fruit blanc-mange 319 

" ice 319 

'* sauce 317 

Gelatine, lemon , . . , 294 

Gems, brown 302 

" graham 301 

«' oatmeal and graham 302 

" white flour 302 

Gem toast , 307 



INDEX OF DIETETICS. 369 

PAGB. 

Graham biscuit 302 

*' best light biscuit „ 303 

" bread 303 

" Cake 316 

" crackers 305 

" fruit crackers 305 

" fruit roll 317 

'* gems 301 

'* gem pudding 311 

'* gruel 290 

i* muffins 301 

" mush 296 

'* wafers 305 

Granula , 297 

Gravy 319 

Griddle cakes, buckwheat 306 

" corn ,.. 306 

" rice 299,306 

" shorts 306 

" wheatlet 306 

Gruel, bran 290 

" corn meal 290 

'* graham 290 

" oatmeal 290 

" rice 289 

Gum Arabic water 287 

Hominy 297 

Hot milk 291 

Huckleberry and bread pudding 313 

'* cake 317 

Ices, fruit 319 

Indian meal fruit pudding 312 

*' mush 296 

Jelly, bran nutrina „ 294 

" lemon. , 292 

" sago 294 

" sago currant 294 

" water 287 

Lemonade 286 

*' egg 287 



370 ^ INDEX OF DIETETICS. 

PAGE, 

Lemonade, flaxseed 287 

" hot 286 

Lemon gelatine 294 

" jelly 293 

Macaroni, baked , ... 319 

" soup 293 

" stewed ; 319 

Milk, baked 290 

" hot 291 

*' porridge.... 290 

" toast '. 307 

Mother's apple pudding 313 

Muffins, graham , 301 

Muffins, rice 305 

Mush, farina ^ 296 

*' graham 296 

" Indian meal 296 

*' oatmeal 296 

'* wheatlet 297 

Nutrina , 294 

Oat coffee 289 

Oatmeal cake 303 

" gruel 290 

•' and graham gems 302 

*• mush 296 

" snaps 304 

" tea 287 

Omelet, cracker, 320 

" egg , 310 

** rice 299 

Orange pudding 312 

*' whey 286 

Oysters, broiled .^^ 311 

" raw 310 

" stewed 311 

Oyster toast 307 

Patties, breakfast 307 

Peaches 3^7 

Pears, baked , 318 

Pie- plant, baked 318 



INDEX OF DIETETICS. 3/1 

PAGE. 

Pies 314 

Pie for dyspeptics 314 

Pie, strawberry 314 

Plum pudding ^ 313 

Poached eggs 309 

" in milk 309 

Porridge, milk 290 

Pudding, apple tapioca 312 

baked Indian 313 

corn mush „ 313 

cracked wheat 311 

graham gem 311 

huckleberry bread 313 

Indian fruit , 312 

mother's apple, 313 

orange 312 

plum 313 

rice 312 

*' and apple 298 

" " berry 299 

wheatlet and apple 297 

Puree of split peas 293 

Raw oysters 310 

Rennet whey 286 

Rhubarb toast 308 

Rice and apple pudding 298 

" '* berry " 299 

♦« boiled. „ 300 

" browned 299 

" cream 299 

" griddle cakes 299, 306 

' " gruel 289 

*' Japanese 300 

'* muffins 305 

*' omelet 299 

'• pudding 312 

" and raisins 298 

** snow „ 298 

«* snowballs 298 

Rolled wheat 296 

24 



3/2 INDEX OF DIETETICS. 

PAGE. 

Sago, currant jelly. . = „. ., . , 294 

Sago, jelly 294 

" milk ^ 287 

Scalloped tomatoes. 320 

Scrambled eggs 310 

Snaps, oatmeal 304 

Soup, farina 293 

" macaroni 293 

" tomato , 293 

'* pea 293 

Steamed eggs 310 

Stewed macaroni 319 

Stewed oysters 311 

Snowballs, rice 298 

Snow, apple 318 

" rice 298 

Strawberry dessert 314 

pie 314 

" short-cake 315 

Tamarind water '. 288 

Tea, beef 288 

" corn - 289 

*' oatmeal 287 

Toast, asparagus on 308 

" codfish 307 

" eggs on 308 

" gem 307 

" milk 307 

" oyster 307 

*' rhubarb 308 

" tomato 308 

Toast water 287 

Tomatoes, scalloped 320 

Tomato soup 293 

" toast • 308 

" with corn 320 

Unleavened bread 302 

Wafers, graham. 3^5 

Wheat coffee 289 

" cracked 296 



INDEX OF DIETETICS. 373 

PAGE. 

Wheat, rolled 296 

Wheatlet and apple pudding 297 

" blanc-mange 397 

" griddle cakes 306 

" mush r 297 

" pudding 297 

Whey, orange 286 

" rennet 286 

White flour bread 304 

" " gems 302 

Water, gum Arabic 287 

jelly 287 

" tamarind , 288 

** toast 287 



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T'#%l#'#%i <#%#^'%# A Book for Every Woman, by 
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TOKOLOGY. 

PHYSICIANS' TESTIMONIALS. 



ToKo'LoGT by AxiOE B. Stookham is one of the few works of the kind worth buying. 
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tn saying it is among the best in existence. For conciseness, brevity and clearness of 
statement, it is simply unrivalled.— J. B. Hettinger, M. D., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Tokology commends itself to every thinking person. An excellent work teaching 
truths of vital importance to all classes. The book should be in the hands of every man and 
woman.— C. I. Thatcher, M. D., Chicago, IlL 

I have examined Tokology and believe it to be just what it purports to be a hook 
for every looman. Every woman would be greatly benefitted to study it.— M. S. Rogers, 
M. D., Galveston, Tex. 

Tokology ought to be read by every mother and maturing girl— as well as by all tho 
rest of ti linking people.r-C. E. PAGE, M D^ author of Consumption and now to feed 
THE BABY. — New York. 

The work is worthy the warm reception and large sales the people have given it.— C .E„ 
BoLMAN, M. D., Chicago, 111. 

The author has got into 364 pages of this volume the quintescence of social science. 
The work contains no sentimentality but abounds in plain, pointed, stern facts. No woman 
can enter the marriage relation and enjoy the acme of happiness which that relation affords 
without tho knowledge of this book. If you want to play your part in the economy of na- 
ture road Tokology, study it, practice it, live it. The world will be bettered byyoul 
presence, and the children born to you will mark an era in the worlds liistory.— W. H. 
Hale, M. D., Washington, D. C. 

My dear Dr. Stookham.— I have just finished reading your valuable book. You have 
done a work most needed. If humanity is to live at all, a new departure must be made. 
You have plainly and consciensciously done your work to remove the Durden of sin and 
suffering from woman.— Mary S. G. Nichols, M. D., London, Eng. 

I most heartily recommend Tokolog-s to every man and woman. The home is not 
complete without it.— Dr. James A. Bliss, Boston, Mass. 

1 congratulate you upon the success your book must have, it is so worthy. How 
attractive you have made this book to every woman, and how adapted to her needs!— 
Caroline B. Winslow, M. D. 

I am glad you have written Tokology. It must do an immense amount of good. Tho 
chapter on dress is alone worth the price of the book. I hope it will have a large sale as it 
well deserves and is so much needed.— Harriet Judd Sartain, M. D., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Dr. Stookham's "Book for every woman" is worthy of careful perusal,a gem worthy to 
bo placed in every household.— E. A. Romey, M. D., Big Rapids, Mich. 

We think Tokology a very valuable book. The chapter on "fruit diet" in pregnancy 
worth the entire price of the book.— J, S. Hour, M.D., L. N. Pettwood, M.D ,Watseka,Ill. 

Tokology is just the book for the masses. It is carefully and scientifically prepaiod 
It is chaste in tone, yet full of plain truths —A, B. Spinney, M. D., Detroit, Mich. 

This admirable work Tokologs by Dr. STOOKHAif should interest every true woman 
xod cannot fail lo do good.— C. P Donelson, M, D., Muskegon, Mich. 

Hundreds of Physicians have said that Tokology is t^ie very besi book that can be pu*- 
>nto the hands of a girl or a young wife. 



PAINLESS PARTURATION FOSSIBIiE. 

Mrs. W. E. Steckbauer, Calumet, Mich., Dec. 
13, 1895: When about three months advanced 
in pregnancy I began living according to Tok- 
olog"y and the result was a painless childbirth 
and a lovely hearty child who has never been 
sick a day. When she was 15 months old I again 
became pregnant. Being alone I was obliged to 
omit the sitz baths and some of the exercises. I 
did all my housework besides caring for baby. I 
had just finished housecleaning, had company 
until lip. m., went to bed tired and fell right to 
sleep. About two o'clock I awoke my husband, 
He went immediately for the doctor and nurse. 
Before three o'clock a great big hearty boy was 
born with comparatively no pain. 

Mrs. J M. Davis, Sabula, Iowa: I have two 
dear Tokolog-y babies, and during the whole nine 
months, both times, had neither ache nor pain. 
'Mrs. B. Palladay, Britton, O. T., Nov. 14, 1895: 
With my first two children I suffered intensely 
48 hours. With my last children, a pair of twins, 
girls, I went strictly by Tokolog-y (which I value 
next my bible) eating fruit and vegetables. The 
fourth day of this month I woke up after a few 
hours sleep and felt short sharp pains, my bowels 
moved and as it was three weeks sooner than I 
expected I could not believe it was labor, still I 
had my husband get a hot bath ready and got 
into the bath alone, got out alone, by that time I 
found labor was half over. I just got on my bed 
when with one expulsive effort (not a particle of 
pain) a child was born. I did not pull, push or 
suffer. My husband who was unwillingly pressed 
into service, hardly had time to lay aside the 
first before a second one set up a lusty cry. It 
was about thirty minutes from the time of first 
pain until both children and after-births 
were expelled. No pain, no prostration, no doc- 
tor bills. Both children are hearty, well and 
good. No trouble with breasts or anything else. 
Got up and dressed the sixth day. How 
I would love to shake hands with you Doc- 
tor and thank you for the good you have 
done and will in the future do. 

Mrs. H. L. Crate, Kenosha, Wis.: If I were 
going to give 100 wedding presents, I would give 
them all Tokology. 



TEE STRIKE OF A SEX! 

A NOVEL, 

By QEORQE N. MILLER. 

F^ORTIETH THOUSAND. 



The Strike of a Sex is a facinating novel bearing upon 
the ethics of marriage and more especially the sexual 
relation. While both interesting and attractive it Is a 
bold protest against the customary life of most married 
people and at the same time a prophesy of happier condi- 
tions between man and wife. 

Rev. Phcebe A. Hannafoed.— I wish it were in mypower 
to buy thousands of copies of this book and put them Into 
the hands of the women of this couutry. 

Kate Field, iw Kate FielcVs Washington .—I wish every 
thoughtful man and woman in this republic would read it. 
The au' nor has looked into the heart of woman, and with 
unspeakable love for both sexes has written the truth. 

W. H. 'RwisoiAid,, Secretary Maithusian League, London . — 
Send me two hundred and fifty copies. This makes my 
sales six thousand five hundred copies in all. 

Helen H. Gardener. —Strong, clean, vigorous work. 
The world is ready for it. 

MoNA Caird.— I cannot express my gratitude for this 
book. 

Lady Florence Dixie.— I thoroughly agree with the con- 
tents of this book. 

A Lady in CaZi/brwia.— I could not give my daughter the 
Kreutzer Sonata, but she shall read The Strike of a Sex. 

Fvblic Opinion.— "The Strike of a Sex," by George N. 
Miller, reappears in a sixth edition, a fact which shows 
that the book has received ttie appreciative and thoughtful 
recognition it deserves. Fioniapure minded and lofty 
standpoint the author discusses the marriage relation as 
It exists at present, and pleads that woman be raised to a 
position where she shall be equal with man, in which she 
shall have complete control of her own person, and shall 
be saved from the fate of a mere propagative drudge. 



Prepaid 25 CeDts. 



ALICE B. STOCKHAIVI & CO., 

56 Fifth Avenue, Chicago. . 



Dr. Alice Infant Patterns 

LONG AND SHORT CLOTHEe. 
Comfort and Simplicity Combined. 



Child can be Dressed in 
Less than Five Minutes. 



Clothing made from these are in all essentials like those 
recommended in Tokology. 

These patterns will make the entire wardrobe, including 
day and night slip, skirt with or without waist, dress with 
waist, dress with yoke, cloak, cap, etc. 

Garments made from these patterns combine all the latest 
improvements for giving the child freedom and comfort. 
Nothing is allowed to interfere with its growth or activity. 

Also the speediness with which the child can be dressed 
contributes to the comfort of mother or nurse as well as 
that of the infant. 

The wardrobe made from these can be elaborate and 
expensive, or may be simple and economical. 

Full directions with every set; also an excellent receipt 
for washing flannels. 

N. B. — The greatest merit claimed for these patterns is 
that when the child is five or six months old, the customary 
short clothes will not be required, which, of itself, is a great 
saving of both labor and expense. 



PREPAID, 50 CENTS. 
Address 

Alice B. Stockham &. Co., publishers, 

56 Fifth Ave. Chicago, III. 



TRUEWIANHOOD^"""" 



Young men. 



By E. R. SHEPHERD. 



Physician, Maine: "The value of True Manhood as a guide to young 
men can hardly be overestimated." 

Tfie Independent: "We cannot conceive of a book on such a subject, 
written in a more reverent and cleanly spirit." 

Housekeeper, /Minneapolis, Minn.: "A new and valuable book, espec- 
ially adapted to form a high type of manly character." 

S. Bishop, M. D. Language utterly fails me in expressing my apprecl 
ation of this book. It ought to be in every family. 

One mother writes. It gives just the help I need in training my sons 
I would not be without it for a hundred dollars. 

Reu. B. F. De Costa. The best of the kind I have ever seen. I should 
be very glad to see it placed in the hands of the youth of this country, as 
well as circulated among parents and guardians. 

Levant Binding. Revised and Illustrated, nearly 400 pages. 

Prepaid, $1. 
f»x*ice Reduced. 



FOR GIRLS. 

A Supplement to School Physiology. By MRS. E. R. SHEPHERD. 

THIS VALUABLE WORK SHOULD BE READ BY EVERY GIRL 

It treats on the Functions of Woman, Menstruation, Cause and Pre 
vention of Disease, Relation to Young Men, Marriage and Motherhood. 

"A difficult task executed with judgment and discretion, the word ir, 
time which mothers find it difficult to say to their daughters, and often 
fatally procrastinate." — Jennie June. 

"For Girls is a book of unusual fitness for its mission." — Dr. M 
Augusta Fairchild. 

"I give it my hearty sanction. While treating of questions of the most 
vital interest, it is notable for purity of thought and diction." — Clemence 
S. Lozter, M. D. 

"I most unreservedly recommend it to parents and guardians." — Caro- 
Une B. Winslow, M. D. Postpaid, $1.00. 



SCIENCE OF A NEW LIFE. 

By JOHN COWAN, H. D. 

A complete marriage guide. It treats of generation and regener- 
ation of the human race, and has received testimonials and strong com- 
mendations from leading medical and religious critics. The following is 
a selection from its table of contents: 

Marriage and its Advantages, Age at which to Marry, the Law of 
Choice, Qualities the Man should Avoid in Choosing, Qualities the 
Woman should Avoid in Choosing, Anatomy and Physiology of Genera- 
tion, Children — their Desirability, Pregnancy — its signs an^ Duration, 
Diseases Peculiar to Women, Diseases Peculiar to Men, Sterility and Im- 
potence, A Happy Married Life — How Secured. 

"I heartily recommend it to every mother in the land." — Elizabeth 
Cady Stanton. "Should be put jnto the hands of every young married 
couple." — Alice B. Stockham, M. D. "One of the wisest, purest and 
most helpful treatises on sexual physiology." — The Christian Union. 

The book is a handsome 8vo, over 400 pages, illustrated. 
Prfce prepaid, $3.00. 



Address^ 

ALICE B. STOCKHi^Ivi & CO., Publisliers, 

56 Fifth Ave., Chica-o, 111. 



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Karezza 



ETHICS 

OF W^ 9 ^A VVQ A Supplement 

MARRIAGE B%C&I Wi&AflL To TOKOLOGY 

A bold, brave book taaching ideal marriage, rights of the unborn 
child, a designed and controlled maternity. 

Union Sig-na,! : Thousands of women have blessed Dr. Stockham 
for Toitology, thousands of men end women will bless her for 
Ka^vezza. 

Aroma : iCarezza is worth its weight in gold. 

Anagentfor it.ar*zz^, amember of the Y. M. C. A. writes: I am 
more than evt-r enthused over Karezza becauso its truth is being the 
more perfectly verified i i my married experience. 

I speak in al I sincerity when I say that I would not live ten years in 
ignorance of this truth for $10,000. I am infinitely happier under this: 
light. You may send C.O.D. ten more Karezza." 
Sample Pages Free. Agents Wanted 

liETAWT CliOTJI, PIiEFAII>, Sl.OO. 

PRE=NATAL CULTURE. 

Suggestions to parents relative to systematic methods of moulding the 
tendency of offspring before birth. By A. E. NEWTON. With intro- 
duction by ALICE B. STOCKHAM, M. D. An excellent manual for 
parents. It gives a high ideal to parentage, and eloquently portrays the 
mother's influence on the child. 

"To the well-born child all the virtues are natural, not painfully ac- 
quired." — (/. W. Emerson. 

Paper, postpaid, 25 cents. 



MOTHERS' PORTFOLIO. 

A BOOK FOR EVERY MOTHER. 

,4 Standard Work, Fresh, BrigM, Earnest, Practical, Strong:, 

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Little Folks. Amusements, Occupation and Instruction combined, 
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ents are all described in detail. 

The Stories are full of delight; each carries with It Life Lessons for 
the Children, and Help and Strength for Parents. 

The Music is simple and choice, cultivating a correct musical taste. 

The Songs and Games will enliven many a winter evening and 
summer twilight. 

Talks with Children open to them the study of Nature, in the 
things about them. 

Tlje text throughout is aided by 185 practical illustrations, and 



It is the Largest, Handsomest, and Most Valuable 
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for the Money. 

A Royal Quarto volume of over 400 pages, bound in exquisite double 
Uthograph cover. BEST TERMS TO AGENTS. Price $1.25. 



CURRENCY AT OUR RISK. 



Koradine 



Alice B. Stockham 
LiDA Hood Talcott 

A Prophetie Story. 

Koradine, although a charming story, by gradual 
sequence develops a philosophy of life, teaching that 
bodily health is possible to all, that physical ailments 
may be prevented and relieved; at the same time it 
gives the art of true living and the power to meet 
every difficulty. 

V M. Harley says: It is one of the rarest books in the literature 
of today. All parents should read it; all teachers should read It; all 
young folks and children should read it. It teaches the joy of living, 
and the use of living. It teaches the divinity of beauty, of love 
and of health. 

Oertrade G. Williams, Principal of Alcott School, Chicago, says: 
It would be impossible for me to express how much I have enjoyed 
Koradine, and all the good it has done me. Had I means at my dis- 
posal I would send it broadcast through the land. I want every girl 
friend I have to read it. I have started a club of girls ranging from 14 
to 18 years of age and we are reading this charming book. They are 
perfectly delighted with it, have called themselves the Koradine Club, 
and are growing in all directions through its teachings. 

A gentleman who purchased it for a gift for his niece writes: I have 
just finished reading Koradine and I must say that it is the most 
charming book that I have ever read. It is perfectly enchanting! It 
seems to me that no one could read it without improving in every 
direction. I wish every one both old and young could read it. 

Unity. — Every teacher looking for new inspiration, every parent 
anxious for assistance in the study of growing childrer^will find help— 
and that abundantly— in Koradine. 

Helen Van Anderson I have laughed and cried and felt the 

petals of my soul open while reading Koradine. It is an inspiration 
and a strength to enter the gateway of the new beautiful country into 
which the book leads one. 

C. Bro'ivn : By the cultured and progressive the book will truly be 
welcomed. It is Froebel's method of leading the child mind, devel- 
oping by natural methods through which no duty is irksome, no tardy 
marks or prizes required, simply a natural unf oldment. 

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ings could be realized, even in a faint degree, it would do more to 
hasten the milenium than all the pulpit preaching. 

m PAGES. EXTRA LEVANT CLOTH. PREPAID $1. 



Message of the Mystics. 



Mary Hanford Ford. 



THE HOLY QRAiL...The Silent Teacher. 

GOETHE'S FAUST... The Growth of the Spirit. 

BALZAC'S SERAPHITA...The Mystery of Sex. 

MRS. FORD is a master hand at interpreting the classics; in disclos- 
ing their symbolism and throv/ing light upon any hidden meanings 
they may contain. Mysticism under her inspired pen resolves itself into 
vivid pictures of the soul's experiences. Intuitively she lives in the 
very consciousness of the author and with keen insight reads clearly 
the meanings of these profound and prophetic words. 

The Holy Qrail gives a history of the literature upon this subject 
including the songs of the wandering minstrels of the eighth century, 
the tale of Joseph of Arimathea, the Walter Map Stories, Chrestiens 
de Troies, as well as Tennyson and Wagner of our own times. In this 
outline of history, Mrs. Ford has done a real service for the student of 
literature, and at the same time given a peculiar charm to the Grail 
stories so that all will read them with new interest. 

Goethe's Faust, under Mrs. Ford's magic touch, ceases to be the 
story of the black forest full of dark and forbidden pictures. It is 
rather the story of the soul resisting evil, and growing into power and 
mastery, 

Balzac's Seraphlta is the great work of a great artist. Its beauty and 
profound metaphysical teaching, interpreted and made vivid by Mrs. 
Ford, become like the glow of the setting ,un, a transcendant picture to 
be understood and lived by every individual. 

In these three interesting books one finds entertainment and 
knowledge, besides a philosophy of health and happiness now often 
taught in the religions and philosophies of the present time. 

Bound separately in Levant cloth, and put up in a handsome case. 

Single copies, prepaid, $LOO,full set, $3.00. 

ALICE B. STOCKHAM & CO., 
56 Fifth Ave., - - - CHICAGO. 



"Tokology" Hot Water Bag. 

Warranted First-Class in Every Respecl. 

Invaluable in making hot applications, as in Inflam- 
mation, Colic, Headache, Neuralgia, Congestions, Cold 
Feet, Toothache, Rheumatism, Sprains, etc., etc. An 
excellent Warming Pan, and the most effective Foot 
gr^^ and Hand Warmer when riding. 

ilii^^^^ft^ *'No well regulated house should be without a hot 

Water Bottle."— Tokology Page 115. 

Sent prepaid on receipt of price. 

1 Quart, Reduced, $0. 90 

2 " " 1.00 

3 " " 1.50 

4 *' .- " 1.65 

We recommend the larger sizes as they retain the 
heat much longer and give better satisfaction. 




*'Toko!ogy" White Rubber Sheeting, one yard wide, price prepaid, $0.75 per yards 



"Tokology" Fountain Syringe. 

Warranted First-Class in Every Respect. 

It never gets out of order. None 
but the best material is used. Its 
hard rubber tubes are the best made. 
No air can possibly escape with the 
fluid. With care one will last a life- 
JVAfe-piPE^ time. 

Each syringe has five tubes, a spray, 
ear and infant's tube, rectum, vaginal 
tube and nasal tube. 

Sent prepaid on receipt of price. 

1 Quart, $0.90 

2 " 1.00 

3 " 1.50 

4 " 1.65 




NAZAC 
SPRAy 



Combination Syringe and Hot Water 

Bottle. 



Quart 



2.00 
g.50 



A;i the above goods manufactured expressly for and guaranteed by 

ALICE B, STGGKHAM & CO., 56 Fifih Ave., Chicago, 



ILLUSTRATING 



TOKOLOGY. 



CHICAGO: 
ALICE B. STOCKHAM & CO. 



Explanation of Plates. 



I. Bones of the pelvis, consisting of the two ossa- 
innominata and the sacrum and coccyx. The two 
latter are a continuation of the vertebra. These four 
bones form a strong protecting wall for the pelvic 
viscera. 

II. Uterus ; ovaries in the broad ligaments ; ovi- 
ducts and fimbriated extremities ; round ligaments ; 
vagina laid open showing the mouth of the womb and 
the folds in the mucous membrane. (See page 25c) 

III. Section of female pelvis. I, rectum; 2, 
uterus; 5, bladder; 6, clitoris; 7, urethra; 9, anus; 
10, vagina. (See page 26.) 

IV. Veins supplying uterus and ovaries, i, uterus 
seen from the front ; the right half is covered with 
the peritoneum. 6, 7, utero-ovarian vessels ; 8, 8, 
veins from the oviducts ; 10, uterine veins; 11, uterine 
artery. (See page 26.) 

V. Arterial vessels of uterus, ten days after de- 
livery. I, body of uterus; 2, mouth of uterus; 3, 3, 
round ligaments ; 4, 4, oviducts ; 5, right ovary ; 6, 7, 
8, 9, 10, II, arteries giving off branches to the uterus. 
(See page 26.) 

VI. Ovary and oviduct ; O, ovary ; Od., oviduct- 
Oa., fimbriated extremity of the oviduct. (See 
page 25.) 



VI 




-'^Oa 












EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

1, sacrum ; 2, rectum ; 3, bladder; 4, uterus; 5, ovary, 
6, extremity of oviduct; A., B., each, a plexus of 
rierves. (See page 26.) 

VIII. Fetal surface of the placenta. 

IX. Uterine surface of the placenta. 

XI. Mammary gland ; a, nipple ; b, areola ; c, c, 
lobules; i, milk ducts; 2, extremities of milk ducts. 
(See page 28.) 

XII. Grafian follicle, containing the ovum. I, 
ovum ; 2, 3, membranes of the follicle ; 4, its vessels. 

XIII. Human embryo at third week, showing the 
villi of the chorion from which the fetus receives 
nourishment until about the end of second monfh. 
(See page 34.) 

XIV. Fetus and surroundings at seventh month. 
Is not always found in same position. 

XV. Fetus in membranes at five months. 

XVI. First head presentation. 

XVII. First breech presentation. 

XXI. Expanding os-uteri and protrusion of mem- 
branes, or ''bag of waters" in first stage of labor. 
XXIII. Twins in utero. 



x^i 




XXIII 




i